Gene Symbol: Gsk3b
Description: glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta
Alias: 7330414F15Rik, 8430431H08Rik, C86142, GSK-3, GSK-3beta, GSK3, glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta, serine/threonine-protein kinase GSK3B
Species: mouse
Products:     Gsk3b

Top Publications

  1. Renault Mihara F, Katoh H, Ikegami T, Iwanami A, Mukaino M, Yasuda A, et al. Beneficial compaction of spinal cord lesion by migrating astrocytes through glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition. EMBO Mol Med. 2011;3:682-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal a novel benefit of GSK-3 inhibition for SCI and suggest that the stimulation of astrocyte migration is a feasible therapeutic strategy for traumatic injury in the central nervous system. ..
  2. Wood Kaczmar A, Kraus M, Ishiguro K, Philpott K, Gordon Weeks P. An alternatively spliced form of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta is targeted to growing neurites and growth cones. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2009;42:184-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the alternatively spliced isoform of GSK-3beta, GSK-3beta2, is neuron-specific and has overlapping activities with GSK-3beta1. ..
  3. Feng Z, Xia Y, Zhang M, Zheng J. MicroRNA-155 regulates T cell proliferation through targeting GSK3? in cardiac allograft rejection in a murine transplantation model. Cell Immunol. 2013;281:141-9 pubmed publisher
    ..from spleen (TFS), and lymphocytes separated from blood (LFB) was significantly increased during cardiac AR while GSK3? was downregulated in GIL and TFS...
  4. Polter A, Beurel E, Yang S, Garner R, Song L, Miller C, et al. Deficiency in the inhibitory serine-phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 increases sensitivity to mood disturbances. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;35:1761-74 pubmed publisher
    ..and mood-regulating neuromodulators increase the inhibitory serine-phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3), we hypothesized that deficient GSK3 serine-phosphorylation may increase vulnerability to mood-related behavioral ..
  5. Krause U, Harris S, Green A, Ylostalo J, Zeitouni S, Lee N, et al. Pharmaceutical modulation of canonical Wnt signaling in multipotent stromal cells for improved osteoinductive therapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:4147-52 pubmed publisher
  6. Siraskar B, Völkl J, Ahmed M, Hierlmeier M, Gu S, Schmid E, et al. Enhanced catecholamine release in mice expressing PKB/SGK-resistant GSK3. Pflugers Arch. 2011;462:811-9 pubmed publisher
    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) plays a decisive role in the regulation of multiple functions...
  7. Liu Y, Tanabe K, Baronnier D, Patel S, Woodgett J, Cras Méneur C, et al. Conditional ablation of Gsk-3? in islet beta cells results in expanded mass and resistance to fat feeding-induced diabetes in mice. Diabetologia. 2010;53:2600-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice with beta cell deficiency of GSK-3? (?-Gsk-3? [also known as Gsk3b](-/-)) were generated by breeding Gsk-3? (flox/flox) mice with mice overexpressing the Cre recombinase gene under ..
  8. Nelson E, Levi B, Sorkin M, James A, Liu K, Quarto N, et al. Role of GSK-3? in the osteogenic differentiation of palatal mesenchyme. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25847 pubmed publisher
    ..Using GSK-3ß null mouse embryos, we examine the potential coordinate roles of Wnt and Hedgehog signaling on palatal ossification...
  9. Sineva G, Pospelov V. Inhibition of GSK3beta enhances both adhesive and signalling activities of beta-catenin in mouse embryonic stem cells. Biol Cell. 2010;102:549-60 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Woulfe K, Gao E, Lal H, Harris D, Fan Q, Vagnozzi R, et al. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta regulates post-myocardial infarction remodeling and stress-induced cardiomyocyte proliferation in vivo. Circ Res. 2010;106:1635-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies suggest that inhibition of GSK-3beta could be a strategy to both prevent remodeling and to promote cardiac regeneration in pathological states. ..
  2. Webb I, Nishino Y, Clark J, Murdoch C, Walker S, Makowski M, et al. Constitutive glycogen synthase kinase-3alpha/beta activity protects against chronic beta-adrenergic remodelling of the heart. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;87:494-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, strategies to prevent phosphorylation of Ser-21/9, and consequent inactivation of GSK-3alpha/beta, may enable a sustained cardiac response to chronic beta-agonist stimulation while preventing pathological remodelling. ..
