Gene Symbol: Grm4
Description: glutamate receptor, metabotropic 4
Alias: Gprc1d, mGluR4, metabotropic glutamate receptor 4, G protein-coupled receptor GRM4, G protein-coupled receptor, family C, group 1, member D
Species: mouse
Products:     Grm4

Top Publications

  1. Quraishi S, Gayet J, Morgans C, Duvoisin R. Distribution of group-III metabotropic glutamate receptors in the retina. J Comp Neurol. 2007;501:931-43 pubmed
    ..b>mGluR4 immunostaining was most abundant in IPL sublamina 1; mGluR7 immunoreactivity was organized in four bands, ..
  2. Battaglia G, Busceti C, Molinaro G, Biagioni F, Traficante A, Nicoletti F, et al. Pharmacological activation of mGlu4 metabotropic glutamate receptors reduces nigrostriatal degeneration in mice treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. J Neurosci. 2006;26:7222-9 pubmed
    ..These data support the view that mGlu4 receptors are potential targets for the experimental treatment of parkinsonism...
  3. Tang Z, El Far O, Betz H, Scheschonka A. Pias1 interaction and sumoylation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 8. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:38153-9 pubmed
    ..Our results are consistent with post-translational sumoylation providing a novel mechanism of group III mGluR regulation. ..
  4. Wang X, Ai J, Hampson D, Snead O. Altered glutamate and GABA release within thalamocortical circuitry in metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 knockout mice. Neuroscience. 2005;134:1195-203 pubmed
    The metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 is highly expressed presynaptically on thalamocortical neurons that are involved in the pathogenesis of generalized absence seizures...
  5. Valenti O, Marino M, Wittmann M, Lis E, DiLella A, Kinney G, et al. Group III metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated modulation of the striatopallidal synapse. J Neurosci. 2003;23:7218-26 pubmed
    ..L-AP4 exhibited high potency and a pharmacological profile consistent with mediation by mGluR4. Furthermore, the effect of L-AP4 on striatopallidal transmission was absent in mGluR4 knock-out mice, providing ..
  6. Yasumatsu K, Manabe T, Yoshida R, Iwatsuki K, Uneyama H, Takahashi I, et al. Involvement of multiple taste receptors in umami taste: analysis of gustatory nerve responses in metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 knockout mice. J Physiol. 2015;593:1021-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we used mGluR4 knockout (mGluR4-KO) mice and examined the function of mGluR4 in peripheral taste responses of mice...
  7. Harrington A, Raissi A, Rajkovich K, Berto S, Kumar J, Molinaro G, et al. MEF2C regulates cortical inhibitory and excitatory synapses and behaviors relevant to neurodevelopmental disorders. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
  8. Cannella M, Motolese M, Bucci D, Molinaro G, Gradini R, Bruno V, et al. Changes in the expression of genes encoding for mGlu4 and mGlu5 receptors and other regulators of the indirect pathway in acute mouse models of drug-induced parkinsonism. Neuropharmacology. 2015;95:50-8 pubmed publisher
  9. Pitsch J, Schoch S, Gueler N, Flor P, van Der Putten H, Becker A. Functional role of mGluR1 and mGluR4 in pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy. Neurobiol Dis. 2007;26:623-33 pubmed
    ..mGluR1 mediates predominantly excitatory effects, whereas mGluR4 acts as inhibitory presynaptic receptor...

More Information


  1. Moyanova S, Mastroiacovo F, Kortenska L, Mitreva R, Fardone E, Santolini I, et al. Protective role for type 4 metabotropic glutamate receptors against ischemic brain damage. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2011;31:1107-18 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are promising because selective mGlu4 receptor enhancers are under clinical development for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other central nervous system disorders. ..
  2. Vilar B, Busserolles J, Ling B, Laffray S, Ulmann L, Malhaire F, et al. Alleviating pain hypersensitivity through activation of type 4 metabotropic glutamate receptor. J Neurosci. 2013;33:18951-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results reveal that mGlu4 is a promising new target for the treatment of chronic pain. ..
