Grid2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Grid2
Description: glutamate receptor, ionotropic, delta 2
Alias: B230104L07Rik, GluD2, GluRdelta2, Lc, MMS10-AC, Ms10ac, cpr, nmf408, tpr, creeper, gluR delta-2 subunit, glutamate receptor delta-2 subunit, glutamate receptor ionotropic, delta-2, hotfoot, lurcher, minisatellite 10ac detected by probe MMS10
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Treadmill performance of mice with cerebellar lesions: 2. Lurcher mutant mice
    N Le Marec
    Centre Hospitalier de l Universite de Montreal, Pavillon Hôtel Dieu, Service de Neurologie, Unité de Neurologie du Comportement, Neurobiologie et Neuropsychologie, Montreal, Quebec, H2W 1T8, Canada
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 73:195-206. 2000
  2. ncbi Ho15J: a new hotfoot allele in a hot spot in the gene encoding the delta2 glutamate receptor
    Junko Motohashi
    Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Brain Res 1140:153-60. 2007
  3. ncbi Regulation of long-term depression and climbing fiber territory by glutamate receptor delta2 at parallel fiber synapses through its C-terminal domain in cerebellar Purkinje cells
    Takeshi Uemura
    Department of Molecular Neurobiology and Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    J Neurosci 27:12096-108. 2007
  4. ncbi Neurodegeneration in Lurcher mice caused by mutation in delta2 glutamate receptor gene
    J Zuo
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 388:769-73. 1997
  5. doi The effect of repeated rotarod training on motor skills and spatial learning ability in Lurcher mutant mice
    Jan Cendelin
    Charles University, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Department of Pathophysiology, Lidicka 1, 301 66 Plzen, Czech Republic
    Behav Brain Res 189:65-74. 2008
  6. pmc Rescue of abnormal phenotypes of the delta2 glutamate receptor-null mice by mutant delta2 transgenes
    Hirokazu Hirai
    Deptartment of Developmental Neurobiology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA
    EMBO Rep 6:90-5. 2005
  7. ncbi Selective expression of the glutamate receptor channel delta 2 subunit in cerebellar Purkinje cells
    K Araki
    Department of Neuropharmacology, Niigata University, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 197:1267-76. 1993
  8. ncbi Impairment of motor coordination, Purkinje cell synapse formation, and cerebellar long-term depression in GluR delta 2 mutant mice
    N Kashiwabuchi
    Department of Neuropharmacology, Niigata University, Japan
    Cell 81:245-52. 1995
  9. ncbi Distal extension of climbing fiber territory and multiple innervation caused by aberrant wiring to adjacent spiny branchlets in cerebellar Purkinje cells lacking glutamate receptor delta 2
    Ryoichi Ichikawa
    Department of Anatomy, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
    J Neurosci 22:8487-503. 2002
  10. ncbi Membrane-proximal region of glutamate receptor delta2 subunit is critical for long-term depression and interaction with protein interacting with C kinase 1 in a cerebellar Purkinje neuron
    Satoshi Yawata
    Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8502, Japan
    J Neurosci 26:3626-33. 2006

Research Grants

  1. Neurodevelopmental model of sensorimotor deficits
    Michael Vogel; Fiscal Year: 2007
  2. Colorado Gene Array Core
    Boris Tabakoff; Fiscal Year: 2007
  3. Pathways to Alcohol Tolerance
    Boris Tabakoff; Fiscal Year: 2006
  4. Gene Array Technology Center for Alcohol Research (The R-GAP)
    Boris Tabakoff; Fiscal Year: 2007
  5. The development of monkey models for the study of autism
    LOREN MARTIN; Fiscal Year: 2005
  6. RGS Protein (2,4,9,10) Survey in Schizophrenia
    Michael Vogel; Fiscal Year: 2005
  7. CELL DEATH AND THE REGULATION OF PURKINJE CELL NUMBER
    Michael Vogel; Fiscal Year: 1999

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications97

  1. ncbi Treadmill performance of mice with cerebellar lesions: 2. Lurcher mutant mice
    N Le Marec
    Centre Hospitalier de l Universite de Montreal, Pavillon Hôtel Dieu, Service de Neurologie, Unité de Neurologie du Comportement, Neurobiologie et Neuropsychologie, Montreal, Quebec, H2W 1T8, Canada
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 73:195-206. 2000
    The sensorimotor skills of a spontaneous mouse mutant with cerebellar cortical atrophy, Lurcher, were examined on either a fast or a slow treadmill inclined at one of three slopes, requiring forward movements in order to avoid footshocks...
  2. ncbi Ho15J: a new hotfoot allele in a hot spot in the gene encoding the delta2 glutamate receptor
    Junko Motohashi
    Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Brain Res 1140:153-60. 2007
    ..of the hindlimbs, is caused by various mutations in the gene (Grid2) encoding the delta2 glutamate receptor (GluRdelta2)...
