Gene Symbol: Grk1
Description: G protein-coupled receptor kinase 1
Alias: Gprk1, Rhok, rhodopsin kinase, G-protein receptor kinase 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Grk1

Top Publications

  1. Lyubarsky A, Chen C, Simon M, Pugh E. Mice lacking G-protein receptor kinase 1 have profoundly slowed recovery of cone-driven retinal responses. J Neurosci. 2000;20:2209-17 pubmed
    G-Protein receptor kinase 1 (GRK1) ("rhodopsin kinase") is necessary for the inactivation of photoactivated rhodopsin, the light receptor of the G-protein transduction cascade of rod photoreceptors...
  2. Chen C, Burns M, Spencer M, Niemi G, Chen J, Hurley J, et al. Abnormal photoresponses and light-induced apoptosis in rods lacking rhodopsin kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:3718-22 pubmed
    ..In vitro, the phosphorylation can be catalyzed either by rhodopsin kinase (RK) or by protein kinase C (PKC)...
  3. Zhu X, Brown B, Li A, Mears A, Swaroop A, Craft C. GRK1-dependent phosphorylation of S and M opsins and their binding to cone arrestin during cone phototransduction in the mouse retina. J Neurosci. 2003;23:6152-60 pubmed
    The shutoff mechanisms of the rod visual transduction cascade involve G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase 1 (GRK1) phosphorylation of light-activated rhodopsin (R*) followed by rod arrestin binding...
  4. Zhang H, Frederick J, Baehr W. Unc119 gene deletion partially rescues the GRK1 transport defect of Pde6d (- /-) cones. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014;801:487-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Pde6d gene, is an isoprenyl-binding protein that regulates trafficking of isoprenylated proteins, such as PDE6 and GRK1, from photoreceptor inner segments to outer segments...
  5. Hagstrom S, Watson R, Pauer G, Grossman G. Tulp1 is involved in specific photoreceptor protein transport pathways. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012;723:783-9 pubmed publisher
  6. Charette J, Earp S, Bell B, Ackert Bicknell C, Godfrey D, Rao S, et al. A mutagenesis-derived Lrp5 mouse mutant with abnormal retinal vasculature and low bone mineral density. Mol Vis. 2017;23:140-148 pubmed
    ..This model may be a useful resource to further our understanding of the biological role of LRP5 and to evaluate experimental therapies for FEVR or other conditions associated with LRP5 dysfunction. ..
  7. Pak J, Lee E, CRAFT C. The retinal phenotype of Grk1-/- is compromised by a Crb1 rd8 mutation. Mol Vis. 2015;21:1281-94 pubmed
    ..It was hypothesized that the G-protein receptor kinase 1 knockouts (Grk1(-/-) ), which were based on the B6N strain, would exhibit abnormal morphological phenotypes in their offspring not ..
  8. Zhang H, Li S, Doan T, Rieke F, Detwiler P, Frederick J, et al. Deletion of PrBP/delta impedes transport of GRK1 and PDE6 catalytic subunits to photoreceptor outer segments. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:8857-62 pubmed
    ..Immunocytochemistry showed that farnesylated rhodopsin kinase (GRK1) and prenylated rod PDE6 catalytic subunits partially mislocalized in Pde6d(-/-) rods, whereas ..
  9. Charette J, SAMUELS I, Yu M, Stone L, Hicks W, Shi L, et al. A Chemical Mutagenesis Screen Identifies Mouse Models with ERG Defects. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;854:177-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In this chapter, we report the identification of mouse models for Grm1, Grk1 and Lrit3. Each of these is characterized by a primary defect in the electroretinogram...

More Information


  1. Azevedo A, Doan T, Moaven H, Sokal I, Baameur F, Vishnivetskiy S, et al. C-terminal threonines and serines play distinct roles in the desensitization of rhodopsin, a G protein-coupled receptor. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..Similar coordination of phosphorylation and arrestin binding may more generally permit tight control of the duration of GPCR activity. ..
  2. Cho M, Kim W, Ki S, Hwang J, Choi S, Lee C, et al. Role of Galpha12 and Galpha13 as novel switches for the activity of Nrf2, a key antioxidative transcription factor. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:6195-208 pubmed
    ..In summary, Galpha12 and Galpha13 transmit a JNK-dependent signal for Nrf2 ubiquitination, whereas Galpha13 regulates Rho-PKC delta-mediated Nrf2 phosphorylation, which is negatively balanced by Galpha12. ..
  3. Yamamoto M, Ramirez S, Sato S, Kiyota T, Cerny R, Kaibuchi K, et al. Phosphorylation of claudin-5 and occludin by rho kinase in brain endothelial cells. Am J Pathol. 2008;172:521-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our previous work has shown that Rho kinase (RhoK) activation mediates occludin and claudin-5 phosphorylation resulting in diminished barrier tightness and enhanced ..
