Grn

Summary

Gene Symbol: Grn
Description: granulin
Alias: Pgrn, epithelin, granulins, PC cell-derived growth factor, PCDGF, PEPI, acrogranulin, proepithelin, progranulin
Species: mouse
Products:     Grn

Top Publications

  1. Plowman G, Green J, Neubauer M, Buckley S, McDonald V, Todaro G, et al. The epithelin precursor encodes two proteins with opposing activities on epithelial cell growth. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:13073-8 pubmed
    b>Epithelin 1 and 2 were originally purified from rat kidneys based on their ability to inhibit the growth of A-431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells (Shoyab, M., McDonald, V.L., Byles, C., Todaro, G.J., and Plowman, G.D. (1990) Proc. Natl...
  2. Cheung S, Wong S, Leung K, Chen X, So S, Ng I, et al. Granulin-epithelin precursor overexpression promotes growth and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:7629-36 pubmed
    Granulin-epithelin precursor (GEP) is a novel growth factor. Our earlier cDNA microarray study indicated that GEP was overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  3. Tanaka Y, Matsuwaki T, Yamanouchi K, Nishihara M. Exacerbated inflammatory responses related to activated microglia after traumatic brain injury in progranulin-deficient mice. Neuroscience. 2013;231:49-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Progranulin (PGRN), a multifunctional growth factor, appears to play a role in neurodegenerative diseases accompanied by neuroinflammation...
  4. Matsubara T, Mita A, Minami K, Hosooka T, Kitazawa S, Takahashi K, et al. PGRN is a key adipokine mediating high fat diet-induced insulin resistance and obesity through IL-6 in adipose tissue. Cell Metab. 2012;15:38-50 pubmed publisher
    ..By differential proteome analysis of cellular models of insulin resistance, we identified progranulin (PGRN) as an adipokine induced by TNF-? and dexamethasone...
  5. Yin F, Banerjee R, Thomas B, Zhou P, Qian L, Jia T, et al. Exaggerated inflammation, impaired host defense, and neuropathology in progranulin-deficient mice. J Exp Med. 2010;207:117-28 pubmed publisher
    b>Progranulin (PGRN) is a widely expressed protein involved in diverse biological processes. Haploinsufficiency of PGRN in the human causes tau-negative, ubiquitin-positive frontotemporal dementia (FTD). However, the mechanisms are unknown...
  6. Zhao Y, Tian Q, Liu C. Progranulin deficiency exaggerates, whereas progranulin-derived Atsttrin attenuates, severity of dermatitis in mice. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:1805-10 pubmed publisher
    ..et al. (2011) The growth factor progranulin binds to TNF receptors and is therapeutic against inflammatory arthritis in mice. Science 332 (6028) 478-484]...
  7. Tang W, Lu Y, Tian Q, Zhang Y, Guo F, Liu G, et al. The growth factor progranulin binds to TNF receptors and is therapeutic against inflammatory arthritis in mice. Science. 2011;332:478-84 pubmed publisher
    The growth factor progranulin (PGRN) has been implicated in embryonic development, tissue repair, tumorigenesis, and inflammation, but its receptors remain unidentified...
  8. Petkau T, Neal S, Orban P, MacDonald J, Hill A, Lu G, et al. Progranulin expression in the developing and adult murine brain. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:3931-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Autosomal dominantly inherited mutations of the progranulin gene (GRN) have been identified as the cause of a subset of cases of familial FTLD...
  9. Ahmed Z, Sheng H, Xu Y, Lin W, Innes A, Gass J, et al. Accelerated lipofuscinosis and ubiquitination in granulin knockout mice suggest a role for progranulin in successful aging. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:311-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Progranulin (PGRN) is involved in wound repair, inflammation, and tumor formation, but its function in the central nervous system is unknown...

More Information

Publications77

  1. Ghoshal N, Dearborn J, Wozniak D, Cairns N. Core features of frontotemporal dementia recapitulated in progranulin knockout mice. Neurobiol Dis. 2012;45:395-408 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the neurodegenerative consequences of progranulin gene (GRN) mutations, which cause an inherited form of FTD, we used previously generated progranulin knockout ..
  2. Ryan C, Baranowski D, Chitramuthu B, Malik S, Li Z, Cao M, et al. Progranulin is expressed within motor neurons and promotes neuronal cell survival. BMC Neurosci. 2009;10:130 pubmed publisher
    b>Progranulin is a secreted high molecular weight growth factor bearing seven and one half copies of the cysteine-rich granulin-epithelin motif...
