Grik2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Grik2
Description: glutamate receptor, ionotropic, kainate 2 (beta 2)
Alias: AW124492, C130030K03Rik, GluK2, Glur-6, Glur6, Glurbeta2, glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2, gluR beta-2, glutamate receptor 6, glutamate receptor beta-2, proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type 6 pseudogene
Species: mouse
Products:     Grik2

Top Publications

  1. Mulle C, Sailer A, Perez Otano I, Dickinson Anson H, Castillo P, Bureau I, et al. Altered synaptic physiology and reduced susceptibility to kainate-induced seizures in GluR6-deficient mice. Nature. 1998;392:601-5 pubmed
    ..We have now generated mutant mice lacking the kainate-receptor subunit GluR6. The hippocampal neurons in the CA3 region of these mutant mice are much less sensitive to kainate...
  2. Strutz Seebohm N, Seebohm G, Shumilina E, Mack A, Wagner H, Lampert A, et al. Glucocorticoid adrenal steroids and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase isoforms in the regulation of GluR6 expression. J Physiol. 2005;565:391-401 pubmed
    ..of mice with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (238 microg day-1 for 8-20 days) enhances hippocampal expression of GluR6. Immunohistochemistry reveals significantly enhanced GluR6 protein abundance at neurones but not at astrocytes in ..
  3. Crepel F. Developmental changes in retrograde messengers involved in depolarization-induced suppression of excitation at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses in rodents. J Neurophysiol. 2007;97:824-36 pubmed
    ..In nearly mature wild-type and GluR6 -/- mice, results fully confirmed the presence of an endocannabinoid-independent component of DSE that involves ..
  4. Morgans C, Wensel T, Brown R, Perez Leon J, Bearnot B, Duvoisin R. Gbeta5-RGS complexes co-localize with mGluR6 in retinal ON-bipolar cells. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:2899-905 pubmed
  5. Shaltiel G, Maeng S, Malkesman O, Pearson B, Schloesser R, Tragon T, et al. Evidence for the involvement of the kainate receptor subunit GluR6 (GRIK2) in mediating behavioral displays related to behavioral symptoms of mania. Mol Psychiatry. 2008;13:858-72 pubmed publisher
    The glutamate receptor 6 (GluR6 or GRIK2, one of the kainate receptors) gene resides in a genetic linkage region (6q21) associated with bipolar disorder (BPD), but its function in affective regulation is unknown...
  6. Coussen F, Normand E, Marchal C, Costet P, Choquet D, Lambert M, et al. Recruitment of the kainate receptor subunit glutamate receptor 6 by cadherin/catenin complexes. J Neurosci. 2002;22:6426-36 pubmed
    ..We have generated transgenic mice expressing the kainate receptor subunit glutamate receptor 6 (GluR6) bearing an extracellular myc epitope (myc-GluR6), in forebrain neurons, in which it assembles with ..
  7. Sachidhanandam S, Blanchet C, Jeantet Y, Cho Y, Mulle C. Kainate receptors act as conditional amplifiers of spike transmission at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses. J Neurosci. 2009;29:5000-8 pubmed publisher
    ..By analyzing mice deficient for GluK2 (GluR6), GluK3 (GluR7) and GluK5 (KA2) genes we show that kainate receptors (KARs) play a crucial role in the ..
  8. Wu L, Zhao M, Toyoda H, Ko S, Zhuo M. Kainate receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in the adult anterior cingulate cortex. J Neurophysiol. 2005;94:1805-13 pubmed
    ..High-frequency repetitive stimulation significantly facilitated the KA EPSCs. Genetic deletion of the GluR6 or GluR5 subunit significantly reduced, and GluR5 and 6 double knockout completely abolished, KA EPSCs and KA-..
  9. Zhang W, St Gelais F, Grabner C, Trinidad J, Sumioka A, Morimoto Tomita M, et al. A transmembrane accessory subunit that modulates kainate-type glutamate receptors. Neuron. 2009;61:385-96 pubmed publisher
    ..of NETO2 and that NETO2 protein levels and surface expression are decreased in mice lacking the kainate receptor GluR6. The results show that NETO2 is a kainate receptor subunit with significant effects on glutamate signaling ..
