Gene Symbol: Grid2
Description: glutamate receptor, ionotropic, delta 2
Alias: B230104L07Rik, GluD2, GluRdelta2, Lc, MMS10-AC, Ms10ac, cpr, nmf408, tpr, glutamate receptor ionotropic, delta-2, creeper, gluR delta-2 subunit, glutamate receptor delta-2 subunit, hotfoot, lurcher, minisatellite 10ac detected by probe MMS10
Species: mouse
Products:     Grid2

Top Publications

  1. Le Marec N, Lalonde R. Treadmill performance of mice with cerebellar lesions: 2. Lurcher mutant mice. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2000;73:195-206 pubmed
    The sensorimotor skills of a spontaneous mouse mutant with cerebellar cortical atrophy, Lurcher, were examined on either a fast or a slow treadmill inclined at one of three slopes, requiring forward movements in order to avoid footshocks...
  2. Kakegawa W, Kohda K, Yuzaki M. The delta2 'ionotropic' glutamate receptor functions as a non-ionotropic receptor to control cerebellar synaptic plasticity. J Physiol. 2007;584:89-96 pubmed
    The delta2 glutamate receptor (GluRdelta2) belongs to the ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) family and plays a crucial role in the induction of cerebellar long-term depression (LTD), a form of synaptic plasticity underlying motor ..
  3. Kohda K, Kamiya Y, Matsuda S, Kato K, Umemori H, Yuzaki M. Heteromer formation of delta2 glutamate receptors with AMPA or kainate receptors. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003;110:27-37 pubmed
    The delta2 glutamate receptor (GluRdelta2) is predominantly expressed in the postsynaptic densities of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses and plays a crucial role in cerebellar function...
  4. Katoh A, Yoshida T, Himeshima Y, Mishina M, Hirano T. Defective control and adaptation of reflex eye movements in mutant mice deficient in either the glutamate receptor delta2 subunit or Purkinje cells. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;21:1315-26 pubmed
    The ionotropic glutamate receptor delta2 subunit (GluRdelta2) is selectively expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells and is implicated in long-term depression, synaptic formation and elimination...
  5. Yawata S, Tsuchida H, Kengaku M, Hirano T. Membrane-proximal region of glutamate receptor delta2 subunit is critical for long-term depression and interaction with protein interacting with C kinase 1 in a cerebellar Purkinje neuron. J Neurosci. 2006;26:3626-33 pubmed
    The glutamate receptor delta2 subunit (GluRdelta2) is selectively expressed in cerebellar Purkinje neurons (PNs) and is involved in the long-term depression (LTD). However, little is known about the mechanism of its action...
  6. Nakamura M, Sato K, Fukaya M, Araishi K, Aiba A, Kano M, et al. Signaling complex formation of phospholipase Cbeta4 with metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1alpha and 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor at the perisynapse and endoplasmic reticulum in the mouse brain. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;20:2929-44 pubmed
    ..This close molecular relationship might provide PLCbeta4 with a high-fidelity effector function to mediate various neuronal responses under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. ..
  7. Kohda K, Kakegawa W, Matsuda S, Nakagami R, Kakiya N, Yuzaki M. The extreme C-terminus of GluRdelta2 is essential for induction of long-term depression in cerebellar slices. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;25:1357-62 pubmed
    ..Although the delta2 glutamate receptor (GluRdelta2) has been shown to be crucial for LTD, the mechanisms by which GluRdelta2 functions remain elusive...
  8. Yuzaki M. The delta2 glutamate receptor: 10 years later. Neurosci Res. 2003;46:11-22 pubmed
    The orphan glutamate receptor delta2 (GluRdelta2) is predominantly expressed in Purkinje cells and plays a crucial role in cerebellar functions: mice that lack the GluRdelta2 gene display ataxia and impaired synaptic plasticity...
  9. Matsuda K, Miura E, Miyazaki T, Kakegawa W, Emi K, Narumi S, et al. Cbln1 is a ligand for an orphan glutamate receptor delta2, a bidirectional synapse organizer. Science. 2010;328:363-8 pubmed publisher
    Cbln1, secreted from cerebellar granule cells, and the orphan glutamate receptor delta2 (GluD2), expressed by Purkinje cells, are essential for synapse integrity between these neurons in adult mice...

More Information


  1. Uemura T, Mishina M. The amino-terminal domain of glutamate receptor delta2 triggers presynaptic differentiation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;377:1315-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that GluRdelta2 regulates synapse formation by making a physical linkage between the active zone and postsynaptic density...