  3. ncbi Regulation of long-term depression and climbing fiber territory by glutamate receptor delta2 at parallel fiber synapses through its C-terminal domain in cerebellar Purkinje cells
    Takeshi Uemura
    Department of Molecular Neurobiology and Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    J Neurosci 27:12096-108. 2007
    ..However, it remains unsolved how GluRdelta2 regulates cerebellar synaptic plasticity, PF-PC synapse formation, and CF wiring...
  4. ncbi Neurodegeneration in Lurcher mice caused by mutation in delta2 glutamate receptor gene
    J Zuo
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 388:769-73. 1997
    b>Lurcher (Lc) is a spontaneous, semidominant mouse neurological mutation...
  5. doi The effect of repeated rotarod training on motor skills and spatial learning ability in Lurcher mutant mice
    Jan Cendelin
    Charles University, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Department of Pathophysiology, Lidicka 1, 301 66 Plzen, Czech Republic
    Behav Brain Res 189:65-74. 2008
    b>Lurcher mutant mice represent a model of olivocerebellar degeneration. Due to loss of Purkinje cells, they suffer from functional cerebellar decortication resulting in ataxia and deterioration of cognitive functions...
  6. pmc Rescue of abnormal phenotypes of the delta2 glutamate receptor-null mice by mutant delta2 transgenes
    Hirokazu Hirai
    Deptartment of Developmental Neurobiology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA
    EMBO Rep 6:90-5. 2005
    The delta2 glutamate receptor (GluRdelta2) has a crucial role in cerebellar functions; disruption of GluRdelta2 alleles in mice (delta2(-/-)) impairs synapse formation and long-term depression, which is thought to underlie motor learning ..
  7. ncbi Selective expression of the glutamate receptor channel delta 2 subunit in cerebellar Purkinje cells
    K Araki
    Department of Neuropharmacology, Niigata University, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 197:1267-76. 1993
    ..The selective localization of the delta 2 subunit in Purkinje cells may imply a role of the delta 2 subunit in Purkinje cell-specific function such as the cerebellar LTD...
  8. ncbi Impairment of motor coordination, Purkinje cell synapse formation, and cerebellar long-term depression in GluR delta 2 mutant mice
    N Kashiwabuchi
    Department of Neuropharmacology, Niigata University, Japan
    Cell 81:245-52. 1995
    ..These results suggest a close relationship between synaptic plasticity and synapse formation in the cerebellum...
  9. ncbi Distal extension of climbing fiber territory and multiple innervation caused by aberrant wiring to adjacent spiny branchlets in cerebellar Purkinje cells lacking glutamate receptor delta 2
    Ryoichi Ichikawa
    Department of Anatomy, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
    J Neurosci 22:8487-503. 2002
    ..In PCs lacking glutamate receptor delta2 (GluRdelta2), PF synapses are reduced in number, numerous free spines emerge, and multiple CF innervation persists to ..
  10. ncbi Membrane-proximal region of glutamate receptor delta2 subunit is critical for long-term depression and interaction with protein interacting with C kinase 1 in a cerebellar Purkinje neuron
    Satoshi Yawata
    Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8502, Japan
    J Neurosci 26:3626-33. 2006
    The glutamate receptor delta2 subunit (GluRdelta2) is selectively expressed in cerebellar Purkinje neurons (PNs) and is involved in the long-term depression (LTD). However, little is known about the mechanism of its action...
  11. ncbi Roles of glutamate receptor delta 2 subunit (GluRdelta 2) and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 (mGluR1) in climbing fiber synapse elimination during postnatal cerebellar development
    K Hashimoto
    Department of Physiology, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, Takara machi, Kanazawa 920 8640, Japan
    J Neurosci 21:9701-12. 2001
    ..Previous studies revealed that deletion of the glutamate receptor delta2 subunit (GluRdelta2) gene results in persistent multiple CF innervation of PCs with impaired PF synaptogenesis, whereas mutation of ..
  12. ncbi Impaired parallel fiber-->Purkinje cell synapse stabilization during cerebellar development of mutant mice lacking the glutamate receptor delta2 subunit
    H Kurihara
    Department of Anatomy, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060, Japan
    J Neurosci 17:9613-23. 1997
    The glutamate receptor delta2 subunit (GluRdelta2) is specifically expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) from early developmental stages and is selectively localized at dendritic spines forming synapses with parallel fibers (PFs)...
  13. ncbi Suppression of LTD in cultured Purkinje cells deficient in the glutamate receptor delta 2 subunit
    T Hirano
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Japan
    Neuroreport 6:524-6. 1995
    ..The results indicate that the glutamate receptor channel delta 2 subunit is involved in the postsynaptic down-regulation of glutamate sensitivity, presumably during cerebellar LTD...