  10. Jane D, Lodge D, Collingridge G. Kainate receptors: pharmacology, function and therapeutic potential. Neuropharmacology. 2009;56:90-113 pubmed publisher
    ..This potential has now been confirmed in dental pain and migraine in initial studies in man. ..

Detail Information

Publications79

  1. Mulle C, Sailer A, Perez Otano I, Dickinson Anson H, Castillo P, Bureau I, et al. Altered synaptic physiology and reduced susceptibility to kainate-induced seizures in GluR6-deficient mice. Nature. 1998;392:601-5 pubmed
    ..We have now generated mutant mice lacking the kainate-receptor subunit GluR6. The hippocampal neurons in the CA3 region of these mutant mice are much less sensitive to kainate...
  2. Strutz Seebohm N, Seebohm G, Shumilina E, Mack A, Wagner H, Lampert A, et al. Glucocorticoid adrenal steroids and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase isoforms in the regulation of GluR6 expression. J Physiol. 2005;565:391-401 pubmed
    ..of mice with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (238 microg day-1 for 8-20 days) enhances hippocampal expression of GluR6. Immunohistochemistry reveals significantly enhanced GluR6 protein abundance at neurones but not at astrocytes in ..
  3. Crepel F. Developmental changes in retrograde messengers involved in depolarization-induced suppression of excitation at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses in rodents. J Neurophysiol. 2007;97:824-36 pubmed
    ..In nearly mature wild-type and GluR6 -/- mice, results fully confirmed the presence of an endocannabinoid-independent component of DSE that involves ..
  4. Morgans C, Wensel T, Brown R, Perez Leon J, Bearnot B, Duvoisin R. Gbeta5-RGS complexes co-localize with mGluR6 in retinal ON-bipolar cells. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:2899-905 pubmed
  5. Shaltiel G, Maeng S, Malkesman O, Pearson B, Schloesser R, Tragon T, et al. Evidence for the involvement of the kainate receptor subunit GluR6 (GRIK2) in mediating behavioral displays related to behavioral symptoms of mania. Mol Psychiatry. 2008;13:858-72 pubmed publisher
    The glutamate receptor 6 (GluR6 or GRIK2, one of the kainate receptors) gene resides in a genetic linkage region (6q21) associated with bipolar disorder (BPD), but its function in affective regulation is unknown...
  6. Coussen F, Normand E, Marchal C, Costet P, Choquet D, Lambert M, et al. Recruitment of the kainate receptor subunit glutamate receptor 6 by cadherin/catenin complexes. J Neurosci. 2002;22:6426-36 pubmed
    ..We have generated transgenic mice expressing the kainate receptor subunit glutamate receptor 6 (GluR6) bearing an extracellular myc epitope (myc-GluR6), in forebrain neurons, in which it assembles with ..
  7. Sachidhanandam S, Blanchet C, Jeantet Y, Cho Y, Mulle C. Kainate receptors act as conditional amplifiers of spike transmission at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses. J Neurosci. 2009;29:5000-8 pubmed publisher
    ..By analyzing mice deficient for GluK2 (GluR6), GluK3 (GluR7) and GluK5 (KA2) genes we show that kainate receptors (KARs) play a crucial role in the ..
  8. Wu L, Zhao M, Toyoda H, Ko S, Zhuo M. Kainate receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in the adult anterior cingulate cortex. J Neurophysiol. 2005;94:1805-13 pubmed
    ..High-frequency repetitive stimulation significantly facilitated the KA EPSCs. Genetic deletion of the GluR6 or GluR5 subunit significantly reduced, and GluR5 and 6 double knockout completely abolished, KA EPSCs and KA-..
  9. Zhang W, St Gelais F, Grabner C, Trinidad J, Sumioka A, Morimoto Tomita M, et al. A transmembrane accessory subunit that modulates kainate-type glutamate receptors. Neuron. 2009;61:385-96 pubmed publisher
    ..of NETO2 and that NETO2 protein levels and surface expression are decreased in mice lacking the kainate receptor GluR6. The results show that NETO2 is a kainate receptor subunit with significant effects on glutamate signaling ..