  4. Sakurai K, Chen J, Khani S, Kefalov V. Regulation of mammalian cone phototransduction by recoverin and rhodopsin kinase. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:9239-50 pubmed publisher
    ..exerts a well studied negative feedback on phototransduction that includes calcium-dependent inhibition of rhodopsin kinase (GRK1) by recoverin...
  5. Sakurai K, Young J, Kefalov V, Khani S. Variation in rhodopsin kinase expression alters the dim flash response shut off and the light adaptation in rod photoreceptors. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:6793-800 pubmed publisher
    ..More importantly, the ratio of rhodopsin kinase to its modulator recoverin appears critical for the proper adaptation of rods and the acceleration of their ..
  6. Chen C, Woodruff M, Chen F, Chen D, Fain G. Background light produces a recoverin-dependent modulation of activated-rhodopsin lifetime in mouse rods. J Neurosci. 2010;30:1213-20 pubmed publisher
    The Ca(2+)-binding protein recoverin is thought to regulate rhodopsin kinase and to modulate the lifetime of the photoexcited state of rhodopsin (Rh*), the visual pigment of vertebrate rods...
  7. Choi S, Hao W, Chen C, Simon M. Gene expression profiles of light-induced apoptosis in arrestin/rhodopsin kinase-deficient mouse retinas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:13096-101 pubmed
    ..molecular processes that lead to light-induced retinal degeneration, mutant mice deficient in arrestin and rhodopsin kinase were raised in the dark and then subjected to relatively low doses of white light...
  8. Liu R, Ramani B, Soto D, De Arcangelis V, Xiang Y. Agonist dose-dependent phosphorylation by protein kinase A and G protein-coupled receptor kinase regulates beta2 adrenoceptor coupling to G(i) proteins in cardiomyocytes. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:32279-87 pubmed publisher
  9. Doan T, Azevedo A, Hurley J, Rieke F. Arrestin competition influences the kinetics and variability of the single-photon responses of mammalian rod photoreceptors. J Neurosci. 2009;29:11867-79 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined how reduced concentrations of rhodopsin kinase (GRK1) and/or arrestin1 influenced the kinetics and variability of the single-photon responses of mouse rod ..
  10. Kouchi Z, Igarashi T, Shibayama N, Inanobe S, Sakurai K, Yamaguchi H, et al. Phospholipase Cdelta3 regulates RhoA/Rho kinase signaling and neurite outgrowth. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:8459-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that PLC?3 negatively regulates RhoA expression, inhibits RhoA/Rho kinase signaling, and thereby promotes neurite extension. ..
  11. Lobanova E, Herrmann R, Finkelstein S, Reidel B, Skiba N, Deng W, et al. Mechanistic basis for the failure of cone transducin to translocate: why cones are never blinded by light. J Neurosci. 2010;30:6815-24 pubmed publisher
  12. Young J, Gross K, Khani S. Conserved structure and spatiotemporal function of the compact rhodopsin kinase (GRK1) enhancer/promoter. Mol Vis. 2005;11:1041-51 pubmed
    To demonstrate that the crucial elements responsible for the spatial and temporal expression patterns of rhodopsin kinase (Rk) are contained within a narrow conserved segment immediately flanking the Rk transcription start sites...
  13. Frederiksen R, Nymark S, Kolesnikov A, Berry J, Adler L, Koutalos Y, et al. Rhodopsin kinase and arrestin binding control the decay of photoactivated rhodopsin and dark adaptation of mouse rods. J Gen Physiol. 2016;148:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..inactivated by the phosphorylation of C-terminal serine and threonine residues by G-protein receptor kinase (Grk1) and subsequent binding of arrestin 1 (Arr1)...
  14. Fan J, Sakurai K, Chen C, Rohrer B, Wu B, Yau K, et al. Deletion of GRK1 causes retina degeneration through a transducin-independent mechanism. J Neurosci. 2010;30:2496-503 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the role of rhodopsin kinase (GRK1) in phosphorylating this opsin and to test whether eliminating this phosphorylation would accelerate ..
  15. Nikonov S, Daniele L, Zhu X, Craft C, Swaroop A, Pugh E. Photoreceptors of Nrl -/- mice coexpress functional S- and M-cone opsins having distinct inactivation mechanisms. J Gen Physiol. 2005;125:287-304 pubmed
    ..The role of the G-protein receptor kinase Grk1 in cone pigment inactivation was investigated in recordings from Nrl-/-/Grk1-/- photoreceptors...
  16. Zhang H, Huang W, Zhang H, Zhu X, Craft C, Baehr W, et al. Light-dependent redistribution of visual arrestins and transducin subunits in mice with defective phototransduction. Mol Vis. 2003;9:231-7 pubmed
    ..immunocytochemistry in dark- and light-adapted single knockout mice lacking G-protein coupled receptor kinase 1 (Grk1-/-) and double knockout mice lacking GRK1 and transducin alpha subunit (Grk1-/-/Gnat1-/-), or lacking GRK1 and ..