  3. Azim K, Butt A. GSK3? negatively regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination in vivo. Glia. 2011;59:540-53 pubmed publisher
    Glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) is an essential integrating molecule for multiple proliferation and differentiation signals that regulate cell fate...
  4. Ishizuka K, Kamiya A, Oh E, Kanki H, Seshadri S, Robinson J, et al. DISC1-dependent switch from progenitor proliferation to migration in the developing cortex. Nature. 2011;473:92-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Unphosphorylated DISC1 regulates canonical Wnt signalling via an interaction with GSK3?, whereas specific phosphorylation at serine 710 (S710) triggers the recruitment of Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) ..
  5. Wu R, Lin T, Ko J, Yeh D, Chen M, Ke H, et al. Cannabinoid receptor 1 regulates ERK and GSK-3?-dependent glucocorticoid inhibition of osteoblast differentiation in murine MC3T3-E1 cells. Bone. 2011;49:1255-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Runx2 reciprocally regulates glucocorticoid-induced promotion of CB1 signaling. Our findings provide new insights into the role of the neuroendocrine component CB1 in glucocorticoid-induced osteoblast dysfunction. ..
  6. Eom T, Jope R. Blocked inhibitory serine-phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3alpha/beta impairs in vivo neural precursor cell proliferation. Biol Psychiatry. 2009;66:494-502 pubmed publisher
    ..Because these diseases might be associated with inadequately controlled glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3), we tested whether blocked inhibitory serine-phosphorylation of GSK3 impairs neurogenesis...
  7. Wilkinson M, Dias C, Magida J, Mazei Robison M, Lobo M, Kennedy P, et al. A novel role of the WNT-dishevelled-GSK3? signaling cascade in the mouse nucleus accumbens in a social defeat model of depression. J Neurosci. 2011;31:9084-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, several members of the WNT (Wingless)-DVL signaling cascade, including phospho-GSK3? (glycogen synthase kinase-3?), also show significant downregulation in the NAc of susceptible, but not resilient, ..
  8. Kim W, Wang X, Wu Y, Doble B, Patel S, Woodgett J, et al. GSK-3 is a master regulator of neural progenitor homeostasis. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:1390-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that GSK-3 signaling is an essential mediator of homeostatic controls that regulate neural progenitors during mammalian brain development. ..
  9. Mines M, Yuskaitis C, King M, Beurel E, Jope R. GSK3 influences social preference and anxiety-related behaviors during social interaction in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome and autism. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9706 pubmed publisher
    ..Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is hyperactive in brains of Fmr1 knockout mice, and inhibition of GSK3 by lithium administration ameliorates some ..
  10. Zhai P, Sciarretta S, Galeotti J, Volpe M, Sadoshima J. Differential roles of GSK-3? during myocardial ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion. Circ Res. 2011;109:502-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that beta isoform-specific inhibition of GSK-3 exacerbates ischemic injury but protects against I/R injury by modulating mTOR and autophagy. ..
  11. Jang H, Shin J, Park D, Hong J, Yoon K, Ko R, et al. Inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3? is required for osteoclast differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:39043-50 pubmed publisher
    ..of GSK-3? activity in bone marrow macrophages by retroviral expression of the constitutively active GSK-3? (GSK3?-S9A) mutant inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, whereas expression of the catalytically inactive GSK-3? (..
  12. Wang Y, Hao Y, Alway S. Suppression of GSK-3? activation by M-cadherin protects myoblasts against mitochondria-associated apoptosis during myogenic differentiation. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:3835-47 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that M-cadherin-mediated signaling prevents acceleration of mitochondria-associated intrinsic apoptosis in MPCs by suppressing GSK-3? activation during myogenic differentiation. ..
  13. Humphrey R, Yu S, Flores L, Jhala U. Glucose regulates steady-state levels of PDX1 via the reciprocal actions of GSK3 and AKT kinases. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:3406-16 pubmed publisher
    ..a cultured beta cell line, we show that glucose levels modulate PDX1 protein phosphorylation at a novel C-terminal GSK3 consensus that maps to serines 268 and 272...