  3. Park B, Buti L, Lee S, Matsuwaki T, Spooner E, Brinkmann M, et al. Granulin is a soluble cofactor for toll-like receptor 9 signaling. Immunity. 2011;34:505-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we propose that granulin contributes to innate immunity as a critical soluble cofactor for TLR9 signaling. ..
  4. Yin F, Dumont M, Banerjee R, Ma Y, Li H, Lin M, et al. Behavioral deficits and progressive neuropathology in progranulin-deficient mice: a mouse model of frontotemporal dementia. FASEB J. 2010;24:4639-47 pubmed publisher
    b>Progranulin haploinsufficiency causes frontotemporal dementia with tau-negative, ubiquitin-positive neuronal inclusion pathology...
  5. Matsumura N, Mandai M, Miyanishi M, Fukuhara K, Baba T, Higuchi T, et al. Oncogenic property of acrogranin in human uterine leiomyosarcoma: direct evidence of genetic contribution in in vivo tumorigenesis. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:1402-11 pubmed
    ..We found that acrogranin (also named PCDGF or progranulin) is overexpressed in uterine leiomyosarcoma...
  6. Zhao Y, Tian Q, Frenkel S, Liu C. The promotion of bone healing by progranulin, a downstream molecule of BMP-2, through interacting with TNF/TNFR signaling. Biomaterials. 2013;34:6412-21 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Progranulin (PGRN) growth factor is known to enhance chondrocyte differentiation and endochondral ossification during ..
  7. Kayasuga Y, Chiba S, Suzuki M, Kikusui T, Matsuwaki T, Yamanouchi K, et al. Alteration of behavioural phenotype in mice by targeted disruption of the progranulin gene. Behav Brain Res. 2007;185:110-8 pubmed
    ..We have identified the progranulin (PGRN) gene as one of the sex steroid-inducible genes that may be involved in masculinization of the rat brain...
  8. Daniel R, Daniels E, He Z, Bateman A. Progranulin (acrogranin/PC cell-derived growth factor/granulin-epithelin precursor) is expressed in the placenta, epidermis, microvasculature, and brain during murine development. Dev Dyn. 2003;227:593-9 pubmed
    The growth factor progranulin (acrogranin/PC-derived growth factor/granulin-epithelin precursor) promotes onset of blastocyst cavitation and is required for neonatal hypothalamic sexual differentiation...
  9. Jian J, Zhao S, Tian Q, González Gugel E, Mundra J, Uddin S, et al. Progranulin directly binds to the CRD2 and CRD3 of TNFR extracellular domains. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:3428-36 pubmed publisher
    We previously reported that PGRN directly bound to TNF receptors (TNFR) in vitro and in chondrocytes (Tang, et al., Science, 2011)...
  10. Hu Y, Xiao H, Shi T, Oppenheim J, Chen X. Progranulin promotes tumour necrosis factor-induced proliferation of suppressive mouse CD4? Foxp3? regulatory T cells. Immunology. 2014;142:193-201 pubmed publisher
    b>Progranulin (PGRN) is a pleiotropic growth factor with immunosuppressive properties. Recently, it was reported that PGRN was an antagonist of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptors, preferentially for TNFR2...
  11. Pickford F, MARCUS J, Camargo L, Xiao Q, Graham D, Mo J, et al. Progranulin is a chemoattractant for microglia and stimulates their endocytic activity. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:284-95 pubmed publisher
    Mutations resulting in progranulin haploinsufficiency cause disease in patients with a subset of frontotemporal lobar degeneration; however, the biological functions of progranulin in the brain remain unknown...
  12. Hu F, Padukkavidana T, Vægter C, Brady O, Zheng Y, Mackenzie I, et al. Sortilin-mediated endocytosis determines levels of the frontotemporal dementia protein, progranulin. Neuron. 2010;68:654-67 pubmed publisher
    The most common inherited form of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD) known stems from Progranulin (GRN) mutation and exhibits TDP-43 plus ubiquitin aggregates...
  13. Kawase R, Ohama T, Matsuyama A, Matsuwaki T, Okada T, Yamashita T, et al. Deletion of progranulin exacerbates atherosclerosis in ApoE knockout mice. Cardiovasc Res. 2013;100:125-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Progranulin (PGRN) is a multifunctional protein known to be involved in inflammation. However, the relation between PGRN and atherosclerosis remains elusive...
