Gene Symbol: Grk3
Description: G protein-coupled receptor kinase 3
Alias: 4833444A01Rik, AI851927, AW551196, Adrbk-2, Adrbk2, Bark-2, beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2, adrenergic receptor kinase, beta 2, beta ARK2, beta-ARK-2
Species: mouse
Products:     Grk3

Top Publications

  1. Tarrant T, Billard M, Timoshchenko R, McGinnis M, Serafin D, Foreman O, et al. G protein-coupled receptor kinase-3-deficient mice exhibit WHIM syndrome features and attenuated inflammatory responses. J Leukoc Biol. 2013;94:1243-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, GRK3 was identified as a negative regulator of CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling that is defective in human WHIM syndrome...
  2. Xu M, Bruchas M, Ippolito D, Gendron L, Chavkin C. Sciatic nerve ligation-induced proliferation of spinal cord astrocytes is mediated by kappa opioid activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. J Neurosci. 2007;27:2570-81 pubmed
  3. Jaber M, Koch W, Rockman H, Smith B, Bond R, Sulik K, et al. Essential role of beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 in cardiac development and function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:12974-9 pubmed
  4. Schneider H, Patil S, Canisius S, Gladmon E, Schwartz A, O Donnell C, et al. Hypercapnic duty cycle is an intermediate physiological phenotype linked to mouse chromosome 5. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2003;95:11-9 pubmed
    ..One gene in the interval, Dagk4 at 57 cM, is polymorphic for C3 and B6 mice. Two other genes, Adrbk2 at 60 cM and Nos1 at 65 cM, have biological plausibility in mechanisms of upper airway patency and ..
  5. Benovic J, Onorato J, Arriza J, Stone W, Lohse M, Jenkins N, et al. Cloning, expression, and chromosomal localization of beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2. A new member of the receptor kinase family. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:14939-46 pubmed
    ..a bovine brain cDNA library we have isolated a clone encoding a beta ARK-related enzyme which we have termed beta ARK2. Overall, this enzyme has 85% amino acid identity with beta ARK, with the protein kinase catalytic domain having ..
  6. Walker J, Peppel K, Lefkowitz R, Caron M, Fisher J. Altered airway and cardiac responses in mice lacking G protein-coupled receptor kinase 3. Am J Physiol. 1999;276:R1214-21 pubmed
    ..cholinergic agonist methacholine (MCh) in genetically altered mice lacking one copy of GRK2 (GRK2 +/-), homozygous GRK3 knockout (GRK3 -/-), and wild-type littermates. (GRK2 -/- mice die in utero...
  7. Ferraro T, Smith G, Schwebel C, Lohoff F, Furlong P, Berrettini W, et al. Quantitative trait locus for seizure susceptibility on mouse chromosome 5 confirmed with reciprocal congenic strains. Physiol Genomics. 2007;31:458-62 pubmed
  8. Xu M, Petraschka M, McLaughlin J, Westenbroek R, Caron M, Lefkowitz R, et al. Neuropathic pain activates the endogenous kappa opioid system in mouse spinal cord and induces opioid receptor tolerance. J Neurosci. 2004;24:4576-84 pubmed
    ..In addition, knock-out mice lacking prodynorphin, KOR, or G-protein receptor kinase 3 (GRK3) did not show significant increases in KOR-P IR after pSNL...
  9. Guerra C, Koza R, Walsh K, Kurtz D, Wood P, Kozak L. Abnormal nonshivering thermogenesis in mice with inherited defects of fatty acid oxidation. J Clin Invest. 1998;102:1724-31 pubmed
    ..From a clinical perspective, it is important to determine whether defects in thermogenesis may be a phenotype in human neonates with inherited deficiencies in fatty acid beta-oxidation. ..

