Gene Symbol: Gsc
Description: goosecoid homeobox
Alias: homeobox protein goosecoid
Species: mouse
Products:     Gsc

Top Publications

  1. Yamada G, Mansouri A, Torres M, Stuart E, Blum M, Schultz M, et al. Targeted mutation of the murine goosecoid gene results in craniofacial defects and neonatal death. Development. 1995;121:2917-22 pubmed
    ..Although the observed phenotype is in accordance with the late expression domains of goosecoid in wild-type embryos, we suggest that the lack of an earlier phenotype is the result of functional compensation by other genes. ..
  2. Aoto K, Shikata Y, Imai H, Matsumaru D, Tokunaga T, Shioda S, et al. Mouse Shh is required for prechordal plate maintenance during brain and craniofacial morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2009;327:106-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide new insight into the mechanism underlying HPE pathoetiology during dynamic brain and craniofacial morphogenesis. ..
  3. Kinder S, Tsang T, Wakamiya M, Sasaki H, Behringer R, Nagy A, et al. The organizer of the mouse gastrula is composed of a dynamic population of progenitor cells for the axial mesoderm. Development. 2001;128:3623-34 pubmed the anterior end of the primitive streak of the mid-streak stage embryo, by the expression of Hnf3beta, Gsc(lacZ) and Chrd, and the ability of these cells to induce a second neural axis in the host embryo...
  4. Blum M, Gaunt S, Cho K, Steinbeisser H, Blumberg B, Bittner D, et al. Gastrulation in the mouse: the role of the homeobox gene goosecoid. Cell. 1992;69:1097-106 pubmed
    ..Transplantation experiments indicate that the tip of the murine early gastrula is the equivalent of the organizer of the amphibian gastrula. ..
  5. Camus A, Davidson B, Billiards S, Khoo P, Rivera Pérez J, Wakamiya M, et al. The morphogenetic role of midline mesendoderm and ectoderm in the development of the forebrain and the midbrain of the mouse embryo. Development. 2000;127:1799-813 pubmed
    ..However, the remaining tissues reconstituted Gsc and Shh activity and expressed the ventral forebrain marker Nkx2.1...
  6. Tucker A, Yamada G, Grigoriou M, Pachnis V, Sharpe P. Fgf-8 determines rostral-caudal polarity in the first branchial arch. Development. 1999;126:51-61 pubmed
    ..The restriction into rostral (Lhx-7-expressing) and caudal (Gsc-expressing) domains is achieved by cells responding differently according to their proximity to the source of the ..
  7. Molkentin J, Lin Q, Duncan S, Olson E. Requirement of the transcription factor GATA4 for heart tube formation and ventral morphogenesis. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1061-72 pubmed
    ..We propose that GATA4 is required for the migration or folding morphogenesis of the precardiogenic splanchnic mesodermal cells at the level of the AIP. ..
  8. Ang S, Rossant J. HNF-3 beta is essential for node and notochord formation in mouse development. Cell. 1994;78:561-74 pubmed
    ..HNF-3 beta is not required for the development of definitive endoderm cells, but foregut morphogenesis is severely affected in HNF-3 beta -/- embryos. ..
  9. Liu P, Wakamiya M, Shea M, Albrecht U, Behringer R, Bradley A. Requirement for Wnt3 in vertebrate axis formation. Nat Genet. 1999;22:361-5 pubmed
    ..These studies provide genetic proof for the requirement of Wnt3 in primary axis formation in the mouse. ..

More Information


  1. Rivera Pérez J, Mallo M, Gendron Maguire M, Gridley T, Behringer R. Goosecoid is not an essential component of the mouse gastrula organizer but is required for craniofacial and rib development. Development. 1995;121:3005-12 pubmed
    Goosecoid (gsc) is an evolutionarily conserved homeobox gene expressed in the gastrula organizer region of a variety of vertebrate embryos, including zebrafish, Xenopus, chicken and mouse...
  2. Beddington R, Robertson E. Axis development and early asymmetry in mammals. Cell. 1999;96:195-209 pubmed
  3. Trumpp A, Depew M, Rubenstein J, Bishop J, Martin G. Cre-mediated gene inactivation demonstrates that FGF8 is required for cell survival and patterning of the first branchial arch. Genes Dev. 1999;13:3136-48 pubmed
    ..Because the mutant mice resemble humans with first arch syndromes that include agnathia, our results raise the possibility that some of these syndromes are caused by mutations that affect FGF8 signaling in BA1 ectoderm...