  14. Qin J, Diaz Cueto L, Schwarze J, Takahashi Y, Imai M, Isuzugawa K, et al. Effects of progranulin on blastocyst hatching and subsequent adhesion and outgrowth in the mouse. Biol Reprod. 2005;73:434-42 pubmed
    Using cDNA microarray methodology, we have shown previously that transcripts of progranulin gene (Grn, also known as acrogranin), a recently identified autocrine growth factor, were upregulated in mouse blastocysts adhered to the filter ..
  15. Rosen E, Wexler E, Versano R, Coppola G, Gao F, Winden K, et al. Functional genomic analyses identify pathways dysregulated by progranulin deficiency, implicating Wnt signaling. Neuron. 2011;71:1030-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Progranulin (GRN) mutations cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD), but GRN's function in the CNS remains largely unknown...
  16. Xu K, Zhang Y, Ilalov K, Carlson C, Feng J, Di Cesare P, et al. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein associates with granulin-epithelin precursor (GEP) and potentiates GEP-stimulated chondrocyte proliferation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:11347-55 pubmed
    ..This led to the identification of granulin-epithelin precursor (GEP), an autocrine growth factor, as a COMP-associated partner...
  17. Naphade S, Kigerl K, Jakeman L, Kostyk S, Popovich P, Kuret J. Progranulin expression is upregulated after spinal contusion in mice. Acta Neuropathol. 2010;119:123-33 pubmed publisher
    Progranulin (proepithelin) is a pleiotropic growth-factor associated with inflammation and wound repair in peripheral tissues...
  18. Petkau T, Neal S, Milnerwood A, Mew A, Hill A, Orban P, et al. Synaptic dysfunction in progranulin-deficient mice. Neurobiol Dis. 2012;45:711-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Progranulin haploinsufficiency is a common cause of familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD), but the role of progranulin in the brain is poorly understood...
  19. Kao A, Eisenhut R, Martens L, Nakamura A, Huang A, Bagley J, et al. A neurodegenerative disease mutation that accelerates the clearance of apoptotic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:4441-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in the progranulin gene are a major cause of familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration [Baker M, et al...
  20. Wils H, Kleinberger G, Pereson S, Janssens J, Capell A, Van Dam D, et al. Cellular ageing, increased mortality and FTLD-TDP-associated neuropathology in progranulin knockout mice. J Pathol. 2012;228:67-76 pubmed publisher
    Loss-of-function mutations in progranulin (GRN) are associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration with intraneuronal ubiquitinated protein accumulations composed primarily of hyperphosphorylated TDP-43 (FTLD-TDP)...
  21. Baba T, Hoff H, Nemoto H, Lee H, Orth J, Arai Y, et al. Acrogranin, an acrosomal cysteine-rich glycoprotein, is the precursor of the growth-modulating peptides, granulins, and epithelins, and is expressed in somatic as well as male germ cells. Mol Reprod Dev. 1993;34:233-43 pubmed publisher
    ..a cysteine-rich molecule with a motif that is tandemly repeated seven times, very similar to that of the human epithelin/granulin precursor...
  22. Zhou J, Gao G, Crabb J, Serrero G. Purification of an autocrine growth factor homologous with mouse epithelin precursor from a highly tumorigenic cell line. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:10863-9 pubmed
    ..and trypsin demonstrates that PCDGF contains regions of sequence identity to that deduced from the granulin or epithelin precursor cDNAs...
  23. Diaz Cueto L, Stein P, Jacobs A, Schultz R, Gerton G. Modulation of mouse preimplantation embryo development by acrogranin (epithelin/granulin precursor). Dev Biol. 2000;217:406-18 pubmed
    ..the trophectoderm, we tested the hypothesis that one such embryo-derived growth factor is acrogranin (epithelin/granulin precursor), a factor that possesses growth-regulatory activities principally toward epithelial cells...
  24. Wang W, Wilfred B, Madathil S, Tang G, Hu Y, Dimayuga J, et al. miR-107 regulates granulin/progranulin with implications for traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative disease. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:334-45 pubmed publisher
    Granulin (GRN, or progranulin) is a protein involved in wound repair, inflammation, and neoplasia. GRN has also been directly implicated in frontotemporal dementia and may contribute to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis...
