Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Grin2c
Description: glutamate receptor, ionotropic, NMDA2C (epsilon 3)
Alias: GluN2C, NMDAR2C, NR2C, glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2C, GluRepsilon3, N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype 2C, glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit epsilon-3
- Didier M, Xu M, Berman S, Bursztajn S. Differential expression and co-assembly of NMDA zeta 1 and epsilon subunits in the mouse cerebellum during postnatal development. Neuroreport. 1995;6:2255-9 pubmed..The time course of their expression suggest, that these NMDA receptor subtypes may contribute to specific aspects of granule cell differentiation in the cerebellum. ..
- Kadotani H, Namura S, Katsuura G, Terashima T, Kikuchi H. Attenuation of focal cerebral infarct in mice lacking NMDA receptor subunit NR2C. Neuroreport. 1998;9:471-5 pubmed..Here we demonstrate that gene disruption of the NR2C subunit of the NMDA receptor attenuates focal cerebral ischemic injury after permanent MCA occlusion, and that a ..
- Ji Z, Ebralidze A, Tonegawa S, Vogel M. Spinocerebellar mossy fiber terminal topography in the NR2C/PKC gamma double mutant cerebellum. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1996;97:138-42 pubmedThe spatiotemporal expression patterns of the NR2C subunit of the NMDA receptor and PKC gamma isoform during cerebellar development suggests that both proteins are involved in the molecular mechanisms of synaptogenesis...
- Miyazaki T, Yamasaki M, Hashimoto K, Yamazaki M, Abe M, Usui H, et al. Cav2.1 in cerebellar Purkinje cells regulates competitive excitatory synaptic wiring, cell survival, and cerebellar biochemical compartmentalization. J Neurosci. 2012;32:1311-28 pubmed publisher..1 KO mice. Therefore, Cav2.1 in PCs is essential for competitive synaptic wiring, cell survival, and the establishment of precise boundaries and reciprocity of biochemical compartments in PCs. ..
- McBain C, Mayer M. N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor structure and function. Physiol Rev. 1994;74:723-60 pubmed
- Hu X, Follesa P, Ticku M. Chronic ethanol treatment produces a selective upregulation of the NMDA receptor subunit gene expression in mammalian cultured cortical neurons. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1996;36:211-8 pubmed..The altered NMDA receptor gene expression may be responsible for the observed upregulation of the NMDA receptor binding and function in the cortical neurons following chronic ethanol exposure. ..
- Mori H, Manabe T, Watanabe M, Satoh Y, Suzuki N, Toki S, et al. Role of the carboxy-terminal region of the GluR epsilon2 subunit in synaptic localization of the NMDA receptor channel. Neuron. 1998;21:571-80 pubmed..These results suggest that the carboxy-terminal region of the GluRepsilon2 subunit is important for efficient clustering and synaptic localization of the NMDA receptor channel. ..
- Watanabe M, Mishina M, Inoue Y. Distinct distributions of five NMDA receptor channel subunit mRNAs in the brainstem. J Comp Neurol. 1994;343:520-31 pubmed..These findings suggest that anatomical organization of the epsilon subunits is heterogeneous in various regions of the brainstem, which would give rise to functional diversity of the NMDA receptor channel in these regions. ..
- Takeuchi T, Kiyama Y, Nakamura K, Tsujita M, Matsuda I, Mori H, et al. Roles of the glutamate receptor epsilon2 and delta2 subunits in the potentiation and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex. Eur J Neurosci. 2001;14:153-60 pubmed
- Watanabe M, Mishina M, Inoue Y. Distinct spatiotemporal expressions of five NMDA receptor channel subunit mRNAs in the cerebellum. J Comp Neurol. 1994;343:513-9 pubmed..These findings suggest that anatomical organization of the epsilon subunits is heterogeneous in the cerebellum both spatially and temporally, which would give rise to functional diversity of the NMDA receptor channel. ..
- Hillman B, Gupta S, Stairs D, Buonanno A, Dravid S. Behavioral analysis of NR2C knockout mouse reveals deficit in acquisition of conditioned fear and working memory. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2011;95:404-14 pubmed publisher..The precise role of NR2C-containing receptors in vivo is poorly understood...