  17. Mendez A, Lem J, Simon M, Chen J. Light-dependent translocation of arrestin in the absence of rhodopsin phosphorylation and transducin signaling. J Neurosci. 2003;23:3124-9 pubmed
    ..These results exclude passive diffusion and point toward active transport as the mechanism for light-dependent arrestin movement in rod photoreceptor cells. ..
  18. Ronquillo C, Hanke Gogokhia C, Revelo M, Frederick J, Jiang L, Baehr W. Ciliopathy-associated IQCB1/NPHP5 protein is required for mouse photoreceptor outer segment formation. FASEB J. 2016;30:3400-3412 pubmed
    ..Ronquillo, C. C., Hanke-Gogokhia, C., Revelo, M. P., Frederick, J. M., Jiang, L., Baehr, W. Ciliopathy-associated IQCB1/NPHP5 protein is required for mouse photoreceptor outer segment formation. ..
  19. Whitcomb T, Sakurai K, Brown B, Young J, Sheflin L, Dlugos C, et al. Effect of g protein-coupled receptor kinase 1 (Grk1) overexpression on rod photoreceptor cell viability. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:1728-37 pubmed publisher
    Photoreceptor rhodopsin kinase (Rk, G protein-dependent receptor kinase 1 [Grk1]) phosphorylates light-activated opsins and channels them into an inactive complex with visual arrestins...
  20. Chen C, Woodruff M, Chen F, Chen Y, Cilluffo M, Tranchina D, et al. Modulation of mouse rod response decay by rhodopsin kinase and recoverin. J Neurosci. 2012;32:15998-6006 pubmed publisher
    ..Rh* is turned off by phosphorylation by rhodopsin kinase [G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 1 (GRK1)] and subsequent binding of arrestin...
  21. Plant S, Arnett H, Ting J. Astroglial-derived lymphotoxin-alpha exacerbates inflammation and demyelination, but not remyelination. Glia. 2005;49:1-14 pubmed
    ..Since Ltalpha is detrimental in inflammation and demyelination, but not necessary for remyelination and repair, inhibiting Ltalpha signaling may represent a promising strategy to treat MS. ..
  22. Zhu X, Brown B, Rife L, Craft C. Slowed photoresponse recovery and age-related degeneration in cones lacking G protein-coupled receptor kinase 1. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006;572:133-9 pubmed
  23. Wong B, Chan J, Cazenave Gassiot A, Poh R, Foo J, Galam D, et al. Mfsd2a Is a Transporter for the Essential ω-3 Fatty Acid Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) in Eye and Is Important for Photoreceptor Cell Development. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:10501-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify LPC transport via Mfsd2a as an important pathway for DHA uptake in eye and for development of photoreceptor membrane discs. ..
  24. Ki S, Choi M, Lee C, Kim S. Galpha12 specifically regulates COX-2 induction by sphingosine 1-phosphate. Role for JNK-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of IkappaBalpha. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:1938-47 pubmed
  25. Yetemian R, Brown B, Craft C. Neovascularization, enhanced inflammatory response, and age-related cone dystrophy in the Nrl-/-Grk1-/- mouse retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:6196-206 pubmed publisher
    ..zipper knockout (Nrl(-/-)) mice and double-knockout mice lacking G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 1 (Nrl(-/-)Grk1(-/-))...
  26. Osawa S, Jo R, Xiong Y, Reidel B, Tserentsoodol N, Arshavsky V, et al. Phosphorylation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 1 (GRK1) is regulated by light but independent of phototransduction in rod photoreceptors. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:20923-9 pubmed publisher
    Phosphorylation of rhodopsin by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 1 (GRK1, or rhodopsin kinase) is critical for the deactivation of the phototransduction cascade in vertebrate photoreceptors...
  27. Hamer R, Nicholas S, Tranchina D, Liebman P, Lamb T. Multiple steps of phosphorylation of activated rhodopsin can account for the reproducibility of vertebrate rod single-photon responses. J Gen Physiol. 2003;122:419-44 pubmed
    ..D., and F. Rieke. 2002. Neuron. 35:733-747.), also argue strongly against either feedback (including Ca2+-feedback) or depletion of any molecular species downstream to R* as the dominant cause of SPR reproducibility. ..
  28. Song X, Vishnivetskiy S, Gross O, Emelianoff K, Mendez A, Chen J, et al. Enhanced arrestin facilitates recovery and protects rods lacking rhodopsin phosphorylation. Curr Biol. 2009;19:700-5 pubmed publisher
    ..unphosphorylated rhodopsin [7-10] can suppress uncontrolled signaling, bypassing receptor phosphorylation by rhodopsin kinase (RK) and replacing this two-step mechanism with a single-step deactivation in rod photoreceptors...