  2. Miura E, Matsuda K, Morgan J, Yuzaki M, Watanabe M. Cbln1 accumulates and colocalizes with Cbln3 and GluRdelta2 at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses in the mouse cerebellum. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;29:693-706 pubmed publisher
    ..display severe cerebellar phenotypes that are essentially indistinguishable from those in glutamate receptor GluRdelta2-null mice, and include severe reduction in the number of PF-PC synapses and loss of long-term depression of ..
  3. Wang Y, Matsuda S, Drews V, Torashima T, Meisler M, Yuzaki M. A hot spot for hotfoot mutations in the gene encoding the delta2 glutamate receptor. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;17:1581-90 pubmed
    ..Recently, ataxia in the hotfoot mouse ho4J was demonstrated to be caused by a deletion in the delta2 receptor gene (Grid2) removing the N-..
  4. Mishina M, Sakimura K. Conditional gene targeting on the pure C57BL/6 genetic background. Neurosci Res. 2007;58:105-12 pubmed
    ..Thus, we have established an inducible and neuron-specific gene targeting system on the pure C57BL/6 genetic background. ..
  5. Ichikawa R, Miyazaki T, Kano M, Hashikawa T, Tatsumi H, Sakimura K, et al. Distal extension of climbing fiber territory and multiple innervation caused by aberrant wiring to adjacent spiny branchlets in cerebellar Purkinje cells lacking glutamate receptor delta 2. J Neurosci. 2002;22:8487-503 pubmed
    ..In PCs lacking glutamate receptor delta2 (GluRdelta2), PF synapses are reduced in number, numerous free spines emerge, and multiple CF innervation persists to ..
  6. Takeuchi T, Miyazaki T, Watanabe M, Mori H, Sakimura K, Mishina M. Control of synaptic connection by glutamate receptor delta2 in the adult cerebellum. J Neurosci. 2005;25:2146-56 pubmed
    ..Concomitant with the decrease of postsynaptic GluRdelta2 proteins, presynaptic active zones shrank progressively and postsynaptic density (PSD) expanded, resulting in ..
  7. Selimi F, Lohof A, Heitz S, Lalouette A, Jarvis C, Bailly Y, et al. Lurcher GRID2-induced death and depolarization can be dissociated in cerebellar Purkinje cells. Neuron. 2003;37:813-9 pubmed
    ..We have analyzed the phenotype of Lurcher/hotfoot heteroallelic mutants bearing only one copy of the Lurcher allele and no wild-type Grid2...
  8. Matsuda S, Yuzaki M. Mutation in hotfoot-4J mice results in retention of delta2 glutamate receptors in ER. Eur J Neurosci. 2002;16:1507-16 pubmed
    ..Recently, the ataxia of hotfoot-4J (ho-4J) mice was shown to be caused by a 170-amino acid deletion in the N-terminal region of delta2 receptors...
  9. Lalonde R, Filali M, Bensoula A, Lestienne F. Sensorimotor learning in three cerebellar mutant mice. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 1996;65:113-20 pubmed
    Cerebellar damage occurs during developmental stages in three mutant mice (staggerer, hot-foot, and lurcher), causing disturbances in posture and equilibrium...
  10. Cendelin J, Korelusová I, Vozeh F. The effect of repeated rotarod training on motor skills and spatial learning ability in Lurcher mutant mice. Behav Brain Res. 2008;189:65-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Lurcher mutant mice represent a model of olivocerebellar degeneration. Due to loss of Purkinje cells, they suffer from functional cerebellar decortication resulting in ataxia and deterioration of cognitive functions...
  11. Kurihara H, Hashimoto K, Kano M, Takayama C, Sakimura K, Mishina M, et al. Impaired parallel fiber-->Purkinje cell synapse stabilization during cerebellar development of mutant mice lacking the glutamate receptor delta2 subunit. J Neurosci. 1997;17:9613-23 pubmed
    The glutamate receptor delta2 subunit (GluRdelta2) is specifically expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) from early developmental stages and is selectively localized at dendritic spines forming synapses with parallel fibers (PFs)...
  12. Vernet der Garabedian B, Lemaigre Dubreuil Y, Delhaye Bouchaud N, Mariani J. Abnormal IL-1beta cytokine expression in the cerebellum of the ataxic mutant mice staggerer and lurcher. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1998;62:224-7 pubmed
    ..we have examined the levels of IL-1beta in the brain of two types of neurological mutant mice, staggerer and Lurcher. Using a quantitative immunological method (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA), we measured IL-1beta in ..