  25. Li M, Liu Y, Xia F, Wu Z, Deng L, Jiang R, et al. Progranulin is required for proper ER stress response and inhibits ER stress-mediated apoptosis through TNFR2. Cell Signal. 2014;26:1539-48 pubmed publisher
    b>Progranulin (PGRN) was reported to be a stress-response factor in response to hypoxia and acidosis...
  26. Tanaka Y, Matsuwaki T, Yamanouchi K, Nishihara M. Increased lysosomal biogenesis in activated microglia and exacerbated neuronal damage after traumatic brain injury in progranulin-deficient mice. Neuroscience. 2013;250:8-19 pubmed publisher
    b>Progranulin (PGRN) is known to play a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases...
  27. Smith K, Damiano J, Franceschetti S, Carpenter S, Canafoglia L, Morbin M, et al. Strikingly different clinicopathological phenotypes determined by progranulin-mutation dosage. Am J Hum Genet. 2012;90:1102-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Unexpectedly, we found these siblings to be homozygous for a c.813_816del (p.Thr272Serfs?10) mutation in the progranulin gene (GRN, granulin precursor) in the latter peak...
  28. Zhu J, Nathan C, Jin W, Sim D, Ashcroft G, Wahl S, et al. Conversion of proepithelin to epithelins: roles of SLPI and elastase in host defense and wound repair. Cell. 2002;111:867-78 pubmed
    ..b>Proepithelin (PEPI), an epithelial growth factor, can be converted to epithelins (EPIs) in vivo by unknown mechanisms with ..
  29. Martens L, Zhang J, Barmada S, Zhou P, Kamiya S, Sun B, et al. Progranulin deficiency promotes neuroinflammation and neuron loss following toxin-induced injury. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:3955-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Progranulin (PGRN) is a widely expressed secreted protein that is linked to inflammation...
  30. Hoque M, Young T, Lee C, Serrero G, Mathews M, PE ERY T. The growth factor granulin interacts with cyclin T1 and modulates P-TEFb-dependent transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:1688-702 pubmed
    ..The granulins, mitogenic growth factors containing repeats of a cysteine-rich motif, were reported previously to interact with ..
  31. Moisse K, Volkening K, Leystra Lantz C, Welch I, Hill T, Strong M. Divergent patterns of cytosolic TDP-43 and neuronal progranulin expression following axotomy: implications for TDP-43 in the physiological response to neuronal injury. Brain Res. 2009;1249:202-11 pubmed publisher
    We have performed sciatic axotomies in adult C57BL/6 mice and observed TDP-43 and progranulin (PGRN) expression patterns over 28 days...
  32. Filiano A, Martens L, Young A, Warmus B, Zhou P, Diaz Ramirez G, et al. Dissociation of frontotemporal dementia-related deficits and neuroinflammation in progranulin haploinsufficient mice. J Neurosci. 2013;33:5352-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in GRN, the progranulin gene, are a common genetic cause of the disorder, but the mechanisms by which progranulin haploinsufficiency ..
  33. Tanaka Y, Chambers J, Matsuwaki T, Yamanouchi K, Nishihara M. Possible involvement of lysosomal dysfunction in pathological changes of the brain in aged progranulin-deficient mice. Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2014;2:78 pubmed publisher
    It has been shown that progranulin (PGRN) deficiency causes age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), a lysosomal storage disease...
  34. Yu Y, Xu X, Liu L, Mao S, Feng T, Lu Y, et al. Progranulin deficiency leads to severe inflammation, lung injury and cell death in a mouse model of endotoxic shock. J Cell Mol Med. 2016;20:506-17 pubmed publisher
    b>Progranulin (PGRN) is a crucial secreted growth factor involved in various kinds of physiologic and disease processes and often has a protective role in inflammatory diseases...
  35. Chiba S, Matsuwaki T, Yamanouchi K, Nishihara M. Alteration in anxiety with relation to the volume of the locus ceruleus in progranulin-deficient mice. J Reprod Dev. 2009;55:518-22 pubmed
    ..In our previous report, we found that progranulin (PGRN)-deficient (pgrn(-/-)) mice displayed an alteration in male-type behaviors, including reduced frequency ..