More Information


  1. Oritani K, Kanakura Y, Aoyama K, Yokota T, Copeland N, Gilbert D, et al. Matrix glycoprotein SC1/ECM2 augments B lymphopoiesis. Blood. 1997;90:3404-13 pubmed
    ..Although the C-terminal portion of SC1/ECM2 has sequence homology to osteonectin/SPARC, the unique N-terminal one fifth of the protein was sufficient to augment lymphocyte growth. ..
  2. Peppel K, Boekhoff I, McDonald P, Breer H, Caron M, Lefkowitz R. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 3 (GRK3) gene disruption leads to loss of odorant receptor desensitization. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:25425-8 pubmed
    ..JR., Lefkowitz, R. J. Caron, M. G., and Giros, B. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 93, 12974-12979), GRK3 deletion allows for normal embryonic and postnatal development...
  3. George A, Bannon L, Sabsay B, Dillon J, Malone J, Veis A, et al. The carboxyl-terminal domain of phosphophoryn contains unique extended triplet amino acid repeat sequences forming ordered carboxyl-phosphate interaction ridges that may be essential in the biomineralization process. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:32869-73 pubmed
    ..These two domains and the colocalization of Dmp1 and Dmp2 genes at a position equivalent to the dentinogenesis imperfecta type II location on human 4q21 all suggest that the PPs are indeed involved in some aspect of ECM mineralization. ..
  4. Baskaran K, Erfurth F, Taborn G, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, et al. Cloning and developmental expression of the murine homolog of the acute leukemia proto-oncogene AF4. Oncogene. 1997;15:1967-78 pubmed
    ..Among the cell types where this pattern of down-regulation is noted are B-lymphocytes. These findings raise the possibility that the disruption of normal AF4 function by the translocation may contribute to leukemogenesis. ..
  5. Cho M, Rao M, Koch W, Thomas S, Palmiter R, Rockman H. Enhanced contractility and decreased beta-adrenergic receptor kinase-1 in mice lacking endogenous norepinephrine and epinephrine. Circulation. 1999;99:2702-7 pubmed
    ..This animal model will be valuable in testing whether NE is required for the pathogenesis of heart failure through mating strategies that cross the dbh-/- mouse into genetically engineered models of heart failure. ..
  6. Haga T, Haga K, Kameyama K. G protein--coupled receptor kinases. J Neurochem. 1994;63:400-12 pubmed
  7. Bruchas M, Land B, Aita M, Xu M, Barot S, Li S, et al. Stress-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation mediates kappa-opioid-dependent dysphoria. J Neurosci. 2007;27:11614-23 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that activation of p38 MAPK signaling by the endogenous dynorphin-kappa-opioid system likely constitutes a key component of the molecular mechanisms mediating the aversive properties of stress. ..
  8. Vinge L, von Lueder T, Aasum E, Qvigstad E, Gravning J, How O, et al. Cardiac-restricted expression of the carboxyl-terminal fragment of GRK3 Uncovers Distinct Functions of GRK3 in regulation of cardiac contractility and growth: GRK3 controls cardiac alpha1-adrenergic receptor responsiveness. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:10601-10 pubmed publisher
    G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 and -3 (GRK2 and GRK3) in cardiac myocytes catalyze phosphorylation and desensitization of different G protein-coupled receptors through specificity controlled by their carboxyl-terminal pleckstrin ..
  9. Hughes R, Anderson K, Kiel D, Insel P. Cloning of GRK2 cDNA from S49 murine lymphoma cells. Am J Physiol. 1996;270:C885-91 pubmed
    ..We have cloned GRK2 from S49 mouse lymphoma cells. The nucleotide sequences of rat GRK2 and GRK3 were aligned and conserved primers chosen for use in reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of ..
  10. Melief E, Miyatake M, Bruchas M, Chavkin C. Ligand-directed c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation disrupts opioid receptor signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11608-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that ligand-directed activation of JNK kinases may generally provides an alternate mode of G protein-coupled receptor regulation. ..
  11. Koch W, Rockman H, Samama P, Hamilton R, Bond R, Milano C, et al. Cardiac function in mice overexpressing the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase or a beta ARK inhibitor. Science. 1995;268:1350-3 pubmed
    ..Because increased amounts of beta ARK1 and diminished cardiac beta-adrenergic responsiveness characterize heart failure, these animals may provide experimental models to study the role of beta ARK in heart disease. ..