  13. Takayama C, Nakagawa S, Watanabe M, Mishina M, Inoue Y. Light- and electron-microscopic localization of the glutamate receptor channel delta 2 subunit in the mouse Purkinje cell. Neurosci Lett. 1995;188:89-92 pubmed
  14. Guastavino J, Sotelo C, Damez Kinselle I. Hot-foot murine mutation: behavioral effects and neuroanatomical alterations. Brain Res. 1990;523:199-210 pubmed
    ..However, the mild degree of the anatomical alterations does not seem sufficient to account for the degree of effect on locomotion and posture. ..
  15. Miyazaki T, Yamasaki M, Takeuchi T, Sakimura K, Mishina M, Watanabe M. Ablation of glutamate receptor GluR?2 in adult Purkinje cells causes multiple innervation of climbing fibers by inducing aberrant invasion to parallel fiber innervation territory. J Neurosci. 2010;30:15196-209 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, GluR?2 fuels heterosynaptic competition and gives PFs the competitive advantages over CFs throughout the animal's life. ..
  16. Kashiwabuchi N, Ikeda K, Araki K, Hirano T, Shibuki K, Takayama C, et al. Impairment of motor coordination, Purkinje cell synapse formation, and cerebellar long-term depression in GluR delta 2 mutant mice. Cell. 1995;81:245-52 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a close relationship between synaptic plasticity and synapse formation in the cerebellum. ..
  17. Lalouette A, Lohof A, Sotelo C, Guenet J, Mariani J. Neurobiological effects of a null mutation depend on genetic context: comparison between two hotfoot alleles of the delta-2 ionotropic glutamate receptor. Neuroscience. 2001;105:443-55 pubmed
    b>Hotfoot is a mutant mouse with an ataxic phenotype which has been shown to be due to a mutation in the Grid2 gene...
  18. Hashimoto K, Ichikawa R, Takechi H, Inoue Y, Aiba A, Sakimura K, et al. Roles of glutamate receptor delta 2 subunit (GluRdelta 2) and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 (mGluR1) in climbing fiber synapse elimination during postnatal cerebellar development. J Neurosci. 2001;21:9701-12 pubmed
    ..Previous studies revealed that deletion of the glutamate receptor delta2 subunit (GluRdelta2) gene results in persistent multiple CF innervation of PCs with impaired PF synaptogenesis, whereas mutation of ..
  19. Miyagi Y, Yamashita T, Fukaya M, Sonoda T, Okuno T, Yamada K, et al. Delphilin: a novel PDZ and formin homology domain-containing protein that synaptically colocalizes and interacts with glutamate receptor delta 2 subunit. J Neurosci. 2002;22:803-14 pubmed
    The glutamate receptor delta2 (GluRdelta2) subunit is selectively expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells and plays an important role in cerebellar long-term depression, motor learning, motor coordination, and synapse development...
  20. Kuroyanagi T, Hirano T. Flap loop of GluD2 binds to Cbln1 and induces presynaptic differentiation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;398:537-41 pubmed publisher
    Glutamate receptor delta2 (GluD2) is selectively expressed on the postsynaptic spines at parallel-fiber (PF)-Purkinje neuron (PN) synapses...
  21. Yamasaki M, Miyazaki T, Azechi H, Abe M, Natsume R, Hagiwara T, et al. Glutamate receptor ?2 is essential for input pathway-dependent regulation of synaptic AMPAR contents in cerebellar Purkinje cells. J Neurosci. 2011;31:3362-74 pubmed publisher
    ..As a candidate molecule, we focused on glutamate receptor ?2 (GluR?2 or GluD2), which is known to be efficiently trafficked to and selectively expressed at PF synapses in PCs...
  22. Kishimoto Y, Kawahara S, Suzuki M, Mori H, Mishina M, Kirino Y. Classical eyeblink conditioning in glutamate receptor subunit delta 2 mutant mice is impaired in the delay paradigm but not in the trace paradigm. Eur J Neurosci. 2001;13:1249-53 pubmed
    ..Thus, the present study has revealed a cerebellar LTD-independent learning in eyeblink conditioning. ..
  23. Araki K, Meguro H, Kushiya E, Takayama C, Inoue Y, Mishina M. Selective expression of the glutamate receptor channel delta 2 subunit in cerebellar Purkinje cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993;197:1267-76 pubmed
    ..The selective localization of the delta 2 subunit in Purkinje cells may imply a role of the delta 2 subunit in Purkinje cell-specific function such as the cerebellar LTD. ..