  36. Nguyen A, Nguyen T, Cenik B, Yu G, Herz J, Walther T, et al. Secreted progranulin is a homodimer and is not a component of high density lipoproteins (HDL). J Biol Chem. 2013;288:8627-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Progranulin is a secreted glycoprotein, and the GRN gene is mutated in some cases of frontotemporal dementia. Progranulin has also been implicated in cell growth, wound healing, inflammation, and cancer...
  37. Petkau T, Blanco J, Leavitt B. Conditional loss of progranulin in neurons is not sufficient to cause neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-like neuropathology in mice. Neurobiol Dis. 2017;106:14-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Progranulin deficiency due to heterozygous null mutations in the GRN gene is a common cause of familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), while homozygous loss-of-function GRN mutations cause neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL)...
  38. Menzel L, Kleber L, Friedrich C, Hummel R, Dangel L, Winter J, et al. Progranulin protects against exaggerated axonal injury and astrogliosis following traumatic brain injury. Glia. 2017;65:278-292 pubmed publisher
    ..The neurotrophic and anti-inflammatory glycoprotein progranulin (PGRN) attenuates neuronal damage and microglia/macrophage activation in brain injury but mechanisms are still ..
  39. Cheung P, Cheng C, Wong N, Ho J, Yip C, Lui V, et al. Granulin-epithelin precursor is an oncofetal protein defining hepatic cancer stem cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28246 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously demonstrated that granulin-epithelin precursor (GEP), a pluripotent growth factor, is upregulated in HCC but not in the adjacent non-tumor, and that ..
  40. Arrant A, Filiano A, Warmus B, Hall A, Roberson E. Progranulin haploinsufficiency causes biphasic social dominance abnormalities in the tube test. Genes Brain Behav. 2016;15:588-603 pubmed publisher
    Loss-of-function mutations in progranulin (GRN) are a major autosomal dominant cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a neurodegenerative disorder in which social behavior is disrupted...
  41. Bai X, Wang D, Kong L, Zhang Y, Luan Y, Kobayashi T, et al. ADAMTS-7, a direct target of PTHrP, adversely regulates endochondral bone growth by associating with and inactivating GEP growth factor. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:4201-19 pubmed publisher
    ..ADAMTS-7 associates with granulin-epithelin precursor (GEP), an autocrine growth factor that has been implicated in tissue regeneration, tumorigenesis, and ..
  42. Zhou X, Sun L, Bastos de Oliveira F, Qi X, Brown W, Smolka M, et al. Prosaposin facilitates sortilin-independent lysosomal trafficking of progranulin. J Cell Biol. 2015;210:991-1002 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the progranulin (PGRN) gene have been linked to two distinct neurodegenerative diseases, frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL)...
  43. Li H, Zhou B, Liu J, Li F, Li Y, Kang X, et al. Administration of progranulin (PGRN) triggers ER stress and impairs insulin sensitivity via PERK-eIF2α-dependent manner. Cell Cycle. 2015;14:1893-907 pubmed publisher
    b>Progranulin (PGRN) has recently emerged as an important regulator for glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity...
  44. Fujita K, Chen X, Homma H, Tagawa K, Amano M, Saito A, et al. Targeting Tyro3 ameliorates a model of PGRN-mutant FTLD-TDP via tau-mediated synaptic pathology. Nat Commun. 2018;9:433 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the progranulin (PGRN) gene cause a tau pathology-negative and TDP43 pathology-positive form of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP). We generated a knock-in mouse harboring the R504X mutation (PGRN-KI)...
  45. Kuse Y, Tsuruma K, Sugitani S, Izawa H, Ohno Y, Shimazawa M, et al. Progranulin promotes the retinal precursor cell proliferation and the photoreceptor differentiation in the mouse retina. Sci Rep. 2016;6:23811 pubmed publisher
    b>Progranulin (PGRN) is a secreted growth factor associated with embryo development, tissue repair, and inflammation. In a previous study, we showed that adipose-derived stem cell-conditioned medium (ASC-CM) is rich in PGRN...
  46. Asakura R, Matsuwaki T, Shim J, Yamanouchi K, Nishihara M. Involvement of progranulin in the enhancement of hippocampal neurogenesis by voluntary exercise. Neuroreport. 2011;22:881-6 pubmed publisher
    We have previously suggested that progranulin mediates the stimulatory effects of estrogen on adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus...