  10. Jane D, Lodge D, Collingridge G. Kainate receptors: pharmacology, function and therapeutic potential. Neuropharmacology. 2009;56:90-113 pubmed publisher
    ..This potential has now been confirmed in dental pain and migraine in initial studies in man. ..
  11. Laezza F, Wilding T, Sequeira S, Coussen F, Zhang X, Hill Robinson R, et al. KRIP6: a novel BTB/kelch protein regulating function of kainate receptors. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2007;34:539-50 pubmed
    ..domain at a site distinct from the PDZ-binding motif and it co-immunoprecipitates with recombinant and endogenous GluR6. Co-expression of KRIP6 alters GluR6 mediated currents in a heterologous expression system reducing peak current ..
  12. Klein A, Ferreira N, Ben Dor S, Duan J, Hardy J, Cox T, et al. Identification of Modifier Genes in a Mouse Model of Gaucher Disease. Cell Rep. 2016;16:2546-2553 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data identify putative modifier genes that may be involved in determining GD severity, which might help elucidate phenotypic variability between patients with similar GD mutations. ..
  13. Straub C, Noam Y, Nomura T, Yamasaki M, Yan D, Fernandes H, et al. Distinct Subunit Domains Govern Synaptic Stability and Specificity of the Kainate Receptor. Cell Rep. 2016;16:531-544 pubmed publisher
    ..The cytoplasmic domain of the GluK2 low-affinity subunit stabilizes kainate receptors at synapses...
  14. Pinheiro P, Perrais D, Coussen F, Barhanin J, Bettler B, Mann J, et al. GluR7 is an essential subunit of presynaptic kainate autoreceptors at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:12181-6 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that presynaptic KARs are GluR6/GluR7 heteromers that coassemble and are localized within synapses...
  15. Tomioka N, Yasuda H, Miyamoto H, Hatayama M, Morimura N, Matsumoto Y, et al. Elfn1 recruits presynaptic mGluR7 in trans and its loss results in seizures. Nat Commun. 2014;5:4501 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a novel mechanism for interneuron subtype-specific neural circuit establishment and define a common basis bridging neurological disorders. ..
  16. Zhang C, Hammassaki Britto D, Britto L, Duvoisin R. Expression of glutamate receptor subunit genes during development of the mouse retina. Neuroreport. 1996;8:335-40 pubmed
    ..This suggests they play a role in the processes of neuronal differentiation and synaptogenesis that occur during the early postnatal days in the rodent retina. ..
  17. Jensen P, Surmeier D, Goldowitz D. Rescue of cerebellar granule cells from death in weaver NR1 double mutants. J Neurosci. 1999;19:7991-8 pubmed
    ..This rescue of weaver granule cells provides evidence that wvGIRK2 alone is not sufficient to cause granule cell death. ..
  18. Ko S, Zhao M, Toyoda H, Qiu C, Zhuo M. Altered behavioral responses to noxious stimuli and fear in glutamate receptor 5 (GluR5)- or GluR6-deficient mice. J Neurosci. 2005;25:977-84 pubmed
    ..to capsaicin or inflammatory pain were significantly reduced in mice lacking glutamate receptor 5 (GluR5) but not GluR6 subunits...
  19. Lourenço J, Cannich A, Carta M, Coussen F, Mulle C, Marsicano G. Synaptic activation of kainate receptors gates presynaptic CB(1) signaling at GABAergic synapses. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:197-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, activation of kainate receptors by synaptically released glutamate gates presynaptic CB(1) signaling, which in turn controls the direction of short-term heterosynaptic plasticity. ..
  20. Spiliopoulos K, Fragioudaki K, Giompres P, Kouvelas E, Mitsacos A. Expression of GluR6 kainate receptor subunit in granular layer of weaver mouse cerebellum. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2009;116:417-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Kainate receptors are heteromeric ionotropic receptors of glutamate consisting of five subunits termed GluR5, GluR6, GluR7, KA1 and KA2...
  21. Fisahn A, Contractor A, Traub R, Buhl E, Heinemann S, McBain C. Distinct roles for the kainate receptor subunits GluR5 and GluR6 in kainate-induced hippocampal gamma oscillations. J Neurosci. 2004;24:9658-68 pubmed
    ..Using KAR knock-out mice, we show that subunits glutamate receptor (GluR) 5 and GluR6 play distinct roles in kainate-induced gamma oscillations and epileptiform burst activity...