  14. He F, Popkie A, Xiong W, Li L, Wang Y, Phiel C, et al. Gsk3? is required in the epithelium for palatal elevation in mice. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:3235-46 pubmed publisher
    In Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway, Gsk3? functions to facilitate ?-catenin degradation. Inactivation of Gsk3? in mice causes a cleft palate formation, suggesting an involvement of Wnt/?-catenin signaling during palatogenesis...
  15. Jin J, Wang G, Shi X, Darlington G, Timchenko N. The age-associated decline of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta plays a critical role in the inhibition of liver regeneration. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:3867-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this paper shows that GSK3beta is a critical regulator of liver proliferation and that the reduction of GSK3beta with age causes the loss of regenerative capacities of the liver. ..
  16. Arboleda G, Cárdenas Y, Rodríguez Y, Morales L, Matheus L, Arboleda H. Differential regulation of AKT, MAPK and GSK3? during C2-ceramide-induced neuronal death. Neurotoxicology. 2010;31:687-93 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present paper we have analysed the contribution of PI3K/AKT-GSK3? and MAPK (ERK and JNK) pathways to cell death in a catecholaminergic cell line following exposure to C(2)-ceramide...
  17. Moore S, van den Bosch M, Hunter R, Sakamoto K, Poole A, Hers I. Dual regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3)?/? by protein kinase C (PKC)? and Akt promotes thrombin-mediated integrin ?IIb?3 activation and granule secretion in platelets. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:3918-28 pubmed publisher
    ..kinase, tonically active in resting cells but inhibited by phosphorylation of an N-terminal Ser residue (Ser(21) in GSK3? and Ser(9) in GSK3?) in response to varied external stimuli...
  18. Urs N, Snyder J, Jacobsen J, Peterson S, Caron M. Deletion of GSK3? in D2R-expressing neurons reveals distinct roles for ?-arrestin signaling in antipsychotic and lithium action. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:20732-7 pubmed publisher
    Several studies in rodent models have shown that glycogen synthase kinase 3 ? (GSK3?) plays an important role in the actions of antispychotics and mood stabilizers...
  19. Hurtado D, Molina Porcel L, Carroll J, Macdonald C, Aboagye A, Trojanowski J, et al. Selectively silencing GSK-3 isoforms reduces plaques and tangles in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. J Neurosci. 2012;32:7392-402 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings highlight the potential importance of GSK-3? as a possible therapeutic target for ameliorating behavioral impairments linked to AD SPs and NFTs. ..
  20. Kelly K, Ng D, Jayakumaran G, Wood G, Koide H, Doble B. ?-catenin enhances Oct-4 activity and reinforces pluripotency through a TCF-independent mechanism. Cell Stem Cell. 2011;8:214-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data suggest previously underappreciated, divergent TCF-dependent and TCF-independent roles for ?-catenin in ESCs. ..
  21. Gillespie J, Ulici V, Dupuis H, Higgs A, DiMattia A, Patel S, et al. Deletion of glycogen synthase kinase-3? in cartilage results in up-regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3? protein expression. Endocrinology. 2011;152:1755-66 pubmed publisher
    ..However, cartilage-specific deletion of the Gsk3b gene in mice has minimal effects on skeletal growth or development...
  22. Fang W, Chen W, Fu A, Ip N. Axin directs the amplification and differentiation of intermediate progenitors in the developing cerebral cortex. Neuron. 2013;79:665-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate an important Axin-dependent regulatory mechanism in neurogenesis, providing potential insights into the evolutionary expansion of the cerebral cortex. ..
  23. Escribano C, Delgado Martín C, Rodríguez Fernández J. CCR7-dependent stimulation of survival in dendritic cells involves inhibition of GSK3beta. J Immunol. 2009;183:6282-95 pubmed publisher
    ..of GSK3beta resulted in the degradation of the NF-kappaB inhibitor IkappaB, indicating a mechanism whereby GSK3 can control the translocation of NF-kappaB to the nucleus...
  24. Li S, Mattar P, Zinyk D, Singh K, Chaturvedi C, Kovach C, et al. GSK3 temporally regulates neurogenin 2 proneural activity in the neocortex. J Neurosci. 2012;32:7791-805 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Neurog2 proneural activity declines in late corticogenesis, correlating with its phosphorylation by GSK3 kinase...