  14. ncbi Mutation in hotfoot-4J mice results in retention of delta2 glutamate receptors in ER
    Shinji Matsuda
    Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 16:1507-16. 2002
    ..Recently, the ataxia of hotfoot-4J (ho-4J) mice was shown to be caused by a 170-amino acid deletion in the N-terminal region of delta2 receptors...
  15. ncbi A novel protein complex linking the delta 2 glutamate receptor and autophagy: implications for neurodegeneration in lurcher mice
    Zhenyu Yue
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Neuron 35:921-33. 2002
    ..Death of cerebellar Purkinje cells in lurcher animals is due to a mutation in GluRdelta2 that results in its constitutive activation...
  16. doi Role of the internal Shank-binding segment of glutamate receptor delta2 in synaptic localization and cerebellar functions
    Misato Yasumura
    Department of Molecular Neurobiology and Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Neurosci Lett 433:146-51. 2008
    ..induction and the regulation of climbing fiber (CF) territory, but is dispensable for synaptic localization of GluRdelta2, PF-PC synapse formation and CF elimination process...
  17. ncbi Delphilin: a novel PDZ and formin homology domain-containing protein that synaptically colocalizes and interacts with glutamate receptor delta 2 subunit
    Yohei Miyagi
    Departments of Pathology and Bacteriology, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Yokohama 236 0004, Japan
    J Neurosci 22:803-14. 2002
    The glutamate receptor delta2 (GluRdelta2) subunit is selectively expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells and plays an important role in cerebellar long-term depression, motor learning, motor coordination, and synapse development...
  18. doi Role of olivary electrical coupling in cerebellar motor learning
    Ruben S Van Der Giessen
    Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Neuron 58:599-612. 2008
    ....
  19. ncbi Classical eyeblink conditioning in glutamate receptor subunit delta 2 mutant mice is impaired in the delay paradigm but not in the trace paradigm
    Y Kishimoto
    Laboratory of Neurobiophysics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Eur J Neurosci 13:1249-53. 2001
    ..Thus, the present study has revealed a cerebellar LTD-independent learning in eyeblink conditioning...
  20. ncbi Phosphorylation of delta2 glutamate receptors at serine 945 is not required for cerebellar long-term depression
    Ryoichi Nakagami
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Department of Psychiatry, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Keio J Med 57:105-10. 2008
    ..In addition, the delta2 glutamate receptor (GluRdelta2), which is predominantly expressed at PF-Purkinje cell synapses, is indispensable for the induction of LTD; ..
  21. doi The amino-terminal domain of glutamate receptor delta2 triggers presynaptic differentiation
    Takeshi Uemura
    Department of Molecular Neurobiology and Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 377:1315-9. 2008
    ..We propose that GluRdelta2 regulates synapse formation by making a physical linkage between the active zone and postsynaptic density...
  22. ncbi The delta2 glutamate receptor: 10 years later
    Michisuke Yuzaki
    Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, 332 N Lauderdale Street, Memphis, TN 38105 2794, USA
    Neurosci Res 46:11-22. 2003
    The orphan glutamate receptor delta2 (GluRdelta2) is predominantly expressed in Purkinje cells and plays a crucial role in cerebellar functions: mice that lack the GluRdelta2 gene display ataxia and impaired synaptic plasticity...
  23. ncbi A hot spot for hotfoot mutations in the gene encoding the delta2 glutamate receptor
    Ying Wang
    Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 17:1581-90. 2003
    ..Recently, ataxia in the hotfoot mouse ho4J was demonstrated to be caused by a deletion in the delta2 receptor gene (Grid2) removing the N-..
  24. ncbi Oculomotor plasticity during vestibular compensation does not depend on cerebellar LTD
    M Faulstich
    Systems Neurobiology Laboratory, Salk Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA
    J Neurophysiol 96:1187-95. 2006
    ..We conclude that oculomotor plasticity during vestibular compensation depends critically on intact cerebellar circuitry but not on the occurrence of cerebellar LTD...
  25. ncbi Conditional gene targeting on the pure C57BL/6 genetic background
    Masayoshi Mishina
    Department of Molecular Neurobiology and Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Neurosci Res 58:105-12. 2007
    ..Thus, we have established an inducible and neuron-specific gene targeting system on the pure C57BL/6 genetic background...
  26. ncbi Rotorod sensorimotor learning in cerebellar mutant mice
    R Lalonde
    Universite de Nancy 1, Laboratoire de Biologie et Physiologie du Comportement, URA CNRS 1293, Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France
    Neurosci Res 22:423-6. 1995
    b>Lurcher mutant mice, characterized by degeneration of cerebellar granule and Purkinje cells, were compared to normal littermate controls in a rotorod test, consisting of a wheel turning at constant speed which required on the part of the ..
  27. ncbi Control of synaptic connection by glutamate receptor delta2 in the adult cerebellum
    Tomonori Takeuchi
    Department of Molecular Neurobiology and Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, and Solution Oriented Research for Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    J Neurosci 25:2146-56. 2005
    ..Concomitant with the decrease of postsynaptic GluRdelta2 proteins, presynaptic active zones shrank progressively and postsynaptic density (PSD) expanded, resulting in ..