  47. Kleinberger G, Wils H, Ponsaerts P, Joris G, Timmermans J, Van Broeckhoven C, et al. Increased caspase activation and decreased TDP-43 solubility in progranulin knockout cortical cultures. J Neurochem. 2010;115:735-47 pubmed publisher
    Null mutations in progranulin (GRN) are associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration characterized by intraneuronal accumulation of TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43)...
  48. Zhou M, Tang W, Fu Y, Xu X, Wang Z, Lu Y, et al. Progranulin protects against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice. Kidney Int. 2015;87:918-29 pubmed publisher
    b>Progranulin (PGRN), an autocrine growth factor, has multiple physiological functions and is widely involved in the pathogenesis of many types of diseases...
  49. Jian J, Tian Q, Hettinghouse A, Zhao S, Liu H, Wei J, et al. Progranulin Recruits HSP70 to ?-Glucocerebrosidase and Is Therapeutic Against Gaucher Disease. EBioMedicine. 2016;13:212-224 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently it was reported that progranulin (PGRN) insufficiency and deficiency associated with GD in human and mice, respectively...
  50. Jackman K, Kahles T, Lane D, Garcia Bonilla L, Abe T, Capone C, et al. Progranulin deficiency promotes post-ischemic blood-brain barrier disruption. J Neurosci. 2013;33:19579-89 pubmed publisher
    Loss-of-function mutations of progranulin (PGRN) have been linked to frontotemporal dementia, but little is known about the effects of PGRN deficiency on the brain in health and disease...
  51. Lui H, Zhang J, Makinson S, Cahill M, Kelley K, Huang H, et al. Progranulin Deficiency Promotes Circuit-Specific Synaptic Pruning by Microglia via Complement Activation. Cell. 2016;165:921-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we use transcriptome profiling to demonstrate that deficiency in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) gene progranulin (Grn) leads to an age-dependent, progressive upregulation of lysosomal and innate immunity genes, increased ..
  52. Chang M, Srinivasan K, Friedman B, Suto E, Modrusan Z, Lee W, et al. Progranulin deficiency causes impairment of autophagy and TDP-43 accumulation. J Exp Med. 2017;214:2611-2628 pubmed publisher
    ..By studying mice lacking progranulin (PGRN), the protein encoded by GRN, we discovered multiple lines of evidence that PGRN deficiency ..
  53. Arrant A, Filiano A, Unger D, Young A, Roberson E. Restoring neuronal progranulin reverses deficits in a mouse model of frontotemporal dementia. Brain. 2017;140:1447-1465 pubmed publisher
    Loss-of-function mutations in progranulin (GRN), a secreted glycoprotein expressed by neurons and microglia, are a common autosomal dominant cause of frontotemporal dementia, a neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by ..
  54. Kandil E, Kohda K, Ishibashi T, Tanaka K, Kasahara M. PA28 subunits of the mouse proteasome: primary structures and chromosomal localization of the genes. Immunogenetics. 1997;46:337-44 pubmed
    ..It appears that the IFN-gamma-inducible alpha- and beta-subunits emerged by gene duplication from a gamma-subunit-like precursor. ..
  55. Doke M, Matsuwaki T, Yamanouchi K, Nishihara M. Lack of estrogen receptor ? in astrocytes of progranulin-deficient mice. J Reprod Dev. 2016;62:547-551 pubmed publisher
    b>Progranulin (PGRN) is a multifunctional growth factor with functions in neuroprotection, anti-inflammation, and neural progenitor cell proliferation. These functions largely overlap with the actions of estrogen in the brain...
  56. Gass J, Lee W, Cook C, Finch N, Stetler C, Jansen West K, et al. Progranulin regulates neuronal outgrowth independent of sortilin. Mol Neurodegener. 2012;7:33 pubmed publisher
    b>Progranulin (PGRN), a widely secreted growth factor, is involved in multiple biological functions, and mutations located within the PGRN gene (GRN) are a major cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43-positive inclusions (..
  57. Baba T, Nemoto H, Watanabe K, Arai Y, Gerton G. Exon/intron organization of the gene encoding the mouse epithelin/granulin precursor (acrogranin). FEBS Lett. 1993;322:89-94 pubmed
    Mouse genomic clones encoding the epithelin/granulin gene and its 5'- and 3'-flanking regions have been isolated and sequenced. This gene was found to be a single-copy gene, and contained 13 exons interrupted by 12 introns...