  24. Selimi F, Doughty M, Delhaye Bouchaud N, Mariani J. Target-related and intrinsic neuronal death in Lurcher mutant mice are both mediated by caspase-3 activation. J Neurosci. 2000;20:992-1000 pubmed
    The Lurcher (Lc) mutation in the delta2 glutamate receptor gene leads to the presence of a constitutive inward current in the cerebellar Purkinje cells of Lurcher heterozygous mice and to the postnatal degeneration of these neurons...
  25. Takayama C, Nakagawa S, Watanabe M, Mishina M, Inoue Y. Developmental changes in expression and distribution of the glutamate receptor channel delta 2 subunit according to the Purkinje cell maturation. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1996;92:147-55 pubmed
    ..These findings suggested that the transcription of the GluR delta 2 subunit occurs in the Purkinje cells from fetal through adult stage, but the intracellular localization of the ..
  26. Dumesnil Bousez N, Sotelo C. Early development of the Lurcher cerebellum: Purkinje cell alterations and impairment of synaptogenesis. J Neurocytol. 1992;21:506-29 pubmed
    The postnatal development of the heterozygous Lurcher (Lc/+) mouse cerebellum is characterized by Purkinje cell death with a concomitant reduction in granule cell number...
  27. Van Der Giessen R, Koekkoek S, van Dorp S, De Gruijl J, Cupido A, Khosrovani S, et al. Role of olivary electrical coupling in cerebellar motor learning. Neuron. 2008;58:599-612 pubmed publisher
  28. Funabiki K, Mishina M, Hirano T. Retarded vestibular compensation in mutant mice deficient in delta 2 glutamate receptor subunit. Neuroreport. 1995;7:189-92 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that motor learning of the delta 2 mutant mice is disturbed, and that the static and dynamic components of vestibular compensation may be controlled by different neuronal mechanisms. ..
  29. Yue Z, Horton A, Bravin M, DeJager P, Selimi F, Heintz N. A novel protein complex linking the delta 2 glutamate receptor and autophagy: implications for neurodegeneration in lurcher mice. Neuron. 2002;35:921-33 pubmed
    ..Death of cerebellar Purkinje cells in lurcher animals is due to a mutation in GluRdelta2 that results in its constitutive activation...
  30. Vogel M, Caston J, Yuzaki M, Mariani J. The Lurcher mouse: fresh insights from an old mutant. Brain Res. 2007;1140:4-18 pubmed
    ..recent molecular studies revealed that Lurcher is a gain of function mutation in the delta2 glutamate receptor (GluRdelta2) that converts an alanine to threonine in the highly conserved third hydrophobic segment of GluRdelta2...
  31. Caddy K, Biscoe T. Structural and quantitative studies on the normal C3H and Lurcher mutant mouse. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1979;287:167-201 pubmed
  32. Robinson K, Petersen A, Morrison S, Elso C, Stubbs L. Two reciprocal translocations provide new clues to the high mutability of the Grid2 locus. Mamm Genome. 2005;16:32-40 pubmed
    ..experiments confirmed that 153Gso and 154Gso mutations are allelic, and both fail to complement a known mutation hotfoot (ho), a Mmu6 mutation involving the glutamate receptor gene, Grid2, that is associated with a virtually identical ..
  33. Hirai H, Pang Z, Bao D, Miyazaki T, Li L, Miura E, et al. Cbln1 is essential for synaptic integrity and plasticity in the cerebellum. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:1534-41 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Cbln1 secreted from presynaptic granule cells may be a component of a transneuronal signaling pathway that controls synaptic structure and plasticity. ..
  34. Faulstich M, Van Alphen A, Luo C, Du Lac S, De Zeeuw C. Oculomotor plasticity during vestibular compensation does not depend on cerebellar LTD. J Neurophysiol. 2006;96:1187-95 pubmed
    ..We conclude that oculomotor plasticity during vestibular compensation depends critically on intact cerebellar circuitry but not on the occurrence of cerebellar LTD. ..
  35. Lalonde R, Bensoula A, Filali M. Rotorod sensorimotor learning in cerebellar mutant mice. Neurosci Res. 1995;22:423-6 pubmed
    b>Lurcher mutant mice, characterized by degeneration of cerebellar granule and Purkinje cells, were compared to normal littermate controls in a rotorod test, consisting of a wheel turning at constant speed which required on the part of the ..