  22. Fisahn A. Kainate receptors and rhythmic activity in neuronal networks: hippocampal gamma oscillations as a tool. J Physiol. 2005;562:65-72 pubmed
    ..Using this approach in wild-type (WT) and KAR knockout mice it has been shown that KAR subunits GluR5 and GluR6 have similar functions during gamma oscillations and epileptiform bursts and that small changes in the overall ..
  23. Herb A, Higuchi M, Sprengel R, Seeburg P. Q/R site editing in kainate receptor GluR5 and GluR6 pre-mRNAs requires distant intronic sequences. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:1875-80 pubmed
    ..R/G) require base pairing with nearby intronic editing site complementary sequences (ECSs), editing in GluR5 and GluR6 pre-mRNAs recruits an ECS located as far as 1900 nucleotides distal to the Q/R site...
  24. Chergui K, Bouron A, Normand E, Mulle C. Functional GluR6 kainate receptors in the striatum: indirect downregulation of synaptic transmission. J Neurosci. 2000;20:2175-82 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we show that the GluR6 subunit of KARs is expressed in both substance P- and enkephalin-containing GABAergic projection neurons of the ..
  25. Sakimura K, Morita T, Kushiya E, Mishina M. Primary structure and expression of the gamma 2 subunit of the glutamate receptor channel selective for kainate. Neuron. 1992;8:267-74 pubmed
    ..Expression of the gamma 2 subunit together with the beta 2 subunit in Xenopus oocytes yields functional glutamate receptor channels selective for kainate. ..
  26. Templin J, Bang S, Soiza Reilly M, Berde C, Commons K. Patterned expression of ion channel genes in mouse dorsal raphe nucleus determined with the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas. Brain Res. 2012;1457:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The identified genes likely contribute to unique excitable properties of different groups of neurons in the DR and may include novel pharmacologic targets for affective disorders. ..
  27. Contractor A, Swanson G, Heinemann S. Kainate receptors are involved in short- and long-term plasticity at mossy fiber synapses in the hippocampus. Neuron. 2001;29:209-16 pubmed
    ..We find that LTP is reduced in mice lacking the GluR6, but not the GluR5, kainate receptor subunit...
  28. Mulle C, Sailer A, Swanson G, Brana C, O GORMAN S, Bettler B, et al. Subunit composition of kainate receptors in hippocampal interneurons. Neuron. 2000;28:475-84 pubmed
    ..However, KAR function is abolished in mice lacking both GluR5 and GluR6 subunits, indicating that KARs in CA1 stratum radiatum interneurons are heteromeric receptors composed of both ..
  29. Lanore F, Labrousse V, Szabo Z, Normand E, Blanchet C, Mulle C. Deficits in morphofunctional maturation of hippocampal mossy fiber synapses in a mouse model of intellectual disability. J Neurosci. 2012;32:17882-93 pubmed publisher
    The grik2 gene, coding for the kainate receptor subunit GluK2 (formerly GluR6), is associated with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability...
  30. Contractor A, Swanson G, Sailer A, O GORMAN S, Heinemann S. Identification of the kainate receptor subunits underlying modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2000;20:8269-78 pubmed
    ..1999; Kamiya and Ozawa, 2000). In this study, we use gene-targeted mice lacking glutamate receptor 5 (GluR5) or GluR6 kainate receptor subunits to identify the receptor subunits that comprise the kainate receptors responsible for ..
  31. Coussen F. Molecular determinants of kainate receptor trafficking. Neuroscience. 2009;158:25-35 pubmed publisher
  32. Schmitz D, Mellor J, Breustedt J, Nicoll R. Presynaptic kainate receptors impart an associative property to hippocampal mossy fiber long-term potentiation. Nat Neurosci. 2003;6:1058-63 pubmed
    ..Such a mechanism greatly increases the computational power of this form of plasticity. ..
  33. Adelbrecht C, Murer M, Lauritzen I, Lesage F, Ladzunski M, Agid Y, et al. An immunocytochemical study of a G-protein-gated inward rectifier K+ channel (GIRK2) in the weaver mouse mesencephalon. Neuroreport. 1997;8:969-74 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that expression of the mutated channel is not a sufficient condition to induce cell death in the ventral mesencephalon of the wv/wv mice. ..