  28. pmc The delta2 'ionotropic' glutamate receptor functions as a non-ionotropic receptor to control cerebellar synaptic plasticity
    Wataru Kakegawa
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
    J Physiol 584:89-96. 2007
    The delta2 glutamate receptor (GluRdelta2) belongs to the ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) family and plays a crucial role in the induction of cerebellar long-term depression (LTD), a form of synaptic plasticity underlying motor ..
  29. ncbi Signaling complex formation of phospholipase Cbeta4 with metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1alpha and 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor at the perisynapse and endoplasmic reticulum in the mouse brain
    Michiko Nakamura
    Department of Anatomy, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
    Eur J Neurosci 20:2929-44. 2004
    ..This close molecular relationship might provide PLCbeta4 with a high-fidelity effector function to mediate various neuronal responses under physiological and pathophysiological conditions...
  30. ncbi Direct interaction of GluRdelta2 with Shank scaffold proteins in cerebellar Purkinje cells
    Takeshi Uemura
    Department of Molecular Neurobiology and Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, and Japan SORST, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Mol Cell Neurosci 26:330-41. 2004
    ..By yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified members of the Shank family of scaffold proteins as major GluRdelta2-interacting molecules...
  31. ncbi Developmental changes in expression and distribution of the glutamate receptor channel delta 2 subunit according to the Purkinje cell maturation
    C Takayama
    Department of Anatomy, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
    Brain Res Dev Brain Res 92:147-55. 1996
    ..These findings suggested that the transcription of the GluR delta 2 subunit occurs in the Purkinje cells from fetal through adult stage, but the intracellular localization of the ..
  32. ncbi The extreme C-terminus of GluRdelta2 is essential for induction of long-term depression in cerebellar slices
    Kazuhisa Kohda
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
    Eur J Neurosci 25:1357-62. 2007
    ..Although the delta2 glutamate receptor (GluRdelta2) has been shown to be crucial for LTD, the mechanisms by which GluRdelta2 functions remain elusive...
  33. ncbi Neurobiological effects of a null mutation depend on genetic context: comparison between two hotfoot alleles of the delta-2 ionotropic glutamate receptor
    A Lalouette
    Laboratoire Développement et Vieillissement du Système Nerveux, UMR 7624 CNRS et Université P et M Curie, Paris, France
    Neuroscience 105:443-55. 2001
    b>Hotfoot is a mutant mouse with an ataxic phenotype which has been shown to be due to a mutation in the Grid2 gene...
  34. ncbi Defective control and adaptation of reflex eye movements in mutant mice deficient in either the glutamate receptor delta2 subunit or Purkinje cells
    Akira Katoh
    Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8502, Japan
    Eur J Neurosci 21:1315-26. 2005
    The ionotropic glutamate receptor delta2 subunit (GluRdelta2) is selectively expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells and is implicated in long-term depression, synaptic formation and elimination...
  35. ncbi Hotfoot mouse mutations affect the delta 2 glutamate receptor gene and are allelic to lurcher
    A Lalouette
    Unite de Genetique des Mammiferes, Institut Pasteur, 25, rue du Dr Roux, Paris Cedex 15, 75724, France
    Genomics 50:9-13. 1998
    b>Hotfoot (ho) is a recessive mouse mutation characterized by cerebellar ataxia associated with relatively mild abnormalities of the cerebellum...
  36. ncbi Heteromer formation of delta2 glutamate receptors with AMPA or kainate receptors
    Kazuhisa Kohda
    Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, 332 North Lauderdale, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 110:27-37. 2003
    The delta2 glutamate receptor (GluRdelta2) is predominantly expressed in the postsynaptic densities of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses and plays a crucial role in cerebellar function...
  37. ncbi Hot-foot murine mutation: behavioral effects and neuroanatomical alterations
    J M Guastavino
    Laboratoire d Ethologie, Unité Associée au C N R S No 667, Universite Paris XIII, Villetaneuse, France
    Brain Res 523:199-210. 1990
    ..However, the mild degree of the anatomical alterations does not seem sufficient to account for the degree of effect on locomotion and posture...
  38. ncbi Retarded vestibular compensation in mutant mice deficient in delta 2 glutamate receptor subunit
    K Funabiki
    Department of Physiology, Kyoto University, Japan
    Neuroreport 7:189-92. 1995
    ..These results suggest that motor learning of the delta 2 mutant mice is disturbed, and that the static and dynamic components of vestibular compensation may be controlled by different neuronal mechanisms...
  39. ncbi Widespread expression of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 gene (Insp3r1) in the mouse central nervous system
    T Furuichi
    Division of Behavior and Neurobiology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki, Japan
    Receptors Channels 1:11-24. 1993
    ..The chromosomal localization of the gene coding for InsP3R1 was confirmed on chromosome 6 but was found to be genetically independent of the Lurcher (Lc) mutation.