  4. Vincent S, Dunn N, Hayashi S, Norris D, Robertson E. Cell fate decisions within the mouse organizer are governed by graded Nodal signals. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1646-62 pubmed
    ..These findings conclusively demonstrate that graded Nodal/Smad2 signals govern allocation of the axial mesendoderm precursors that selectively give rise to the ADE and PCP mesoderm...
  5. Belo J, Bouwmeester T, Leyns L, Kertesz N, Gallo M, Follettie M, et al. Cerberus-like is a secreted factor with neutralizing activity expressed in the anterior primitive endoderm of the mouse gastrula. Mech Dev. 1997;68:45-57 pubmed
    ..A model of how head and trunk development might be regulated is discussed. Given its neuralizing activity, the secreted protein Cer-l is a candidate for mediating inductive activities of anterior visceral endoderm. ..
  6. Warr N, Powles Glover N, Chappell A, Robson J, Norris D, Arkell R. Zic2-associated holoprosencephaly is caused by a transient defect in the organizer region during gastrulation. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:2986-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis provides genetic evidence that Zic2 functions during organizer formation and that the PCP develops via a multi-step process. ..
  7. Crossley P, Martin G. The mouse Fgf8 gene encodes a family of polypeptides and is expressed in regions that direct outgrowth and patterning in the developing embryo. Development. 1995;121:439-51 pubmed
  8. Nishioka N, Nagano S, Nakayama R, Kiyonari H, Ijiri T, Taniguchi K, et al. Ssdp1 regulates head morphogenesis of mouse embryos by activating the Lim1-Ldb1 complex. Development. 2005;132:2535-46 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Ssdp1 regulates the development of late head organizer tissues and body growth by functioning as an essential activator component of a Lim1 complex through interaction with Ldb1. ..
  9. Dufort D, Schwartz L, Harpal K, Rossant J. The transcription factor HNF3beta is required in visceral endoderm for normal primitive streak morphogenesis. Development. 1998;125:3015-25 pubmed
    ..We show that such mutant embryos lack foregut and midgut endoderm. In addition, left-right asymmetry is affected in the mutant embryos. ..
  10. Acampora D, Avantaggiato V, Tuorto F, Briata P, Corte G, Simeone A. Visceral endoderm-restricted translation of Otx1 mediates recovery of Otx2 requirements for specification of anterior neural plate and normal gastrulation. Development. 1998;125:5091-104 pubmed
    ..Moreover, our data lead us to hypothesize that the differential post-transcriptional control existing between VE and epiblast cells may potentially contribute to fundamental regulatory mechanisms required for head specification. ..
  11. Rivera Pérez J, Wakamiya M, Behringer R. Goosecoid acts cell autonomously in mesenchyme-derived tissues during craniofacial development. Development. 1999;126:3811-21 pubmed
    Mice homozygous for a targeted deletion of the homeobox gene Goosecoid (Gsc) have multiple craniofacial defects...
  12. Ding J, Yang L, Yan Y, Chen A, Desai N, Wynshaw Boris A, et al. Cripto is required for correct orientation of the anterior-posterior axis in the mouse embryo. Nature. 1998;395:702-7 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that Cripto signalling is essential for the conversion of a proximal-distal asymmetry into an orthogonal anterior-posterior axis. ..
  13. Filosa S, Rivera Pérez J, Gomez A, Gansmuller A, Sasaki H, Behringer R, et al. Goosecoid and HNF-3beta genetically interact to regulate neural tube patterning during mouse embryogenesis. Development. 1997;124:2843-54 pubmed
    The homeobox gene goosecoid (gsc) and the winged-helix gene Hepatic Nuclear Factor-3beta (HNF-3beta) are co-expressed in all three germ layers in the anterior primitive streak and at the rostral end of mouse embryos during gastrulation...
  14. Blum M, De Robertis E, Kojis T, Heinzmann C, Klisak I, Geissert D, et al. Molecular cloning of the human homeobox gene goosecoid (GSC) and mapping of the gene to human chromosome 14q32.1. Genomics. 1994;21:388-93 pubmed
    ..We report here the cloning of the human goosecoid gene (GSC) from a genomic library and the sequence of its encoded protein...