  34. Kayadjanian N, Lee H, Piña Crespo J, Heinemann S. Localization of glutamate receptors to distal dendrites depends on subunit composition and the kinesin motor protein KIF17. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2007;34:219-30 pubmed
    ..We find that the GluR5 distribution depends on association with GluR6 and KA2 subunits...
  35. Sato S, Omori Y, Katoh K, Kondo M, Kanagawa M, Miyata K, et al. Pikachurin, a dystroglycan ligand, is essential for photoreceptor ribbon synapse formation. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:923-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This may also advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the retinal electrophysiological abnormalities observed in muscular dystrophy patients. ..
  36. Morita T, Sakimura K, Kushiya E, Yamazaki M, Meguro H, Araki K, et al. Cloning and functional expression of a cDNA encoding the mouse beta 2 subunit of the kainate-selective glutamate receptor channel. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1992;14:143-6 pubmed
    The primary structure of the mouse glutamate receptor beta 2 subunit has been deduced by cloning and sequencing cDNA. The beta 2 subunit has structural characteristics common to the subunits of glutamate-gated ion channels...
  37. Woo S, Baba Y, Franco A, Lumpkin E, Owens D. Excitatory glutamate is essential for development and maintenance of the piloneural mechanoreceptor. Development. 2012;139:740-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results show that DRG-derived glutamate is essential for the proper development, maintenance and sensory function of the piloneural mechanoreceptor. ..
  38. Maraschi A, Ciammola A, Folci A, Sassone F, Ronzitti G, Cappelletti G, et al. Parkin regulates kainate receptors by interacting with the GluK2 subunit. Nat Commun. 2014;5:5182 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that parkin interacts with the kainate receptor (KAR) GluK2 subunit and regulates KAR function...
  39. Jaskolski F, Normand E, Mulle C, Coussen F. Differential trafficking of GluR7 kainate receptor subunit splice variants. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:22968-76 pubmed
    ..Alternative splicing is known to regulate surface expression of GluR5 and GluR6 subunits...
  40. Youn D, Randic M. Modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the spinal substantia gelatinosa of mice deficient in the kainate receptor GluR5 and/or GluR6 subunit. J Physiol. 2004;555:683-98 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we have used gene-targeted mice lacking KAR GluR5 and/or GluR6 subunits to determine the identity of the receptor subunits involved in the KA-induced modulation of excitatory ..
  41. Fisahn A, Heinemann S, McBain C. The kainate receptor subunit GluR6 mediates metabotropic regulation of the slow and medium AHP currents in mouse hippocampal neurones. J Physiol. 2005;562:199-203 pubmed
    ..that the kainate-induced decrease of I(sAHP) and I(mAHP) amplitude is protein-kinase-C-dependent and absent in GluR6(-/-) but not GluR5(-/-) pyramidal neurones...
  42. Sun C, Qiao H, Zhou Q, Wang Y, Wu Y, Zhou Y, et al. Modulation of GluK2a subunit-containing kainate receptors by 14-3-3 proteins. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:24676-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results demonstrate that 14-3-3 proteins are an important regulator of GluK2a-containing KARs and may contribute to the slow decay kinetics of native KAR-EPSCs. ..
  43. Breustedt J, Schmitz D. Assessing the role of GLUK5 and GLUK6 at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses. J Neurosci. 2004;24:10093-8 pubmed
    ..We therefore conclude that the facilitatory effects of kainate on mossy fiber synaptic transmission are mediated by GLU(K6)-containing KARs. ..
  44. Matsuda K, Budisantoso T, Mitakidis N, Sugaya Y, Miura E, Kakegawa W, et al. Transsynaptic Modulation of Kainate Receptor Functions by C1q-like Proteins. Neuron. 2016;90:752-67 pubmed publisher
    ..C1ql2 and C1ql3 specifically bound the amino-terminal domains of postsynaptic GluK2 and GluK4 KAR subunits and the presynaptic neurexin 3 containing a specific sequence in vitro...