- O Hara B, Andretic R, Heller H, Carter D, Kilduff T. GABAA, GABAC, and NMDA receptor subunit expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and other brain regions. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1995;28:239-50 pubmed..the NMDA receptor subunits, NR1 was most highly expressed in the SCN followed in order of abundance by NR2B, NR2A, NR2C and NR2D...
- Lozovaya N, Gataullina S, Tsintsadze T, Tsintsadze V, Pallesi Pocachard E, Minlebaev M, et al. Selective suppression of excessive GluN2C expression rescues early epilepsy in a tuberous sclerosis murine model. Nat Commun. 2014;5:4563 pubmed publisher..Here we report that tuberless heterozygote Tsc1(+/-) mice show functional upregulation of cortical GluN2C-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in an mTOR-dependent manner and exhibit recurrent, unprovoked ..
- Watanabe M, Mishina M, Inoue Y. Differential distributions of the NMDA receptor channel subunit mRNAs in the mouse retina. Brain Res. 1994;634:328-32 pubmed..These findings suggest that molecular organization of the NMDA receptor channel may alter during the retinal development. ..
- Abe H, Okazawa M, Nakanishi S. Gene regulation via excitation and BDNF is mediated by induction and phosphorylation of the Etv1 transcription factor in cerebellar granule cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:8734-9 pubmed publisher..addressed how the activity-dependent and BDNF signaling mechanisms converge on the regulation of the representative NR2C NMDA receptor and Tiam1 maturation genes...
- Du X, Elberger A, Matthews D, Hamre K. Heterozygous deletion of NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor alters ethanol-related behaviors and regional expression of NR2 subunits in the brain. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2012;34:177-86 pubmed publisher..This provides evidence of the effects of altered levels of NR1 expression on ethanol withdrawal and consumption, and suggests that concomitant changes in the levels of NR2B may contribute to that effect. ..
- Ito I, Futai K, Katagiri H, Watanabe M, Sakimura K, Mishina M, et al. Synapse-selective impairment of NMDA receptor functions in mice lacking NMDA receptor epsilon 1 or epsilon 2 subunit. J Physiol. 1997;500 ( Pt 2):401-8 pubmed..5. These results suggest that NMDA receptors with different subunit compositions function within a single CA3 pyramidal cell in a synapse-selective manner. ..
- De Souza Silva M, Dolga A, Pieri I, Marchetti L, Eisel U, Huston J, et al. Cholinergic cells in the nucleus basalis of mice express the N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor subunit NR2C and its replacement by the NR2B subunit enhances frontal and amygdaloid acetylcholine levels. Genes Brain Behav. 2006;5:552-60 pubmed..Here, by means of choline acetyl transferase and NR2B or NR2C double staining, we demonstrate that mice express both the NR2C and NR2B subunits in nucleus basalis cholinergic ..
- Chazot P, Coleman S, Cik M, Stephenson F. Molecular characterization of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors expressed in mammalian cells yields evidence for the coexistence of three subunit types within a discrete receptor molecule. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:24403-9 pubmed..These results show that the three NMDA receptor subunit types can co-assemble following their co-expression in mammalian cells with a pharmacological profile that is similar to that found for adult cerebellar NMDA receptors. ..
- Schipke C, Ohlemeyer C, Matyash M, Nolte C, Kettenmann H, Kirchhoff F. Astrocytes of the mouse neocortex express functional N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. FASEB J. 2001;15:1270-2 pubmed
- Zhang Y, Buonanno A, Vertes R, Hoover W, Lisman J. NR2C in the thalamic reticular nucleus; effects of the NR2C knockout. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41908 pubmed publisher..The mechanism of this oscillation was determined; antagonist blocks an NR2C-like conductance that has low Mg block at resting potential and thus can contribute a resting inward current in ..
- Munemoto Y, Kuriyama H, Doi T, Sato K, Matsumoto A, Sugatani J, et al. Auditory pathway and auditory brainstem response in mice lacking NMDA receptor epsilon 1 and epsilon 4 subunits. Neurosci Lett. 1998;251:101-4 pubmed..These results suggest a role for the NMDAR epsilon 4 in normal auditory functions while the NMDAR epsilon 1 may have a less critical function under normal conditions. ..