  15. Shawlot W, Behringer R. Requirement for Lim1 in head-organizer function. Nature. 1995;374:425-30 pubmed
    ..A partial secondary axis developed anteriorly in some mutant embryos. Lim1 is thus an essential regulator of the vertebrate head organizer. ..
  16. Brennan J, Lu C, Norris D, Rodriguez T, Beddington R, Robertson E. Nodal signalling in the epiblast patterns the early mouse embryo. Nature. 2001;411:965-9 pubmed
    ..Our experiments show that proximal-distal and subsequent anterior-posterior polarity of the pregastrulation embryo result from reciprocal cell-cell interactions between the epiblast and the two extra-embryonic tissues. ..
  17. Roberts C, Sutherland H, Farmer H, Kimber W, Halford S, Carey A, et al. Targeted mutagenesis of the Hira gene results in gastrulation defects and patterning abnormalities of mesoendodermal derivatives prior to early embryonic lethality. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:2318-28 pubmed
  18. Mishina Y, Suzuki A, Ueno N, Behringer R. Bmpr encodes a type I bone morphogenetic protein receptor that is essential for gastrulation during mouse embryogenesis. Genes Dev. 1995;9:3027-37 pubmed
  19. Halstead A, Wright C. Disrupting Foxh1-Groucho interaction reveals robustness of nodal-based embryonic patterning. Mech Dev. 2015;136:155-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the pervasive inductive properties of Nodal signaling exist within the context of a strongly buffered regulatory system that contributes to resilience and accuracy of its dynamic expression pattern. ..
  20. Rossel M, Capecchi M. Mice mutant for both Hoxa1 and Hoxb1 show extensive remodeling of the hindbrain and defects in craniofacial development. Development. 1999;126:5027-40 pubmed
  21. Perea Gomez A, Camus A, Moreau A, Grieve K, Moneron G, Dubois A, et al. Initiation of gastrulation in the mouse embryo is preceded by an apparent shift in the orientation of the anterior-posterior axis. Curr Biol. 2004;14:197-207 pubmed
    ..These results reveal a level of regulation and plasticity so far unsuspected in the mouse gastrula. ..
  22. Denaxa M, Sharpe P, Pachnis V. The LIM homeodomain transcription factors Lhx6 and Lhx7 are key regulators of mammalian dentition. Dev Biol. 2009;333:324-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Our experiments demonstrate that the redundant activities of the LIM homeodomain proteins Lhx6 and Lhx7 are critical for craniofacial development and patterning of mammalian dentition. ..
  23. Watabe T, Kim S, Candia A, Rothbächer U, Hashimoto C, Inoue K, et al. Molecular mechanisms of Spemann's organizer formation: conserved growth factor synergy between Xenopus and mouse. Genes Dev. 1995;9:3038-50 pubmed
    ..A consequence of all of these signaling pathways, however, seems to be the induction of goosecoid (gsc) gene expression...
  24. Parry D, Logan C, Stegmann A, Abdelhamed Z, Calder A, Khan S, et al. SAMS, a syndrome of short stature, auditory-canal atresia, mandibular hypoplasia, and skeletal abnormalities is a unique neurocristopathy caused by mutations in Goosecoid. Am J Hum Genet. 2013;93:1135-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified a homozygous 306 kb microdeletion and homozygous predicted null mutations of GSC, encoding Goosecoid homeobox protein, a paired-like homeodomain transcription factor...
  25. Adhikary S, Peukert K, Karsunky H, Beuger V, Lutz W, Elsässer H, et al. Miz1 is required for early embryonic development during gastrulation. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:7648-57 pubmed
    ..Miz1(-/-) embryos succumb to massive apoptosis of ectodermal cells around day 7.5 of embryonic development. Our results show that Miz1 is required for early embryonic development during gastrulation. ..
  26. Tomihara Newberger C, Haub O, Lee H, Soares V, Manova K, Lacy E. The amn gene product is required in extraembryonic tissues for the generation of middle primitive streak derivatives. Dev Biol. 1998;204:34-54 pubmed
  27. Mesnard D, Donnison M, Fuerer C, Pfeffer P, Constam D. The microenvironment patterns the pluripotent mouse epiblast through paracrine Furin and Pace4 proteolytic activities. Genes Dev. 2011;25:1871-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Adding cell-cell communication to the pleiotropic portfolio of these proteases provides a new framework to study proprotein processing also in other relevant contexts. ..