  40. doi Cbln1 and the δ2 glutamate receptor--an orphan ligand and an orphan receptor find their partners
    Keiko Matsuda
    Department of Neurophysiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
    Cerebellum 11:78-84. 2012
    ..The glutamate receptor δ2 (GluD2) is highly expressed on Purkinje cells' dendritic spines which make synapses with PFs...
  41. pmc Characteristics of gait ataxia in δ2 glutamate receptor mutant mice, ho15J
    Eri Takeuchi
    Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro ku, Tokyo, Japan
    PLoS ONE 7:e47553. 2012
    ..We suggest that dysfunction of the cerebellar neuronal circuits underlies the observed characteristic kinematic abnormality of hindlimb movements during locomotion of ho15J mice...
  42. ncbi Analysis of protein variations in adult and postnatal day 11 staggerer and lurcher mutant mice
    G B Grunwald
    Department of Anatomy, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107
    Brain Res Dev Brain Res 73:146-50. 1993
    As an initial attempt at uncovering the molecular basis of cerebellar synaptogenic defects in the lurcher and staggerer mutant mice, the pattern of protein expression was compared between cerebellar and non-cerebellar tissues, between ..
  43. ncbi Characterization of hippocampal theta rhythm in wild-type mice and glutamate receptor subunit delta2 mutant mice during eyeblink conditioning with a short trace interval
    Kanako Takatsuki
    Laboratory of Neurobiophysics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Brain Res 1063:159-67. 2005
    We have shown that glutamate receptor subunit delta2 (GluRdelta2) null mutant mice, which have serious morphological and functional deficiencies in the cerebellar cortex, are severely impaired in delay eyeblink conditioning but not in ..
  44. ncbi Genetic mapping of the lurcher locus on mouse chromosome 6 using an intersubspecific backcross
    D J Norman
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021
    Genomics 9:147-53. 1991
    The lurcher (Lc) mutant mouse strain exhibits postnatal degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells...
  45. ncbi Structural and quantitative studies on the normal C3H and Lurcher mutant mouse
    K W Caddy
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 287:167-201. 1979
  46. ncbi Lurcher GRID2-induced death and depolarization can be dissociated in cerebellar Purkinje cells
    Fekrije Selimi
    Laboratoire Développement et Vieillissement du Système Nerveux, CNRS UMR 7102, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris, France
    Neuron 37:813-9. 2003
    The Lurcher mutation transforms the GRID2 receptor into a constitutively opened channel...
  47. pmc Ionotropic glutamate-like receptor delta2 binds D-serine and glycine
    Peter Naur
    Biostructural Research Unit, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, DK 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:14116-21. 2007
    The orphan glutamate-like receptor GluRdelta2 is predominantly expressed in Purkinje cells of the central nervous system...
  48. ncbi Light- and electron-microscopic localization of the glutamate receptor channel delta 2 subunit in the mouse Purkinje cell
    C Takayama
    Department of Anatomy, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
    Neurosci Lett 188:89-92. 1995
    ....
  49. ncbi The dorsal cochlear nucleus of the adult lurcher mouse is specifically invaded by embryonic grafted Purkinje cells
    N Dumesnil-Bousez
    INSERM U 106, Neuromorphologie développment et évolution, Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris, France
    Brain Res 622:343-7. 1993
    The fate of embryonic Purkinje cells grafted over the brainstem surface of the adult Lurcher mouse was analyzed using anti-calbindin (CaBP) immunocytochemistry...
  50. ncbi Vestibular ganglion neurons survive hair cell defects in jerker, shaker, and Varitint-waddler mutants and downregulate calretinin expression
    Mario Cabraja
    Department of Physiology, Charite, Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, D 14195 Berlin, Germany
    J Comp Neurol 504:418-26. 2007
    ..quantified stereologically in the cerebellar mutants purkinje cell degeneration (pcd/pcd), weaver (wv/wv), and Lurcher (Lc/+), and in the vestibular mutants jerker (je/je), shaker-1 (sh/sh), and Varitint-waddler (Va/+)...
  51. ncbi Regional brain variations of cytochrome oxidase activity and motor coordination in hot-foot mutant mice
    P Kremarik
    Universite de Nancy 1, Laboratoire de Biologie Cellulaire du Developpement, Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France
    Eur J Neurosci 10:2802-9. 1998
    ..These results indicate regionally selective abnormalities of metabolic activity in a cerebellar mutant with defective dendritic arborization of the Purkinje cell...
  52. ncbi Quantitative morphological analysis of the cerebellar nuclei in normal and lurcher mutant mice. I. Morphology and cell number
    J A Heckroth
    Indiana University School of Medicine, Terre Haute Center for Medical Education at Indiana State University 47809
    J Comp Neurol 343:173-82. 1994
    ..essentially identical in structure with those described in the rat, and that the atrophic cerebellar nuclei in lurcher mutant mice exhibit a comparable anatomical organization...