  36. Hirano T, Kasono K, Araki K, Mishina M. Suppression of LTD in cultured Purkinje cells deficient in the glutamate receptor delta 2 subunit. Neuroreport. 1995;6:524-6 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that the glutamate receptor channel delta 2 subunit is involved in the postsynaptic down-regulation of glutamate sensitivity, presumably during cerebellar LTD. ..
  37. Hironaka K, Umemori H, Tezuka T, Mishina M, Yamamoto T. The protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTPMEG interacts with glutamate receptor delta 2 and epsilon subunits. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:16167-73 pubmed
    ..Although GluRdelta2 belongs to an ionotropic GluR family, little is known about its pharmacological features and downstream ..
  38. Yoshida T, Katoh A, Ohtsuki G, Mishina M, Hirano T. Oscillating Purkinje neuron activity causing involuntary eye movement in a mutant mouse deficient in the glutamate receptor delta2 subunit. J Neurosci. 2004;24:2440-8 pubmed
    ..delta2 mutant mouse was analyzed by comparing its motor control ability with those of the wild-type mouse and the lurcher mutant mouse, which loses all Purkinje neurons, the sole output neurons in the cerebellar cortex...
  39. Lalouette A, Guenet J, Vriz S. Hotfoot mouse mutations affect the delta 2 glutamate receptor gene and are allelic to lurcher. Genomics. 1998;50:9-13 pubmed
    b>Hotfoot (ho) is a recessive mouse mutation characterized by cerebellar ataxia associated with relatively mild abnormalities of the cerebellum...
  40. Zuo J, De Jager P, Takahashi K, Jiang W, Linden D, Heintz N. Neurodegeneration in Lurcher mice caused by mutation in delta2 glutamate receptor gene. Nature. 1997;388:769-73 pubmed
    b>Lurcher (Lc) is a spontaneous, semidominant mouse neurological mutation...
  41. Uemura T, Lee S, Yasumura M, Takeuchi T, Yoshida T, Ra M, et al. Trans-synaptic interaction of GluRdelta2 and Neurexin through Cbln1 mediates synapse formation in the cerebellum. Cell. 2010;141:1068-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the N-terminal domain (NTD) of GluRdelta2 interacts with presynaptic neurexins (NRXNs) through cerebellin 1 precursor protein (Cbln1)...
  42. Nakagami R, Kohda K, Kakegawa W, Kondo T, Kato N, Yuzaki M. Phosphorylation of delta2 glutamate receptors at serine 945 is not required for cerebellar long-term depression. Keio J Med. 2008;57:105-10 pubmed
    ..In addition, the delta2 glutamate receptor (GluRdelta2), which is predominantly expressed at PF-Purkinje cell synapses, is indispensable for the induction of LTD; ..
  43. Uemura T, Mori H, Mishina M. Direct interaction of GluRdelta2 with Shank scaffold proteins in cerebellar Purkinje cells. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2004;26:330-41 pubmed
    ..By yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified members of the Shank family of scaffold proteins as major GluRdelta2-interacting molecules...
  44. Hirai H, Miyazaki T, Kakegawa W, Matsuda S, Mishina M, Watanabe M, et al. Rescue of abnormal phenotypes of the delta2 glutamate receptor-null mice by mutant delta2 transgenes. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:90-5 pubmed
    The delta2 glutamate receptor (GluRdelta2) has a crucial role in cerebellar functions; disruption of GluRdelta2 alleles in mice (delta2(-/-)) impairs synapse formation and long-term depression, which is thought to underlie motor learning ..
  45. Lalonde R, Strazielle C. Spontaneous and induced mouse mutations with cerebellar dysfunctions: behavior and neurochemistry. Brain Res. 2007;1140:51-74 pubmed
    Grid2(Lc) (Lurcher), Grid2(ho) (hot-foot), Rora(sg) (staggerer), nr (nervous), Agtpbp1(pcd) (Purkinje cell degeneration), Reln(rl) (reeler), and Girk2(Wv) (Weaver) are spontaneous mutations with cerebellar atrophy, ataxia, and deficits ..
  46. Uemura T, Kakizawa S, Yamasaki M, Sakimura K, Watanabe M, Iino M, et al. Regulation of long-term depression and climbing fiber territory by glutamate receptor delta2 at parallel fiber synapses through its C-terminal domain in cerebellar Purkinje cells. J Neurosci. 2007;27:12096-108 pubmed
    ..However, it remains unsolved how GluRdelta2 regulates cerebellar synaptic plasticity, PF-PC synapse formation, and CF wiring...