- Kitayama K, Abe M, Kakizaki T, Honma D, Natsume R, Fukaya M, et al. Purkinje cell-specific and inducible gene recombination system generated from C57BL/6 mouse ES cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;281:1134-40 pubmed..Thus this mutant line will be a useful tool for studying the molecular function of mature Purkinje cells by manipulating gene expression in a temporally restricted manner. ..
- Kutsuwada T, Kashiwabuchi N, Mori H, Sakimura K, Kushiya E, Araki K, et al. Molecular diversity of the NMDA receptor channel. Nature. 1992;358:36-41 pubmed..These findings suggest that the molecular diversity of the epsilon subunit family underlies the functional heterogeneity of the NMDA receptor channel. ..
- Watanabe M, Mishina M, Inoue Y. Distinct spatiotemporal distributions of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel subunit mRNAs in the mouse cervical cord. J Comp Neurol. 1994;345:314-9 pubmed..Moreover, this spatial heterogeneity might be generated through drastic alterations in the subunit composition of the channel complex during spinal cord development. ..
- Bordji K, Becerril Ortega J, Nicole O, Buisson A. Activation of extrasynaptic, but not synaptic, NMDA receptors modifies amyloid precursor protein expression pattern and increases amyloid-ß production. J Neurosci. 2010;30:15927-42 pubmed publisher..Altogether, these data suggest that a chronic activation of extrasynaptic NMDAR promotes amyloidogenic KPI-APP expression leading to neuronal A? release, representing a causal risk factor for developing AD...
- Tárnok K, Czöndör K, Jelitai M, Czirok A, Schlett K. NMDA receptor NR2B subunit over-expression increases cerebellar granule cell migratory activity. J Neurochem. 2008;104:818-29 pubmed..are abundant during migration towards the internal granule cell layer but are gradually replaced by NR2A and/or NR2C subunits once the final position is reached...
- Oshima S, Fukaya M, Masabumi N, Shirakawa T, Oguchi H, Watanabe M. Early onset of NMDA receptor GluR epsilon 1 (NR2A) expression and its abundant postsynaptic localization in developing motoneurons of the mouse hypoglossal nucleus. Neurosci Res. 2002;43:239-50 pubmed
- Rossi P, Sola E, Taglietti V, Borchardt T, Steigerwald F, Utvik J, et al. NMDA receptor 2 (NR2) C-terminal control of NR open probability regulates synaptic transmission and plasticity at a cerebellar synapse. J Neurosci. 2002;22:9687-97 pubmed..In this paper we show that C-terminal truncation of NR2A and NR2C subunits in mice (NR2A/C(DeltaC/DeltaC)) impairs synaptic transmission and plasticity at the cerebellar mossy fiber-..
- Abe M, Fukaya M, Yagi T, Mishina M, Watanabe M, Sakimura K. NMDA receptor GluRepsilon/NR2 subunits are essential for postsynaptic localization and protein stability of GluRzeta1/NR1 subunit. J Neurosci. 2004;24:7292-304 pubmed..the GluRzeta1 subunit in cerebellar granule cells lacking two major GluRepsilon subunits, GluRepsilon1/NR2A and GluRepsilon3/NR2C...
- Brilliant M, Gondo Y, Eicher E. The mouse pink-eyed unstable mutation: a DNA duplication revealed by genome scanning. Pigment Cell Res. 1992;Suppl 2:271-4 pubmed
- Nagasawa M, Sakimura K, Mori K, Bedell M, Copeland N, Jenkins N, et al. Gene structure and chromosomal localization of the mouse NMDA receptor channel subunits. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1996;36:1-11 pubmed..locations of the five NMDA receptor channel subunits, the epsilon 1 (Grin2a), epsilon 2 (Grin2b), epsilon 3 (Grin2c), epsilon 4 (Grin2d) and zeta 1 (Grinl) subunits, were determined using an interspecific backcross mapping panel ..
- Watanabe M, Moise I, Inoue Y. Modified N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit expression emerges in reeler Purkinje cells after accomplishment of the adult wild-type expression. Neurosci Res. 1996;26:335-43 pubmed..The present results further indicate that the onset of the modified expression is subsequent to the establishment of synaptic connectivities in the cerebellum. ..