  28. Ku M, Sokol S, Wu J, Tussie Luna M, Roy A, Hata A. Positive and negative regulation of the transforming growth factor beta/activin target gene goosecoid by the TFII-I family of transcription factors. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:7144-57 pubmed
    Goosecoid (Gsc) is a homeodomain-containing transcription factor present in a wide variety of vertebrate species and known to regulate formation and patterning of embryos...
  29. Sun X, Meyers E, Lewandoski M, Martin G. Targeted disruption of Fgf8 causes failure of cell migration in the gastrulating mouse embryo. Genes Dev. 1999;13:1834-46 pubmed
    ..This study identifies Fgf8 as a gene essential for gastrulation and shows that signaling via FGF8 and/or FGF4 is required for cell migration away from the primitive streak. ..
  30. Gotz J, Probst A, Ehler E, Hemmings B, Kues W. Delayed embryonic lethality in mice lacking protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit Calpha. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:12370-5 pubmed
    ..While the primary germ layers ectoderm and endoderm are formed, mesoderm is not formed in degenerating embryos. ..
  31. Liu W, Selever J, Lu M, Martin J. Genetic dissection of Pitx2 in craniofacial development uncovers new functions in branchial arch morphogenesis, late aspects of tooth morphogenesis and cell migration. Development. 2003;130:6375-85 pubmed
    ..Moreover, our results uncover a new function of Pitx2 in regulation of cell motility in craniofacial development. ..
  32. Tucker A, Watson R, Lettice L, Yamada G, Hill R. Bapx1 regulates patterning in the middle ear: altered regulatory role in the transition from the proximal jaw during vertebrate evolution. Development. 2004;131:1235-45 pubmed
    ..We show that, in combination with goosecoid (Gsc), the Bapx1 gene defines the structural components of the murine middle ear...
  33. Yang Y, Klingensmith J. Roles of organizer factors and BMP antagonism in mammalian forebrain establishment. Dev Biol. 2006;296:458-75 pubmed
    ..These results lead to a model in which BMP antagonism supplied by exogenous tissues promotes forebrain establishment and maintenance in the murine ectoderm. ..
  34. Nakaya K, Murakami M, Funaba M. Regulatory expression of Brachyury and Goosecoid in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. J Cell Biochem. 2008;105:801-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the expression of the mesodermal genes Brachyury (Bra) and Goosecoid (Gsc) are under regulatory control in P19 cells...
  35. Stewart K, Uetani N, Hendriks W, Tremblay M, Bouchard M. Inactivation of LAR family phosphatase genes Ptprs and Ptprf causes craniofacial malformations resembling Pierre-Robin sequence. Development. 2013;140:3413-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these results identify LAR RPTPs as important regulators of craniofacial morphogenesis and provide insight into the etiology of Pierre-Robin sequence. ..
  36. Chu G, Dunn N, Anderson D, Oxburgh L, Robertson E. Differential requirements for Smad4 in TGFbeta-dependent patterning of the early mouse embryo. Development. 2004;131:3501-12 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Smad4 potentiates a subset of TGFbeta-related signals during early embryonic development, but is dispensable for others. ..
  37. Hartwell K, Muir B, Reinhardt F, Carpenter A, Sgroi D, Weinberg R. The Spemann organizer gene, Goosecoid, promotes tumor metastasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:18969-74 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that Goosecoid promotes tumor cell malignancy and suggest that other conserved organizer genes may function similarly in human cancer...
  38. Clouthier D, Hosoda K, Richardson J, Williams S, Yanagisawa H, Kuwaki T, et al. Cranial and cardiac neural crest defects in endothelin-A receptor-deficient mice. Development. 1998;125:813-24 pubmed
    ..These observations define a novel genetic pathway for inductive communication between cephalic neural crest cells and their environmental counterparts. ..
  39. Jin J, Tan M, Warner D, Darling D, Higashi Y, Gridley T, et al. Mesenchymal cell remodeling during mouse secondary palate reorientation. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2110-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Because palate elevation represents a classic example of embryonic tissue re-orientation, our findings here may also shed light on the process of tissue re-orientation in general. ..