  25. Zhang B, Saijilafu -, Liu C, Wang R, Zhu Q, Jiao Z, et al. Akt-independent GSK3 inactivation downstream of PI3K signaling regulates mammalian axon regeneration. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;443:743-8 pubmed publisher
    Inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) has been shown to mediate axon growth during development and regeneration. Phosphorylation of GSK3 by the kinase Akt is well known to be the major mechanism by which GSK3 is inactivated...
  26. Asada N, Sanada K. LKB1-mediated spatial control of GSK3beta and adenomatous polyposis coli contributes to centrosomal forward movement and neuronal migration in the developing neocortex. J Neurosci. 2010;30:8852-65 pubmed publisher
  27. Sirerol Piquer M, Gómez Ramos P, Hernandez F, Perez M, Morán M, Fuster Matanzo A, et al. GSK3? overexpression induces neuronal death and a depletion of the neurogenic niches in the dentate gyrus. Hippocampus. 2011;21:910-22 pubmed publisher
    Overexpression of GSK3? in transgenic mice induces learning deficits and some features associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), including dentate gyrus (DG) atrophy...
  28. Petit Paitel A, Brau F, Cazareth J, Chabry J. Involvment of cytosolic and mitochondrial GSK-3beta in mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal cell death of MPTP/MPP-treated neurons. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5491 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of GSK-3beta activity might provide protection against mitochondrial stress-induced cell death. ..
  29. Lipina T, Kaidanovich Beilin O, Patel S, Wang M, Clapcote S, Liu F, et al. Genetic and pharmacological evidence for schizophrenia-related Disc1 interaction with GSK-3. Synapse. 2011;65:234-48 pubmed publisher
  30. Wang Z, Havasi A, Gall J, Bonegio R, Li Z, Mao H, et al. GSK3beta promotes apoptosis after renal ischemic injury. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21:284-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, GSK3beta-mediated Bax activation induces apoptosis and tubular damage that contribute to acute ischemic kidney injury. ..
  31. Xia Y, Lu L, Wu Z, Pu L, Sun B, Wang X. Inhibition of GSK-3beta ameliorates hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury through GSK-3beta/beta-catenin signaling pathway in mice. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2012;11:278-84 pubmed
    ..4+/-0.2% vs 3.6+/-0.4%, P<0.05) and enhanced liver proliferation (56+/-8% vs 19+/-4%, P<0.05). Inhibition of GSK-3beta ameliorates hepatic I/R injury through the GSK-3beta/beta-catenin signaling pathway. ..
  32. Duka T, Duka V, Joyce J, Sidhu A. Alpha-Synuclein contributes to GSK-3beta-catalyzed Tau phosphorylation in Parkinson's disease models. FASEB J. 2009;23:2820-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These data unveil a previously unappreciated role of alpha-Syn in the induction of p-GSK-3beta, and demonstrate the importance of this kinase in the genesis and maintenance of neurodegenerative changes associated with PD. ..
  33. Huang J, Zhang Y, Bersenev A, O Brien W, Tong W, Emerson S, et al. Pivotal role for glycogen synthase kinase-3 in hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis in mice. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:3519-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Using loss-of-function approaches in mice, we found that glycogen synthase kinase-3 (Gsk3) plays a pivotal role in controlling the decision between self renewal and differentiation of HSCs...
  34. Ge Y, Si J, Tian L, Zhuang S, Dworkin L, Gong R. Conditional ablation of glycogen synthase kinase 3? in postnatal mouse kidney. Lab Invest. 2011;91:85-96 pubmed publisher
    Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3 is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine kinase existing in two isoforms, namely GSK3? and GSK3?...
  35. Bhavsar S, Merches K, Bobbala D, Lang F. AKT/SGK-sensitive phosphorylation of GSK3 in the regulation of L-selectin and perforin expression as well as activation induced cell death of T-lymphocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;425:6-12 pubmed publisher
    ..signaling includes the PKB/Akt and SGK dependent phosphorylation and thus inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase GSK3?,?. Lithium, a known unspecific GSK3 inhibitor protects against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis...