  45. Vissel B, Royle G, Christie B, Schiffer H, Ghetti A, Tritto T, et al. The role of RNA editing of kainate receptors in synaptic plasticity and seizures. Neuron. 2001;29:217-27 pubmed
    The ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit GluR6 undergoes developmentally and regionally regulated Q/R site RNA editing that reduces the calcium permeability of GluR6-containing kainate receptors...
  46. Bryda E, Ling H, Flaherty L. A high-resolution genetic map around waltzer on mouse chromosome 10 and identification of a new allele of waltzer. Mamm Genome. 1997;8:1-4 pubmed
    ..Additionally, three genes (Ros1, Grik2, and Zfa) were eliminated as possible candidates for vAlb, and several SSLP markers were separated genetically.
  47. Kaczmarek L, Kossut M, Skangiel Kramska J. Glutamate receptors in cortical plasticity: molecular and cellular biology. Physiol Rev. 1997;77:217-55 pubmed
    ..Functional studies involving either activation or blocking, and effects of such manipulation on cortical plasticity are discussed...
  48. Karayianni E, Magnanini C, Orphanos V, Negrini M, Maniatis G, Spathas D, et al. Transcriptional map of chromosome region 6q16-->q21. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1999;86:263-6 pubmed
    ..From this transcription map it is possible to derive a large region of synteny with mouse chromosome 10. ..
  49. Kerchner G, Wilding T, Huettner J, Zhuo M. Kainate receptor subunits underlying presynaptic regulation of transmitter release in the dorsal horn. J Neurosci. 2002;22:8010-7 pubmed
    ..receptor subunit-deficient mice were used to evaluate the contribution of glutamate receptor subunit 5 (GluR5) and GluR6 to the presynaptic control of transmitter release and to KA receptor-mediated whole-cell currents in these two ..
  50. Darstein M, Petralia R, Swanson G, Wenthold R, Heinemann S. Distribution of kainate receptor subunits at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses. J Neurosci. 2003;23:8013-9 pubmed
    ..Both subunits coimmunoprecipitated from hippocampal membrane extracts with GluR6 but not GluR7 subunits...
  51. Koga K, Descalzi G, Chen T, Ko H, Lu J, Li S, et al. Coexistence of two forms of LTP in ACC provides a synaptic mechanism for the interactions between anxiety and chronic pain. Neuron. 2015;85:377-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide a mechanism by which two forms of LTP in the ACC may converge to mediate the interaction between anxiety and chronic pain. ..
  52. Ruiz A, Sachidhanandam S, Utvik J, Coussen F, Mulle C. Distinct subunits in heteromeric kainate receptors mediate ionotropic and metabotropic function at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses. J Neurosci. 2005;25:11710-8 pubmed
    Heteromeric kainate receptors (KARs) containing both glutamate receptor 6 (GluR6) and KA2 subunits are involved in KAR-mediated EPSCs at mossy fiber synapses in CA3 pyramidal cells...
  53. Kohler M, Burnashev N, Sakmann B, Seeburg P. Determinants of Ca2+ permeability in both TM1 and TM2 of high affinity kainate receptor channels: diversity by RNA editing. Neuron. 1993;10:491-500 pubmed
    b>GluR6, a subunit of high affinity kainate receptor channels in the mammalian CNS, carries a glutamine (Q) or arginine (R) residue in a critical position (Q/R site) of the putative channel-forming segment TM2...
  54. Peret A, Christie L, Ouedraogo D, Gorlewicz A, Epsztein J, Mulle C, et al. Contribution of aberrant GluK2-containing kainate receptors to chronic seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy. Cell Rep. 2014;8:347-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In an in vitro model of TLE, seizure-like activity was minimized in mice lacking the GluK2 subunit, which is a main component of aberrant synaptic KARs at rMF synapses...
  55. Jaskolski F, Coussen F, Nagarajan N, Normand E, Rosenmund C, Mulle C. Subunit composition and alternative splicing regulate membrane delivery of kainate receptors. J Neurosci. 2004;24:2506-15 pubmed
    ..The KAR subunits GluR5 and GluR6 exist under different splice variant isoforms in the C-terminal domain (GluR5a, GluR5b, GluR5c, GluR6a, GluR6b)...
  56. Barry G, Piper M, Lindwall C, Moldrich R, Mason S, Little E, et al. Specific glial populations regulate hippocampal morphogenesis. J Neurosci. 2008;28:12328-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate a role for Nfib in hippocampal fissure and dentate gyrus formation, and that distinct glial bundles are critical for correct hippocampal morphogenesis. ..