  40. Fu J, Jiang M, Mirando A, Yu H, Hsu W. Reciprocal regulation of Wnt and Gpr177/mouse Wntless is required for embryonic axis formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:18598-603 pubmed publisher
    ..A reciprocal regulation of Wnt and Gpr177 is essential for the patterning of the anterior-posterior axis during mammalian development. ..
  41. Shao R, Liu J, Yan G, Zhang J, Han Y, Guo J, et al. Cdh1 regulates craniofacial development via APC-dependent ubiquitination and activation of Goosecoid. Cell Res. 2016;26:699-712 pubmed publisher
    ..through inducing monoubiquitination and activation of the paired-like homeobox transcription factor, Goosecoid (Gsc)...
  42. Boyl P, Signore M, Acampora D, Martinez Barbera J, Ilengo C, Annino A, et al. Forebrain and midbrain development requires epiblast-restricted Otx2 translational control mediated by its 3' UTR. Development. 2001;128:2989-3000 pubmed
    ..This leads us to hypothesise that this control might have important evolutionary implications. ..
  43. Wakamiya M, Rivera Pérez J, Baldini A, Behringer R. Goosecoid and goosecoid-related genes in mouse embryogenesis. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1997;62:145-9 pubmed
  44. Feng W, Leach S, Tipney H, Phang T, Geraci M, Spritz R, et al. Spatial and temporal analysis of gene expression during growth and fusion of the mouse facial prominences. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8066 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our studies provide a valuable resource for probing orofacial development and a robust dataset for bioinformatic analysis of spatial and temporal gene expression changes during embryogenesis. ..
  45. Fekete D. Development of the vertebrate ear: insights from knockouts and mutants. Trends Neurosci. 1999;22:263-9 pubmed
    ..Genes that are regionally expressed in the inner ear can, when absent or mutated, yield selective ablation of specific inner-ear structures or cell types. ..
  46. Belo J, Leyns L, Yamada G, De Robertis E. The prechordal midline of the chondrocranium is defective in Goosecoid-1 mouse mutants. Mech Dev. 1998;72:15-25 pubmed
    b>Gsc-1 expression marks cells with Spemann organizer, or axis-inducing, activity in the vertebrate gastrula. Gsc-1 knockouts, however, did not display phenotypes related to the early phase of expression...
  47. Zou W, Chen X, Shim J, Huang Z, Brady N, Hu D, et al. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Wwp2 regulates craniofacial development through mono-ubiquitylation of Goosecoid. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:59-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies demonstrate that Wwp2 influences craniofacial patterning through its interactions with Goosecoid (Gsc), a paired-like homeobox transcription factor that has an important role in craniofacial development...
  48. Arsenian S, Weinhold B, Oelgeschlager M, Ruther U, Nordheim A. Serum response factor is essential for mesoderm formation during mouse embryogenesis. EMBO J. 1998;17:6289-99 pubmed
    ..Our study identifies SRF as a new and essential regulator of mammalian mesoderm formation. We therefore suggest that in mammals Ras/MAPK signalling contributes to mesoderm induction, as is the case in amphibia. ..
  49. Kumar A, Lualdi M, Lyozin G, Sharma P, Loncarek J, Fu X, et al. Nodal signaling from the visceral endoderm is required to maintain Nodal gene expression in the epiblast and drive DVE/AVE migration. Dev Biol. 2015;400:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support a required role for VE Nodal to maintain normal levels of expression in the epiblast, and suggest signaling from both VE and epiblast is important for DVE/AVE migration. ..
  50. Chazaud C, Rossant J. Disruption of early proximodistal patterning and AVE formation in Apc mutants. Development. 2006;133:3379-87 pubmed
    ..In addition, we found that nuclear beta-catenin and other molecular markers are asymmetrically expressed by 4.5 days. ..
  51. Holdener B, Faust C, Rosenthal N, Magnuson T. msd is required for mesoderm induction in mice. Development. 1994;120:1335-46 pubmed
    ..Thus, the effects of the msd mutation are restricted to mesoderm formation and could result from the inability to respond to an inducing signal. ..