  36. Hofmann C, Dunger N, Scholmerich J, Falk W, Obermeier F. Glycogen synthase kinase 3-?: a master regulator of toll-like receptor-mediated chronic intestinal inflammation. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2010;16:1850-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Glycogen synthase kinase 3-? (GSK3-?) was recently identified as an important regulator of TLR signaling mediating excessive inflammatory responses...
  37. Yuskaitis C, Mines M, King M, Sweatt J, Miller C, Jope R. Lithium ameliorates altered glycogen synthase kinase-3 and behavior in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010;79:632-46 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examined the effects on glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) of treatment with a metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonist, MPEP, and the GSK3 inhibitor, lithium, in ..
  38. Verhees K, Schols A, Kelders M, Op den Kamp C, Van Der Velden J, Langen R. Glycogen synthase kinase-3? is required for the induction of skeletal muscle atrophy. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011;301:C995-C1007 pubmed publisher
  39. Radulescu S, Ridgway R, Cordero J, Athineos D, Salgueiro P, Poulsom R, et al. Acute WNT signalling activation perturbs differentiation within the adult stomach and rapidly leads to tumour formation. Oncogene. 2013;32:2048-57 pubmed publisher
    ..WNT signalling pathway within the mouse adult gastric epithelium via deletion of either glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) or APC or via expression of a constitutively active ?-catenin protein...
  40. O Brien W, Huang J, Buccafusca R, Garskof J, Valvezan A, Berry G, et al. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 is essential for β-arrestin-2 complex formation and lithium-sensitive behaviors in mice. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:3756-62 pubmed publisher
    ..GSK-3β (Gsk3b) overexpression reversed behavioral defects observed in lithium-treated mice and similar behaviors observed in ..
  41. Cho J, Rameshwar P, Sadoshima J. Distinct roles of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3alpha and GSK-3beta in mediating cardiomyocyte differentiation in murine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:36647-58 pubmed publisher
    ..GSK-3beta in the cytosol induces CM differentiation of MSCs through down-regulation of beta-catenin. In contrast, GSK-3alpha in the nucleus inhibits CM differentiation through down-regulation of c-Jun. ..
  42. Rao R, Patel S, Hao C, Woodgett J, Harris R. GSK3beta mediates renal response to vasopressin by modulating adenylate cyclase activity. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21:428-37 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, GSK3beta inactivation or deletion reduces aquaporin 2 expression by modulating adenylate cyclase activity and cAMP generation, thereby impairing responses to vasopressin in the renal collecting duct. ..
  43. Valencia A, Reeves P, Sapp E, Li X, Alexander J, Kegel K, et al. Mutant huntingtin and glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta accumulate in neuronal lipid rafts of a presymptomatic knock-in mouse model of Huntington's disease. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88:179-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that accumulation of mutant huntingtin and glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta in lipid rafts of presymptomatic Huntington's disease mouse neurons contributes to neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease. ..
  44. Beurel E, Jope R. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 regulates inflammatory tolerance in astrocytes. Neuroscience. 2010;169:1063-70 pubmed publisher
    ..For many of these inflammatory molecules, inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) increased tolerance and reduced sensitization...
  45. Wang H, Brown J, Garcia C, Tang Y, Benakanakere M, Greenway T, et al. The role of glycogen synthase kinase 3 in regulating IFN-?-mediated IL-10 production. J Immunol. 2011;186:675-84 pubmed publisher
    ..was required for IFN-? to activate PI3K and Akt1 that resulted in repression of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3)-? activity...
  46. Beurel E, Yeh W, Michalek S, Harrington L, Jope R. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 is an early determinant in the differentiation of pathogenic Th17 cells. J Immunol. 2011;186:1391-8 pubmed publisher
    ..During polarization of CD4(+) T cells to Th17 cells, we found that inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) blocked IL-6 production, STAT3 activation, and polarization to Th17 cells...
  47. Patel S, MacAulay K, Woodgett J. Tissue-specific analysis of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) in glucose metabolism: effect of strain variation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e15845 pubmed publisher
    ..We surmise that the insulin-sensitization observed in the out-bred strain of mice lacking GSK-3? is mediated by indirect means that do not require intrinsic function of GSK-3? in skeletal muscle and liver tissues. ..