  53. ncbi CNS monoamine levels and motoric behaviors in the hotfoot ataxic mutant
    L J Draski
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver 80262
    Brain Res 645:69-77. 1994
    Mice that were homozygous recessive for the single-gene mutation, hotfoot, showed profound and progressive motor disturbances in an open field after approximately the 4th postnatal week...
  54. pmc Postsynaptic glutamate receptor delta family contributes to presynaptic terminal differentiation and establishment of synaptic transmission
    Tomoaki Kuroyanagi
    Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8502, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:4912-6. 2009
    ..Thus, the delta glutamate receptor subfamily can induce the differentiation of glutamatergic presynaptic terminals and contribute to the establishment of synaptic transmission...
  55. ncbi Spatial learning in a Z-maze by cerebellar mutant mice
    R Lalonde
    Lab Biologie et Physiologie du Comportement, Universite de Nancy 1, Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France
    Physiol Behav 59:83-6. 1996
    Two types of cerebellar mutant mice (staggerer and lurcher) were evaluated during 5-day acquisition of a spatial learning task in a Z-maze filled with water...
  56. ncbi Roles of the glutamate receptor epsilon2 and delta2 subunits in the potentiation and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex
    T Takeuchi
    Department of Molecular Neurobiology and Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Eur J Neurosci 14:153-60. 2001
    ....
  57. ncbi Timed active avoidance learning in lurcher mutant mice
    V Monfort
    Universite de Rouen, Faculte des Sciences, Laboratoire de Neurobiologie de l Apprentissage, Mont Saint Aignan, France
    Behav Brain Res 91:165-72. 1998
    b>Lurcher mutant mice (+/Lc) which exhibit a massive loss of neurons in the cerebellar cortex and in the inferior olivary nuclei were subjected to an active avoidance learning task; the animals' avoidance response must occur within a small ..
  58. ncbi A new allele of the lurcher gene, lurcherJ
    P L De Jager
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Laboratory of Molecular Biology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Mamm Genome 8:647-50. 1997
    ..maps to mouse Chromosome (Chr) 6 between markers D6Rck314 and D6Rck361, a chromosomal segment that contains the lurcher (Lc) locus. The Lc mutation is also semidominant and has a strikingly similar phenotype...
  59. doi Ablation of glutamate receptor GluRδ2 in adult Purkinje cells causes multiple innervation of climbing fibers by inducing aberrant invasion to parallel fiber innervation territory
    Taisuke Miyazaki
    Department of Anatomy, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
    J Neurosci 30:15196-209. 2010
    ..Thus, GluRδ2 fuels heterosynaptic competition and gives PFs the competitive advantages over CFs throughout the animal's life...
  60. ncbi Vestibular ganglion neurons survive the loss of their cerebellar targets
    J Bäurle
    Department of Physiology, Freie Universitat Berlin, Fachbereich Humanmedizin, Universitatsklinikum Benjamin Franklin, Germany
    Neuroreport 9:4119-22. 1998
    ..using unbiased stereological methods in the cerebellar mutants Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd/pcd), Lurcher (Lc/+), and Weaver (wv/wv)...
  61. ncbi Stress and anxious-related behaviors in Lurcher mutant mice
    Pascal Hilber
    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie de l Apprentissage, UPRES PSY CO EA 1780, Université de Rouen UFR Sciences, Place E Blondel, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan Cedex, France
    Brain Res 1003:108-12. 2004
    ..levels (CORT) were measured before and after the completion of the elevated +-maze test in cerebellar Lurcher mutant and control mice...
  62. ncbi Inferior olivary-induced expression of Fos-like immunoreactivity in the cerebellar nuclei of wild-type and Lurcher mice
    A W Oldenbeuving
    Department of Anatomy, Erasmus University, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Eur J Neurosci 11:3809-22. 1999
    ..we analysed Fos immunoreactivity in the olivocerebellar system of wild-type mice and in the mutant mouse Lurcher which lacks Purkinje cells...
  63. ncbi Abnormalities in the cerebellum and brainstem in homozygous lurcher mice
    A Resibois
    Laboratoire d Histologie, Faculte de Medecine, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
    Neuroscience 80:175-90. 1997
    The lurcher mutation induces Purkinje cell degeneration in heterozygous mice, and neonatal death in homozygous animals...
  64. ncbi Impairment of eyeblink conditioning in GluRdelta2-mutant mice depends on the temporal overlap between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli
    Y Kishimoto
    Laboratory of Neurobiophysics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Eur J Neurosci 14:1515-21. 2001
    Mice lacking the glutamate receptor subunit delta2 (GluRdelta2) are deficient in cerebellar long-term depression (LTD) at the parallel fibre-Purkinje cell synapses...