  57. Cui S, Du P, Zhou X, Wang H. Developmental expression patterns of kainate receptors in the mouse spinal cord. Neuroreport. 2012;23:1012-6 pubmed publisher
    ..At E16.5, Grik2 and Grik3 were mainly expressed in the dorsal horns whereas Grik5 was expressed in the entire spinal cord...
  58. Casassus G, Mulle C. Functional characterization of kainate receptors in the mouse nucleus accumbens. Neuropharmacology. 2002;42:603-11 pubmed
    ..These somatodendritic receptors are comprised of the GluR6 subunit, since they are absent in GluR6-deficient mice...
  59. Shelton E, Ector G, Galindo C, Hooper C, Brown N, Wilkerson I, et al. Transcriptional profiling reveals ductus arteriosus-specific genes that regulate vascular tone. Physiol Genomics. 2014;46:457-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Ion channels that regulate DA tone, including BKCa channels, are promising targets. Specifically, BKCa channel agonists like NS1619 maintain DA patency even in the presence of O2 and may be clinically useful. ..
  60. Molyneaux B, Goff L, Brettler A, Chen H, Hrvatin S, Rinn J, et al. DeCoN: genome-wide analysis of in vivo transcriptional dynamics during pyramidal neuron fate selection in neocortex. Neuron. 2015;85:275-288 pubmed publisher
    ..This multifaceted study generates a powerful resource and informs understanding of the transcriptional regulation underlying pyramidal neuron diversity in the neocortex. ..
  61. Pressey J, Mahadevan V, Khademullah C, Dargaei Z, Chevrier J, Ye W, et al. A kainate receptor subunit promotes the recycling of the neuron-specific K+-Cl- co-transporter KCC2 in hippocampal neurons. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:6190-6201 pubmed publisher
    ..immunofluorescence in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons, we discovered that the kainate receptor subunit GluK2 and the auxiliary subunit Neto2 significantly increase the total KCC2 abundance in neurons but that GluK2 ..
  62. Nakanishi S, Nakajima Y, Masu M, Ueda Y, Nakahara K, Watanabe D, et al. Glutamate receptors: brain function and signal transduction. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1998;26:230-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, the two closely related mGluR subtypes mediate diverging intracellular signaling in glutamate transmission. ..
  63. Rebola N, Sachidhanandam S, Perrais D, Cunha R, Mulle C. Short-term plasticity of kainate receptor-mediated EPSCs induced by NMDA receptors at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses. J Neurosci. 2007;27:3987-93 pubmed
    ..Hence, this study describes a form of short-term synaptic plasticity that is postsynaptic, depends on the temporal order of presynaptic and postsynaptic spiking, and likely affects the summation properties of mossy fiber EPSPs. ..
  64. Youn D, Voitenko N, Gerber G, Park Y, Galik J, Randic M. Altered long-term synaptic plasticity and kainate-induced Ca2+ transients in the substantia gelatinosa neurons in GLU(K6)-deficient mice. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005;142:9-18 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that unique expression of kainate receptors subunits is important in regulating spinal synaptic plasticity and thereby processing of sensory information, including pain. ..
  65. Straub C, Hunt D, Yamasaki M, Kim K, Watanabe M, Castillo P, et al. Distinct functions of kainate receptors in the brain are determined by the auxiliary subunit Neto1. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:866-73 pubmed publisher
    ..By regulating KAR excitatory postsynaptic current kinetics, Neto1 can control synaptic temporal summation, spike generation and fidelity. ..
  66. Jabłońska B, Smith A, Kossut M, Skangiel Kramska J. Development of laminar distributions of kainate receptors in the somatosensory cortex of mice. Brain Res. 1998;791:325-9 pubmed
    ..The sharp increase of kainate receptor during the first postnatal week coincides with the critical period for cytoarchitectonic plasticity of the barrels and establishment of functional thalamo-cortical connections in the barrel field. ..