  48. Lucas J, Hernandez F, Gomez Ramos P, Moran M, Hen R, Avila J. Decreased nuclear beta-catenin, tau hyperphosphorylation and neurodegeneration in GSK-3beta conditional transgenic mice. EMBO J. 2001;20:27-39 pubmed
  49. Gregory M, Qi Y, Hann S. Phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase-3 controls c-myc proteolysis and subnuclear localization. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:51606-12 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that Thr-58 phosphorylation alters the subnuclear localization of c-Myc, enhancing its localization to discrete nuclear bodies together with GSK-3. ..
  50. Beaulieu J, Sotnikova T, Marion S, Lefkowitz R, Gainetdinov R, Caron M. An Akt/beta-arrestin 2/PP2A signaling complex mediates dopaminergic neurotransmission and behavior. Cell. 2005;122:261-73 pubmed
  51. Maurer U, Charvet C, Wagman A, Dejardin E, Green D. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 regulates mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and apoptosis by destabilization of MCL-1. Mol Cell. 2006;21:749-60 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate that the control of MCL-1 stability by GSK-3 is an important mechanism for the regulation of apoptosis by growth factors, PI3K, and AKT. ..
  52. Ono T, Yanagawa Y, Iwabuchi K, Nonomura K, Onoe K. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 activity during development of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) essential for the DC function to induce T helper 2 polarization. Immunology. 2007;122:189-98 pubmed
    ..We examined the role of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) activity during DC development from murine bone marrow (BM) cells...
  53. Sanchez J, Sniderhan L, Williamson A, Fan S, Chakraborty Sett S, Maggirwar S. Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta-mediated apoptosis of primary cortical astrocytes involves inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:4649-62 pubmed
    ..These findings therefore implicate GSK-3beta as a regulator of NF-kappaB activation in astrocytes and suggest that the pro-apoptotic effects of GSK-3beta may be mediated at least in part through the inhibition of NF-kappaB pathway. ..
  54. Steinbrecher K, Wilson W, Cogswell P, Baldwin A. Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta functions to specify gene-specific, NF-kappaB-dependent transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:8444-55 pubmed
    ..Therefore, GSK-3beta has profound effects on transcription in a gene-specific manner through a mechanism involving control of promoter-specific recruitment of NF-kappaB. ..
  55. De Sarno P, Bijur G, Zmijewska A, Li X, Jope R. In vivo regulation of GSK3 phosphorylation by cholinergic and NMDA receptors. Neurobiol Aging. 2006;27:413-22 pubmed
    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3), which is inhibited by serine-phosphorylation, is involved in the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
  56. Iitaka C, Miyazaki K, Akaike T, Ishida N. A role for glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in the mammalian circadian clock. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:29397-402 pubmed
    ..Recombinant GSK-3beta can phosphorylate PER2 in vitro. GSK-3beta promotes the nuclear translocation of PER2 in COS1 cells. The present data suggest that GSK-3beta plays important roles in mammalian circadian clock. ..
  57. Zhao Y, Altman B, Coloff J, Herman C, Jacobs S, Wieman H, et al. Glycogen synthase kinase 3alpha and 3beta mediate a glucose-sensitive antiapoptotic signaling pathway to stabilize Mcl-1. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:4328-39 pubmed
  58. Roberts M, Woods A, Dale T, van der Sluijs P, Norman J. Protein kinase B/Akt acts via glycogen synthase kinase 3 to regulate recycling of alpha v beta 3 and alpha 5 beta 1 integrins. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:1505-15 pubmed
    ..We propose that the ability of PKB/Akt to act via GSK-3 to promote the recycling of matrix receptors represents a key mechanism whereby integrin function and cell migration can be regulated by growth factors. ..
  59. Yao H, Shaw P, Wong C, Wan D. Expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3 isoforms in mouse tissues and their transcription in the brain. J Chem Neuroanat. 2002;23:291-7 pubmed
    ..The differential expression of GSK-3alpha and -3beta mRNAs as well as proteins in other tissues indicate that they play different roles in cellular functions and the developmental process. ..
  60. Hoeflich K, Luo J, Rubie E, Tsao M, Jin O, Woodgett J. Requirement for glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in cell survival and NF-kappaB activation. Nature. 2000;406:86-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, GSK-3beta facilitates NF-kappaB function. ..