- Suchanek B, Seeburg P, Sprengel R. Gene structure of the murine N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit NR2C. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:41-4 pubmedThe murine N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit NR2C (epsilon-3) is encoded by a unique gene composed of 12 translated and three 5'-untranslated exons that spread over approximately 20 kilobases of genomic sequence...
- Otsuka S, Konno K, Abe M, Motohashi J, Kohda K, Sakimura K, et al. Roles of Cbln1 in Non-Motor Functions of Mice. J Neurosci. 2016;36:11801-11816 pubmed
- Son G, Geum D, Chung S, Kim E, Jo J, Kim C, et al. Maternal stress produces learning deficits associated with impairment of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic plasticity. J Neurosci. 2006;26:3309-18 pubmed..These results suggest that prolonged maternal stress leads to long-lasting malfunction of the hippocampus, which extends to and is manifested in adulthood. ..
- Moriya T, Takahashi S, Ikeda M, Suzuki Yamashita K, Asai M, Kadotani H, et al. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subtype 2C is not involved in circadian oscillation or photoic entrainment of the biological clock in mice. J Neurosci Res. 2000;61:663-73 pubmed..we investigated the role of NMDA receptor subtypes in the biological clock using NMDA receptor 2A (NR2A)- or 2C (NR2C)-deficient mice...
- Brancaccio M, Patton A, Chesham J, Maywood E, Hastings M. Astrocytes Control Circadian Timekeeping in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus via Glutamatergic Signaling. Neuron. 2017;93:1420-1435.e5 pubmed publisher..is sensed by neurons of the dorsal SCN via specific pre-synaptic NMDA receptor assemblies containing NR2C subunits...
- Schlett K, Pieri I, Metzger F, Marchetti L, Steigerwald F, Dere E, et al. Long-term NR2B expression in the cerebellum alters granule cell development and leads to NR2A down-regulation and motor deficits. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2004;27:215-26 pubmed..To analyze the importance of NR2B replacement by NR2C and NR2A subunits until the end of the first month of age, we generated mice with lasting NR2B expression but ..
- Tezuka T, Umemori H, Akiyama T, Nakanishi S, Yamamoto T. PSD-95 promotes Fyn-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR2A. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:435-40 pubmed..These results suggest that PSD-95 is critical for regulation of NMDA receptor activity by Fyn and other Src-family PTKs, serving as a molecular scaffold for anchoring these PTKs to NR2A. ..
- Mouri T, Kittaka N, Horio Y, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, et al. Assignment of mouse inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kcnj16 to the distal region of mouse chromosome 11. Genomics. 1998;54:181-2 pubmed
- Kishimoto Y, Kawahara S, Kirino Y, Kadotani H, Nakamura Y, Ikeda M, et al. Conditioned eyeblink response is impaired in mutant mice lacking NMDA receptor subunit NR2A. Neuroreport. 1997;8:3717-21 pubmed..To elucidate the roles of subunits NR2A and NR2C in motor learning, we investigated acquisition of the classically conditioned eyeblink response in a delayed-..
- Sun M, Holter S, Stepan J, Garrett L, Genius J, Kremmer E, et al. Crybb2 coding for ?B2-crystallin affects sensorimotor gating and hippocampal function. Mamm Genome. 2013;24:333-48 pubmed publisher..Moreover, our results are the first to demonstrate that ?B2-crystallin has a role in hippocampal function and behavioral phenotypes. This model can now be further explored by future experiments. ..
- Ebralidze A, Rossi D, Tonegawa S, Slater N. Modification of NMDA receptor channels and synaptic transmission by targeted disruption of the NR2C gene. J Neurosci. 1996;16:5014-25 pubmedA novel strain of mutant mouse has been generated with a deletion of the gene encoding the NR2C subunit of the NMDA receptor, which is primarily expressed in cerebellar granule cells...
- Watanabe M, Inoue Y, Sakimura K, Mishina M. Developmental changes in distribution of NMDA receptor channel subunit mRNAs. Neuroreport. 1992;3:1138-40 pubmed..In contrast, the zeta 1 subunit mRNA distributes ubiquitously in the brain throughout development. These findings suggest that changes in the subunit composition of the NMDA receptor channel take place during brain development. ..