  58. Minami S, Shen V, Le D, Krabbe G, Asgarov R, Perez Celajes L, et al. Reducing inflammation and rescuing FTD-related behavioral deficits in progranulin-deficient mice with α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists. Biochem Pharmacol. 2015;97:454-462 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the progranulin gene cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a debilitating neurodegenerative disease that involves atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes and affects personality, behavior, and language...
  59. Zhao Y, Tian Q, Liu B, Cuellar J, Richbourgh B, Jia T, et al. Progranulin knockout accelerates intervertebral disc degeneration in aging mice. Sci Rep. 2015;5:9102 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein we investigated whether progranulin (PGRN), a chondroprotective growth factor, is associated with IVD degeneration...
  60. Barbu A, Lejonklou M, Skogseid B. Progranulin Stimulates Proliferation of Mouse Pancreatic Islet Cells and Is Overexpressed in the Endocrine Pancreatic Tissue of an MEN1 Mouse Model. Pancreas. 2016;45:533-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Progranulin (PGRN) promotes cell growth and cell cycle progression in several cell types and contributes to tumorigenesis in diverse cancers...
  61. Yan W, Ding A, Kim H, Zheng H, Wei F, Ma X. Progranulin Controls Sepsis via C/EBP?-Regulated Il10 Transcription and Ubiquitin Ligase/Proteasome-Mediated Protein Degradation. J Immunol. 2016;197:3393-3405 pubmed
    b>Progranulin (PGRN) is a widely expressed, pleiotropic protein that is involved in diverse biological processes, including cellular proliferation, neuron development, and wound healing...
  62. Altmann C, Hardt S, Fischer C, Heidler J, Lim H, Häussler A, et al. Progranulin overexpression in sensory neurons attenuates neuropathic pain in mice: Role of autophagy. Neurobiol Dis. 2016;96:294-311 pubmed publisher
    ..Using newly generated transgenic mice we show that progranulin overexpression in sensory neurons attenuates neuropathic pain after sciatic nerve injury and accelerates nerve ..
  63. Miyanishi M, Mandai M, Matsumura N, Yamaguchi K, Hamanishi J, Higuchi T, et al. Immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cells acquire tumorigenicity by Acrogranin gene overexpression. Oncol Rep. 2007;17:329-33 pubmed
    ..This is the first study showing evidence that a specific growth factor plays a direct role in malignant transformation in ovarian cancer development. ..
  64. Chen X, Chang J, Deng Q, Xu J, Nguyen T, Martens L, et al. Progranulin does not bind tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors and is not a direct regulator of TNF-dependent signaling or bioactivity in immune or neuronal cells. J Neurosci. 2013;33:9202-13 pubmed publisher
    b>Progranulin (PGRN) is a secreted glycoprotein expressed in neurons and glia that is implicated in neuronal survival on the basis that mutations in the GRN gene causing haploinsufficiency result in a familial form of frontotemporal ..
  65. Jian J, Zhao S, Tian Q, Liu H, Zhao Y, Chen W, et al. Association Between Progranulin and Gaucher Disease. EBioMedicine. 2016;11:127-137 pubmed publisher
    ..This study identified the progranulin (PGRN) gene (GRN) as another gene associated with GD...
  66. Arrant A, Patel A, Roberson E. Effects of Exercise on Progranulin Levels and Gliosis in Progranulin-Insufficient Mice. Eneuro. 2015;2: pubmed
    Loss-of-function mutations in progranulin (GRN) are one of the most common genetic causes of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disorder with no available disease-modifying treatments...
  67. Beel S, Moisse M, Damme M, De Muynck L, Robberecht W, Van Den Bosch L, et al. Progranulin functions as a cathepsin D chaperone to stimulate axonal outgrowth in vivo. Hum Mol Genet. 2017;26:2850-2863 pubmed publisher
    Loss of function mutations in progranulin (GRN) cause frontotemporal dementia, but how GRN haploinsufficiency causes neuronal dysfunction remains unclear. We previously showed that GRN is neurotrophic in vitro...
  68. Wei F, Zhang Y, Zhao W, Yu X, Liu C. Progranulin facilitates conversion and function of regulatory T cells under inflammatory conditions. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e112110 pubmed publisher
    The progranulin (PGRN) is known to protect regulatory T cells (Tregs) from a negative regulation by TNF-α, and its levels are elevated in various kinds of autoimmune diseases...