  52. Kuratani S, Satokata I, Blum M, Komatsu Y, Haraguchi R, Nakamura S, et al. Middle ear defects associated with the double knock out mutation of murine goosecoid and Msx1 genes. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 1999;45:589-99 pubmed
    ..The murine goosecoid (Gsc) and Msx1 genes are expressed during craniofacial development and each mutant mouse displays intriguing facial ..
  53. Polydorou C, Georgiades P. Ets2-dependent trophoblast signalling is required for gastrulation progression after primitive streak initiation. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1658 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model that provides a genetic explanation as to how Ets2 in trophoblast mediates the progression of gastrulation within the epiblast. ..
  54. Pereira P, Dobreva M, Maas E, Cornelis F, Moya I, Umans L, et al. Antagonism of Nodal signaling by BMP/Smad5 prevents ectopic primitive streak formation in the mouse amnion. Development. 2012;139:3343-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that antagonism of Nodal signaling by BMP/Smad5 signaling prevents primitive streak formation in the amnion of normal mouse embryos. ..
  55. Zhang Y, Blackwell E, McKnight M, Knutsen G, Vu W, Ruest L. Specific inactivation of Twist1 in the mandibular arch neural crest cells affects the development of the ramus and reveals interactions with hand2. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:924-40 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the role of Twist1 during mandibular development, we used the Hand2-Cre transgene to conditionally inactivate the gene in the neural crest cells populating the mandibular pharyngeal arch...
  56. Edlund R, Ohyama T, Kantarci H, Riley B, Groves A. Foxi transcription factors promote pharyngeal arch development by regulating formation of FGF signaling centers. Dev Biol. 2014;390:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that Foxi3 may play a role in the establishment of signaling centers in the branchial arches that are required for neural crest survival, patterning and the subsequent development of branchial arch derivatives. ..
  57. CONCEPCION D, Papaioannou V. Nature and extent of left/right axis defects in T(Wis) /T(Wis) mutant mouse embryos. Dev Dyn. 2014;243:1046-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Decreased Notch signaling may account for both the morphological defects and the absence of expression of genes in the Nodal signaling pathway. ..
  58. Zhu L, Belo J, De Robertis E, Stern C. Goosecoid regulates the neural inducing strength of the mouse node. Dev Biol. 1999;216:276-81 pubmed
    ..We propose that goosecoid does play a role in regulating the neural inducing strength of the node and that regulative mechanisms exist which mask the early phenotypic consequences of goosecoid mutations in the intact mouse embryo. ..
  59. Yanagisawa H, Clouthier D, Richardson J, Charité J, Olson E. Targeted deletion of a branchial arch-specific enhancer reveals a role of dHAND in craniofacial development. Development. 2003;130:1069-78 pubmed
  60. Faust C, Schumacher A, Holdener B, Magnuson T. The eed mutation disrupts anterior mesoderm production in mice. Development. 1995;121:273-85 pubmed
    ..Specification of these cell types is also independent of correct expression of nodal, Fgf4, and gsc. Finally, T and Evx1 display ectopic expression in cells not normally fated to ingress through the primitive streak...
  61. Loebel D, Hor A, Bildsoe H, Jones V, Chen Y, Behringer R, et al. Regionalized Twist1 activity in the forelimb bud drives the morphogenesis of the proximal and preaxial skeleton. Dev Biol. 2012;362:132-40 pubmed publisher
  62. O Rourke M, Soo K, Behringer R, Hui C, Tam P. Twist plays an essential role in FGF and SHH signal transduction during mouse limb development. Dev Biol. 2002;248:143-56 pubmed
    ..Twist activity is therefore essential for the growth and differentiation of the limb bud tissues as well as regulation of tissue patterning via the modulation of SHH and FGF signal transduction. ..
  63. Barron F, Woods C, Kuhn K, Bishop J, Howard M, Clouthier D. Downregulation of Dlx5 and Dlx6 expression by Hand2 is essential for initiation of tongue morphogenesis. Development. 2011;138:2249-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Hand2 thus appears to establish a distal mandibular arch domain that is conducive for lower jaw development, including the initiation of tongue mesenchyme morphogenesis. ..
  64. Zhu C, Yamada G, Blum M. Retinoic acid teratogenicity: the role of goosecoid and BMP-4. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 1999;45:617-29 pubmed
    ..BMP-4 was repressed by RA-treatment as well, both in embryos and in F9 teratocarcinoma cells. Our data suggest that both goosecoid and BMP-4 function as mediators of RA teratogenicity in mouse embryos. ..