  3. Gerlai R, Roder J, Hampson D. Altered spatial learning and memory in mice lacking the mGluR4 subtype of metabotropic glutamate receptor. Behav Neurosci. 1998;112:525-32 pubmed
    ..of mGluR in the nervous system was investigated by analyzing mutant mice lacking the L-AP4-sensitive receptor, mGluR4. Experiments designed to probe hippocampal function showed no impairments in acquisition of spatial learning in ..
  4. Antflick J, Hampson D. Modulation of glutamate release from parallel fibers by mGlu4 and pre-synaptic GABA(A) receptors. J Neurochem. 2012;120:552-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data suggest a new role for mGlu4 whereby simultaneous activation with GABA(A) receptors acts to amplify glutamate release at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses. ..
  5. Fallarino F, Volpi C, Fazio F, Notartomaso S, Vacca C, Busceti C, et al. Metabotropic glutamate receptor-4 modulates adaptive immunity and restrains neuroinflammation. Nat Med. 2010;16:897-902 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockout mice lacking metabotropic glutamate receptor-4 (mGluR4) were markedly vulnerable to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a mouse model of multiple sclerosis) ..
  6. Davis M, Haley T, Duvoisin R, Raber J. Measures of anxiety, sensorimotor function, and memory in male and female mGluR4⁻/⁻ mice. Behav Brain Res. 2012;229:21-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the eight different types of mGluRs (mGluR1-mGluR8), mGluR4, mGluR6, mGluR7, and mGluR8 are members of group III...
  7. Bruno V, Battaglia G, Ksiazek I, van Der Putten H, Catania M, Giuffrida R, et al. Selective activation of mGlu4 metabotropic glutamate receptors is protective against excitotoxic neuronal death. J Neurosci. 2000;20:6413-20 pubmed
    Activation of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR4, mGluR6, mGluR7, and mGluR8) has been established to be neuroprotective in vitro and in vivo...
  8. Masugi M, Yokoi M, Shigemoto R, Muguruma K, Watanabe Y, Sansig G, et al. Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 7 ablation causes deficit in fear response and conditioned taste aversion. J Neurosci. 1999;19:955-63 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings strongly suggest that mGluR7 is involved in neural processes subserving amygdala-dependent averse responses. ..
  9. Iscru E, Goddyn H, Ahmed T, Callaerts Vegh Z, D Hooge R, Balschun D. Improved spatial learning is associated with increased hippocampal but not prefrontal long-term potentiation in mGluR4 knockout mice. Genes Brain Behav. 2013;12:615-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examined mGluR4 knockout mice for types of behavior and synaptic plasticity that depend on either the hippocampus or the ..
  10. Davis M, Iancu O, Acher F, Stewart B, Eiwaz M, Duvoisin R, et al. Role of mGluR4 in acquisition of fear learning and memory. Neuropharmacology. 2013;66:365-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously we showed enhanced amygdala-dependent cued fear conditioning in mGluR4(-/-) mice 24 h following training involving two tone-shock pairings...
  11. Kaupmann K, Huggel K, Heid J, Flor P, Bischoff S, Mickel S, et al. Expression cloning of GABA(B) receptors uncovers similarity to metabotropic glutamate receptors. Nature. 1997;386:239-46 pubmed
    ..The cloned receptors negatively couple to adenylyl cyclase and show sequence similarity to the metabotropic receptors for the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate. ..
  12. Sarichelou I, Cappuccio I, Ferranti F, Mosillo P, Ciceroni C, Sale P, et al. Metabotropic glutamate receptors regulate differentiation of embryonic stem cells into GABAergic neurons. Cell Death Differ. 2008;15:700-7 pubmed publisher
  13. Alioto T, Ngai J. The repertoire of olfactory C family G protein-coupled receptors in zebrafish: candidate chemosensory receptors for amino acids. BMC Genomics. 2006;7:309 pubmed
  14. Blednov Y, Walker D, Osterndorf Kahanek E, Harris R. Mice lacking metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 do not show the motor stimulatory effect of ethanol. Alcohol. 2004;34:251-9 pubmed
    Group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), specifically receptors 4, 6, 7, and 8 (i.e., mGluR4, mGluR6, mGluR7, mGluR8), play an important role in the generation of locomotion as well as in the behavioral effects of some ..