  47. Yasumura M, Uemura T, Yamasaki M, Sakimura K, Watanabe M, Mishina M. Role of the internal Shank-binding segment of glutamate receptor delta2 in synaptic localization and cerebellar functions. Neurosci Lett. 2008;433:146-51 pubmed publisher
    ..induction and the regulation of climbing fiber (CF) territory, but is dispensable for synaptic localization of GluRdelta2, PF-PC synapse formation and CF elimination process...
  48. Motohashi J, Kakegawa W, Yuzaki M. Ho15J: a new hotfoot allele in a hot spot in the gene encoding the delta2 glutamate receptor. Brain Res. 2007;1140:153-60 pubmed
    ..of the hindlimbs, is caused by various mutations in the gene (Grid2) encoding the delta2 glutamate receptor (GluRdelta2)...
  49. Porras García E, Cendelin J, Dominguez del Toro E, Vozeh F, Delgado Garcia J. Purkinje cell loss affects differentially the execution, acquisition and prepulse inhibition of skeletal and facial motor responses in Lurcher mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;21:979-88 pubmed
    Adult heterozygous Lurcher mice show a degeneration of almost all Purkinje cells and 90% of the granular cells of the cerebellum, resulting in ataxia or general deficits in motor coordination...
  50. Wetts R, Herrup K. Interaction of granule, Purkinje and inferior olivary neurons in lurcher chimeric mice. II. Granule cell death. Brain Res. 1982;250:358-62 pubmed
    b>Lurcher in equilibrium ichthyosis chimeric mice were constructed to determine whether the death of cerebellar granule cells in lurcher mutants is caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors...
  51. LaVail M, Sidman R. C57BL-6J mice with inherited retinal degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol. 1974;91:394-400 pubmed
  52. Swisher D, Wilson D. Cerebellar histogenesis in the lurcher (Lc) mutant mouse. J Comp Neurol. 1977;173:205-18 pubmed
    The postnatal development of the cerebellar cortex of normal and lurcher (Lc) mutant mice was studied by neurohistological and autoradiographic techniques at ages ranging from 2 days through 18 days after birth...
  53. Poltorak A, Merlin T, Nielsen P, Sandra O, Smirnova I, Schupp I, et al. A point mutation in the IL-12R beta 2 gene underlies the IL-12 unresponsiveness of Lps-defective C57BL/10ScCr mice. J Immunol. 2001;167:2106-11 pubmed
    ..Because the phosphorylation of STAT4 is a prerequisite for the IL-12-mediated induction of IFN-gamma, its absence in Cr mice is responsible for their defective IFN-gamma response to microorganisms. ..
  54. Bäurle J, Frischmuth S, Kranda K. TRAIL-related death receptors in normal, Lurcher and weaver mutant mouse brain. Neurosci Lett. 2004;372:46-51 pubmed
    ..Mouse mutants, in particular weaver and Lurcher with their well defined spatio-temporal patterns of neurodegeneration in the cerebellum, the inferior olive and ..
  55. Lorivel T, Hilber P. Effects of chlordiazepoxide on the emotional reactivity and motor capacities in the cerebellar Lurcher mutant mice. Behav Brain Res. 2006;173:122-8 pubmed
    ..Consistent with this view, several studies highlighted that the cerebellar Lurcher mutant mice (+/Lc), with motor impairments, also exhibited altered emotional reactivity, previously interpreted ..
  56. Le Marec N, Caston J, Lalonde R. Impaired motor skills on static and mobile beams in lurcher mutant mice. Exp Brain Res. 1997;116:131-8 pubmed
    ..b>Lurcher mutant mice, characterized by massive losses of cerebellar granule cells and Purkinje cells, were assessed on two ..
  57. Torashima T, Iizuka A, Horiuchi H, Mitsumura K, Yamasaki M, Koyama C, et al. Rescue of abnormal phenotypes in delta2 glutamate receptor-deficient mice by the extracellular N-terminal and intracellular C-terminal domains of the delta2 glutamate receptor. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;30:355-65 pubmed publisher
    The delta2 glutamate receptor (GluRdelta2) is expressed predominantly in cerebellar Purkinje cells...
  58. Markvartová V, Cendelin J, Vozeh F. Changes of motor abilities during ontogenetic development in Lurcher mutant mice. Neuroscience. 2010;168:646-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Lurcher mutant mice represent a natural model of olivocerebellar degeneration. This degeneration is caused by a mutation of the gene for the delta2 glutamate receptor...