  65. ncbi Neurodegeneration in Lurcher mice occurs via multiple cell death pathways
    M L Doughty
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    J Neurosci 20:3687-94. 2000
    b>Lurcher (Lc) is a gain-of-function mutation in the delta2 glutamate receptor (GRID2) that results in the cell-autonomous death of cerebellar Purkinje cells in heterozygous lurcher (+/Lc) mice...
  66. ncbi Carbonic anhydrase II and carbonic anhydrase-related protein in the cerebellar cortex of normal and lurcher mice
    A Nogradi
    Department of Ophthalmology, Albert Szent Gyorgyi Medical University, Szeged, Hungary
    Brain Res Dev Brain Res 98:91-101. 1997
    ..synthesis and expression of these enzymes in cerebellar sections from age matched control, CA-II deficient and lurcher mice, the latter being characterised by Purkinje cell degeneration...
  67. ncbi Spatial expression of genes encoding c-kit receptors and their ligands in mouse cerebellum as revealed by in situ hybridization
    E Morii
    Department of Pathology, Osaka University Medical School, Suita, Japan
    Brain Res Dev Brain Res 65:123-6. 1992
    ..The expression of the c-kit ligands was not detectable in the cerebellum of lurcher (Lc/+) mutant mice that lack Purkinje cells, indicating the cells expressing the c-kit ligands were Purkinje ..
  68. ncbi Interleukin-1 hyperproduction by in vitro activated peripheral macrophages from cerebellar mutant mice
    B Kopmels
    Laboratoire d Immunologie, URA1156, Institut Gustave Roussy, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Villejuif, France
    J Neurochem 55:1980-5. 1990
    ..A similar phenomenon existed in cerebellar mutants lurcher, Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd), and to a lesser extent reeler and wobbler, but was absent in the neurological ..
  69. pmc Ca2+ permeability of the channel pore is not essential for the delta2 glutamate receptor to regulate synaptic plasticity and motor coordination
    Wataru Kakegawa
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
    J Physiol 579:729-35. 2007
    The delta2 glutamate receptor (GluRdelta2) plays a crucial role in cerebellar functions; mice with a disrupted GluRdelta2 gene (GluRdelta2-/-) display impaired synapse formation and abrogated long-term depression (LTD)...
  70. ncbi Differential roles of cerebellar cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei in the learning of the equilibrium behavior: studies in intact and cerebellectomized lurcher mutant mice
    J Caston
    Laboratoire de Neurophysiologie Sensorielle, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Rouen, Mont Saint Aignan, France
    Brain Res Dev Brain Res 86:311-6. 1995
    Three- to 6-month-old lurcher mutant mice (+/lc), which exhibit a massive loss of neurons in the cerebellar cortex and in the inferior olivary nucleus but whose deep cerebellar nuclei are essentially intact, were trained daily, for 9 ..
  71. ncbi Staggerer mutant mouse Purkinje cells do not contain detectable calmodulin mRNA
    A Messer
    Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research, New York State Department of Health, NY 12201 0509
    J Neurochem 55:293-302. 1990
    ..This is in contrast to both the Lurcher Purkinje cells and sg/sg granule cells, which express normal levels of this mRNA up until the time they disappear...
  72. ncbi Increased occurrence of climbing fiber inputs to the cerebellar flocculus in a mutant mouse is correlated with the timing delay of optokinetic response
    Takashi Yoshida
    Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8502, Japan
    Eur J Neurosci 25:1467-74. 2007
    ..These results support the functional merit of low firing rate of CF in motor control...
  73. pmc GluRdelta2 expression in the mature cerebellum of hotfoot mice promotes parallel fiber synaptogenesis and axonal competition
    Georgia Mandolesi
    EBRI Santa Lucia Foundation IRCCS, Rome, Italy
    PLoS ONE 4:e5243. 2009
    Glutamate receptor delta 2 (GluRdelta2) is selectively expressed in the cerebellum, exclusively in the spines of the Purkinje cells (PCs) that are in contact with parallel fibers (PFs)...
  74. doi Cbln1 is a ligand for an orphan glutamate receptor delta2, a bidirectional synapse organizer
    Keiko Matsuda
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
    Science 328:363-8. 2010
    Cbln1, secreted from cerebellar granule cells, and the orphan glutamate receptor delta2 (GluD2), expressed by Purkinje cells, are essential for synapse integrity between these neurons in adult mice...
  75. doi Effects of FAK ablation on cerebellar foliation, Bergmann glia positioning and climbing fiber territory on Purkinje cells
    Fumihiro Watanabe
    Department of Molecular Neurobiology and Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Eur J Neurosci 27:836-54. 2008
    ....
  76. ncbi Autoradiography of glutamate receptor binding in adult Lurcher mutant mice
    C Strazielle
    Centre de Recherche en Sciences Neurologiques, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Montreal, QC, Canada
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 59:707-22. 2000
    The mutation Lurcher, resulting from a gain of malfunction of the delta2 glutamate receptor expressed specifically by cerebellar Purkinje cells, causes a primary total loss of these neurons of the cerebellar cortex, as well as the ..