  67. Fritsch B, Reis J, Gasior M, Kaminski R, Rogawski M. Role of GluK1 kainate receptors in seizures, epileptic discharges, and epileptogenesis. J Neurosci. 2014;34:5765-75 pubmed publisher
    ..agonist of kainate receptors that include the GluK1 subunit, in conjunction with mice deficient in GluK1 and GluK2 kainate receptor subunits to assess the role of GluK1 kainate receptors in provoking seizures and in kindling ..
  68. Gregor P, O Hara B, Yang X, Uhl G. Expression and novel subunit isoforms of glutamate receptor genes GluR5 and GluR6. Neuroreport. 1993;4:1343-6 pubmed
    Molecular heterogeneity of kainate-selective glutamate receptor subunits GluR5 and GluR6 was revealed by identification of a human cDNA, GluR5-1d, and a murine cDNA, GluR6-2, that each encode subunits with novel carboxy-terminal ..
  69. Fièvre S, Carta M, Chamma I, Labrousse V, Thoumine O, Mulle C. Molecular determinants for the strictly compartmentalized expression of kainate receptors in CA3 pyramidal cells. Nat Commun. 2016;7:12738 pubmed publisher
    ..By molecular replacement in organotypic slices from GluK2 knockout mice, we show that the faithful rescue of KAR segregation at mf-CA3 synapses critically depends on the ..
  70. Cheng L, Arata A, Mizuguchi R, Qian Y, Karunaratne A, Gray P, et al. Tlx3 and Tlx1 are post-mitotic selector genes determining glutamatergic over GABAergic cell fates. Nat Neurosci. 2004;7:510-7 pubmed
    ..GABAergic differentiation, Gad1/2 and Viaat that regulate GABA synthesis and transport, and the kainate receptors Grik2/3...
  71. Tang M, Pelkey K, Ng D, Ivakine E, McBain C, Salter M, et al. Neto1 is an auxiliary subunit of native synaptic kainate receptors. J Neurosci. 2011;31:10009-18 pubmed publisher
    ..In Neto1-null mice, there was an ?50% reduction in the abundance of GluK2-KARs in hippocampal PSDs...
  72. Gong B, Wang H, Gu S, Heximer S, Zhuo M. Genetic evidence for the requirement of adenylyl cyclase 1 in synaptic scaling of forebrain cortical neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:275-88 pubmed
    ..AC1 plays a subtype selective role in this process by coupling signals from L-type Ca(2+) channels to downstream signalling pathways. ..
  73. Rubinsztein D, Leggo J, Chiano M, Dodge A, Norbury G, Rosser E, et al. Genotypes at the GluR6 kainate receptor locus are associated with variation in the age of onset of Huntington disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:3872-6 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, we investigated the GluR6 kainate receptor...
  74. Galichet C, Guillemot F, Parras C. Neurogenin 2 has an essential role in development of the dentate gyrus. Development. 2008;135:2031-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These data establish a unique role of Ngn2 in DG neurogenesis during development and raise the possibility that Ngn2 has a similar function in adult neurogenesis. ..
  75. Marchal C, Mulle C. Postnatal maturation of mossy fibre excitatory transmission in mouse CA3 pyramidal cells: a potential role for kainate receptors. J Physiol. 2004;561:27-37 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a role for KARs in the maturation of mossy fibre synapses. ..
  76. Paschen W, Hedreen J, Ross C. RNA editing of the glutamate receptor subunits GluR2 and GluR6 in human brain tissue. J Neurochem. 1994;63:1596-602 pubmed
    ..of mRNA in the coding region of the second transmembrane domain of glutamate receptor subunits GluR2, GluR5, and GluR6 involves a change of the base A in genomic DNA to the base G in mRNA as described in rat brain...
  77. Sommer B, Kohler M, Sprengel R, Seeburg P. RNA editing in brain controls a determinant of ion flow in glutamate-gated channels. Cell. 1991;67:11-9 pubmed
    ..This process apparently edits subunit transcripts of the two glutamate receptor classes with different efficiency and selectivity. ..
  78. Bureau I, Bischoff S, Heinemann S, Mulle C. Kainate receptor-mediated responses in the CA1 field of wild-type and GluR6-deficient mice. J Neurosci. 1999;19:653-63 pubmed
    ..We have compared the action of domoate and kainate on CA1 pyramidal neurons in slices from wild-type and GluR6-/- mice...