- Takano H, Onodera O, Tanaka H, Mori H, Sakimura K, Hori T, et al. Chromosomal localization of the epsilon 1, epsilon 3 and zeta 1 subunit genes of the human NMDA receptor channel. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993;197:922-6 pubmed..By the fluorescence in situ hybridization, we mapped the genes for the epsilon 1, epsilon 3 and zeta 1 subunits of the human NMDA receptor channel to chromosomes 16p13, 17q25 and 9q34, respectively. ..
- Offenhauser N, Castelletti D, Mapelli L, Soppo B, Regondi M, Rossi P, et al. Increased ethanol resistance and consumption in Eps8 knockout mice correlates with altered actin dynamics. Cell. 2006;127:213-26 pubmed..In addition, Eps8 null neurons are resistant to the actin-remodeling activities of NMDA and ethanol. We propose that proper regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is a key determinant of cellular and behavioral responses to ethanol. ..
- Holmes A, Zhou N, Donahue D, Balsara R, Castellino F. A deficiency of the GluN2C subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor is neuroprotective in a mouse model of ischemic stroke. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;495:136-144 pubmed publisher..While the roles of the GluN2A and GluN2B subunit in ischemic stroke have been well developed, the role of the GluN2C subunit in ischemia is not well understood...
- Follesa P, Ticku M. NMDA receptor upregulation: molecular studies in cultured mouse cortical neurons after chronic antagonist exposure. J Neurosci. 1996;16:2172-8 pubmed..Furthermore, antagonist treatment produced a differential regulation of the R1, R2A, and R2B subunits in cortical neurons. ..
- Cai L, Loo L, Atlashkin V, Hanson B, Hong W. Deficiency of sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) leads to growth retardation and elevated levels of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2C (NR2C). Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:1734-47 pubmed publisher..N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor 2C (NR2C) was identified as a novel SNX27-interacting protein, and this interaction is mediated by the PDZ domain of SNX27 ..
- De Souza Silva M, Marchetti L, Eisel U, Huston J, Dere E. NR2C by NR2B subunit exchange in juvenile mice affects emotionality and 5-HT in the frontal cortex. Genes Brain Behav. 2007;6:465-72 pubmed..The NMDA-R is a multiprotein complex composed of NR1, NR2 and/or NR3 subunits. We generated NR2C-2B mutant mice in which an insertion of NR2B cDNA into the gene locus of the NR2C gene replaced NR2C by NR2B ..
- Metzger F, Pieri I, Eisel U. Lack of NMDA receptor subunit exchange alters Purkinje cell dendritic morphology in cerebellar slice cultures. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2005;155:165-8 pubmed..We therefore investigated Purkinje cell morphology in slice cultures from mice with genetic subunit exchange from NR2C to NR2B (NR2C-2B)...
- Alkema M, Jacobs J, Voncken J, Jenkins N, Copeland N, Satijn D, et al. MPc2, a new murine homolog of the Drosophila polycomb protein is a member of the mouse polycomb transcriptional repressor complex. J Mol Biol. 1997;273:993-1003 pubmed..Ts and Rbt hemizygous mice display anemia and transformations of the axial skeleton reminiscent of phenotypes observed in mice with mutated polycomb or trithorax-group genes, suggesting that MPc2 is a candidate gene for Ts and Rbt. ..
- Iijima K, Abe H, Okazawa M, Moriyoshi K, Nakanishi S. Dual regulation of NR2B and NR2C expression by NMDA receptor activation in mouse cerebellar granule cell cultures. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:12010-5 pubmed publisher..switching of the subunit composition of NMDA receptors occurs in granule cells from NR2B-containing receptors to NR2C-containing ones...
- Kadotani H, Hirano T, Masugi M, Nakamura K, Nakao K, Katsuki M, et al. Motor discoordination results from combined gene disruption of the NMDA receptor NR2A and NR2C subunits, but not from single disruption of the NR2A or NR2C subunit. J Neurosci. 1996;16:7859-67 pubmed..To study functions of the NMDA receptors in the cerebellum, we generated knockout mice deficient in either NR2A or NR2C or both of these subunits...