  65. Brown D, Wagner D, Li X, Richardson J, Olson E. Dual role of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor scleraxis in mesoderm formation and chondrogenesis during mouse embryogenesis. Development. 1999;126:4317-29 pubmed
    ..These results reveal an essential early role for scleraxis in mesoderm formation, as well as a later role in formation of somite-derived chondrogenic lineages, and suggest that scleraxis target genes mediate these processes. ..
  66. Izzi L, Silvestri C, Von Both I, Labbé E, Zakin L, Wrana J, et al. Foxh1 recruits Gsc to negatively regulate Mixl1 expression during early mouse development. EMBO J. 2007;26:3132-43 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that Foxh1 associates with the homeodomain-containing protein Goosecoid (Gsc), which in turn recruits histone deacetylases to repress Mixl1 gene expression...
  67. Borges A, Marques S, Belo J. Goosecoid and cerberus-like do not interact during mouse embryogenesis. Int J Dev Biol. 2002;46:259-62 pubmed
    ..Since goosecoid (gsc) shares some domains of expression with cer-l and was shown to be essential for head morphogenesis, we tested its ..
  68. Yamada G, Ueno K, Nakamura S, Hanamure Y, Yasui K, Uemura M, et al. Nasal and pharyngeal abnormalities caused by the mouse goosecoid gene mutation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997;233:161-5 pubmed
    The Goosecoid (gsc) gene is a homeobox-containing gene expressed first in the gastrula, and later during organogenesis in development...
  69. Vieux Rochas M, Mantero S, Heude E, Barbieri O, Astigiano S, Couly G, et al. Spatio-temporal dynamics of gene expression of the Edn1-Dlx5/6 pathway during development of the lower jaw. Genesis. 2010;48:262-373 pubmed publisher
    ..More in general, our findings emphasize the importance of quantitative gene expression in the fine control of morphogenetic events. ..
  70. Yamagishi C, Yamagishi H, Maeda J, Tsuchihashi T, Ivey K, Hu T, et al. Sonic hedgehog is essential for first pharyngeal arch development. Pediatr Res. 2006;59:349-54 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that epithelial-mesenchymal signaling and transcriptional events coordinated by Shh, partly via Fgf8, is essential for cell survival and tissue outgrowth of the developing PA1. ..
  71. Depew M, Liu J, Long J, Presley R, Meneses J, Pedersen R, et al. Dlx5 regulates regional development of the branchial arches and sensory capsules. Development. 1999;126:3831-46 pubmed
  72. Powers S, Taniguchi K, Yen W, Melhuish T, Shen J, Walsh C, et al. Tgif1 and Tgif2 regulate Nodal signaling and are required for gastrulation. Development. 2010;137:249-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data show that Tgif function is required for gastrulation, and provide the first clear evidence that Tgifs limit the transcriptional response to Nodal signaling during early embryogenesis. ..
  73. Zhu C, Yamada G, Nakamura S, Terashi T, Schweickert A, Blum M. Malformation of trachea and pelvic region in goosecoid mutant mice. Dev Dyn. 1998;211:374-81 pubmed
    ..In addition, we discuss evidence for the existence of at least three goosecoid genes in vertebrates, which may account for the lack of a defect of axial patterning in goosecoid mutant mice. ..
  74. Kuan A, Chamberlain W, Malkiel S, Lieu H, Factor S, Diamond B, et al. Genetic control of autoimmune myocarditis mediated by myosin-specific antibodies. Immunogenetics. 1999;49:79-85 pubmed
    ..Future studies will determine whether the genetic factors identified in this study are also involved in susceptibility to rheumatic fever. ..
  75. Beck S, Le Good J, Guzman M, Ben Haim N, Roy K, Beermann F, et al. Extraembryonic proteases regulate Nodal signalling during gastrulation. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:981-5 pubmed
    ..A lack of Spc1 and Spc4 affects both pathways because these proteases also stimulate induction of Bmp4. ..
  76. Cajal M, Lawson K, Hill B, Moreau A, Rao J, Ross A, et al. Clonal and molecular analysis of the prospective anterior neural boundary in the mouse embryo. Development. 2012;139:423-36 pubmed publisher