  15. Pekhletski R, Gerlai R, Overstreet L, Huang X, Agopyan N, Slater N, et al. Impaired cerebellar synaptic plasticity and motor performance in mice lacking the mGluR4 subtype of metabotropic glutamate receptor. J Neurosci. 1996;16:6364-73 pubmed
    ..understanding of the function of L-AP4 receptors, we have generated and studied knockout (KO) mice lacking the mGluR4 subtype of mGluR that displays high affinity for L-AP4...
  16. Dillman A, Hauser D, Gibbs J, Nalls M, McCoy M, Rudenko I, et al. mRNA expression, splicing and editing in the embryonic and adult mouse cerebral cortex. Nat Neurosci. 2013;16:499-506 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide this data set and analysis as a resource for understanding gene expression in the embryonic and adult cerebral cortex. ..
  17. Iacovelli L, Arcella A, Battaglia G, Pazzaglia S, Aronica E, Spinsanti P, et al. Pharmacological activation of mGlu4 metabotropic glutamate receptors inhibits the growth of medulloblastomas. J Neurosci. 2006;26:8388-97 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that mGlu4 receptor enhancers are promising drugs for the treatment of medulloblastomas. ..
  18. Yin S, Noetzel M, Johnson K, Zamorano R, Jalan Sakrikar N, Gregory K, et al. Selective actions of novel allosteric modulators reveal functional heteromers of metabotropic glutamate receptors in the CNS. J Neurosci. 2014;34:79-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These data greatly extend our current understanding of mGlu receptor interaction and function and provide compelling evidence that mGlu receptors can function as heteromers in intact brain circuits. ..
  19. Corti C, Aldegheri L, Somogyi P, Ferraguti F. Distribution and synaptic localisation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) in the rodent CNS. Neuroscience. 2002;110:403-20 pubmed
    ..Here, we assessed the distribution of mGluR4 in the rat and mouse brain using affinity-purified antibodies raised against its entire C-terminal domain...
  20. Verpelli C, Dvoretskova E, Vicidomini C, Rossi F, Chiappalone M, Schoen M, et al. Importance of Shank3 protein in regulating metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) expression and signaling at synapses. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:34839-50 pubmed publisher
  21. Moritz A, Scheschonka A, Beckhaus T, Karas M, Betz H. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 interacts with microtubule-associated protein 1B. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;390:82-6 pubmed publisher
    The metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that mediates inhibition of neurotransmitter release...
  22. Yasumatsu K, Ogiwara Y, Takai S, Yoshida R, Iwatsuki K, Torii K, et al. Umami taste in mice uses multiple receptors and transduction pathways. J Physiol. 2012;590:1155-70 pubmed publisher
    ..of taste receptor type 1, members 1 and 3 (T1R1+T1R3), and metabotropic glutamate receptors 1 and 4 (mGluR1 and mGluR4). Multiple lines of evidence support the involvement of T1R1+T1R3 in umami responses of mice...
  23. Wozniak M, Acher F, Marciniak M, Lasoń Tyburkiewicz M, Gruca P, Papp M, et al. Involvement of GABAB Receptor Signaling in Antipsychotic-like Action of the Novel Orthosteric Agonist of the mGlu4 Receptor, LSP4-2022. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2016;14:413-26 pubmed
  24. Zheng B, Zhou L, Zhao Q, Zhang X, Zhu D. [Expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 in cardiomyocytes differentiated from mouse embryonic stem cells in vitro]. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2012;41:366-72 pubmed
    To investigate the expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) in cardiomyocytes differentiated from mouse embryonic stem cells (ES cells). ES cells were differentiated into cardiomyocytes with hanging-drop cultures...
  25. Snead O, Banerjee P, Burnham M, Hampson D. Modulation of absence seizures by the GABA(A) receptor: a critical rolefor metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4). J Neurosci. 2000;20:6218-24 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we examined the susceptibility of mice lacking the mGluR4 subtype of mGluR (mGluR4(-/-)) versus their wild-type controls (mGluR4(+/+)) to absence seizures induced either by ..
  26. Iskhakova L, Smith Y. mGluR4-containing corticostriatal terminals: synaptic interactions with direct and indirect pathway neurons in mice. Brain Struct Funct. 2016;221:4589-4599 pubmed
    ..The metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) presynaptically modulates transmission at corticostriatal synapses, and is considered as a ..