  77. ncbi Role of the target in synapse elimination: studies in cerebellum of developing lurcher mutants and adult chimeric mice
    S A Rabacchi
    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie du Developpement, CNRS, Paris, France
    J Neurosci 12:4712-20. 1992
    ..We have used the lurcher (Lc) mutation as a model system in which to study this phenomenon...
  78. ncbi Decreased insulin-like growth factor I-mediated protein tyrosine phosphorylation in human olivopontocerebellar atrophy and lurcher mutant mouse
    P J Vig
    Department of Neurology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson 39216
    J Neurol Sci 124:38-44. 1994
    ..in cerebellar cortex of normal humans, patients with olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) ("C" kindred) and in lurcher mutant mouse, a suggested animal model for OPCA...
  79. ncbi Bcl-2, Bax and Bcl-x expression in neuronal apoptosis: a study of mutant weaver and lurcher mice
    U Wullner
    Department of Neurology, Eberhard Karls University, Tubingen, Germany
    Acta Neuropathol 96:233-8. 1998
    ..investigated the expression of the apoptosis modulating proteins Bcl-2, Bax and Bcl-x in the cerebellum of mutant lurcher and weaver mice...
  80. ncbi Serotonin innervation of Lurcher mutant mice: basic data and manipulation with a combination of amantadine, thiamine and L-tryptophan
    N Le Marec
    Centre for Research in Neurological Sciences, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, CHUM Hotel Dieu Hospital, Quebec, Canada
    Brain Res Bull 48:195-201. 1999
    The Lurcher (Lc/+) mutant mouse is characterized by a considerable atrophy of the cerebellum due to a massive loss of cerebellar Purkinje and granule cells, as well as of neurons from the inferior olivary nucleus...
  81. ncbi Altered intracellular localization of the glutamate receptor channel delta 2 subunit in weaver and reeler Purkinje cells
    C Takayama
    Department of Anatomy, Hokkaido University, School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
    Brain Res 745:231-42. 1997
    ....
  82. ncbi Construction of a high-resolution genetic map encompassing the hotfoot locus
    A Lalouette
    Unite de Genetique des Mammiferes, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Mamm Genome 8:903-6. 1997
    b>Hotfoot (ho) is a mutation affecting posture and movement. We report a new allele associated with the insertion of a transgene and its high-resolution mapping...
  83. ncbi N-Acetylglucosaminyl transferase regulates the expression of the sulfoglucuronyl glycolipids in specific cell types in cerebellum during development
    D K Chou
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center for Mental Retardation, Waltham, Massachusetts 02254, USA
    J Biol Chem 271:28868-74. 1996
    ..In the cerebellum of Purkinje cell-deficient mutants, such as (pcd/pcd) and lurcher (Lc/+) where Purkinje cells are lost, GlcNAc-Tr was absent, but the other three glycosyltransferase were not ..
  84. ncbi Generation of a high-resolution genetic map and a YAC contig of the Lurcher locus on mouse chromosome 6
    J Zuo
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Genome Res 5:381-92. 1995
    b>Lurcher (Lc) is a semidominant mouse mutant that displays progressive neurodegeneration during perinatal development...
  85. ncbi The human glutamate receptor delta 2 gene (GRID2) maps to chromosome 4q22
    W Hu
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Genomics 47:143-5. 1998
    ..The Grid2 gene, which is mutated in lurcher (Lc) mice, maps to mouse chromosome 6...
  86. ncbi Simultaneous visual discrimination learning in lurcher mutant mice
    R Lalonde
    Hotel Dieu Hospital, Neurology Service, Montreal, Que, Canada
    Brain Res 618:19-22. 1993
    b>Lurcher mutants were evaluated in the acquisition of a visual discrimination learning task with water escape as a reward...
  87. ncbi Regional brain variations of cytochrome oxidase activity and motor coordination in Lurcher mutant mice
    C Strazielle
    Universite de Nancy 1, Laboratoire de Neuroanatomie Fonctionnelle, Faculté Dentaire, France
    Exp Brain Res 121:35-45. 1998
    b>Lurcher mutant mice are characterized by massive degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells and granule cells and by deficits in motor coordination...
  88. ncbi Partial reconstruction of the adult Lurcher cerebellar circuitry by neural grafting
    N Dumesnil-Bousez
    I N S E R M U 106, Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris, France
    Neuroscience 55:1-21. 1993
    ..grafts, taken from normal mouse embryos (gestational day 12-14), were transplanted into the cerebellum of adult Lurcher mice...
  89. ncbi Molecular analysis of gene expression in the developing pontocerebellar projection system
    Elva Diaz
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Neuron 36:417-34. 2002
    ..Our approach provides insight into the genetic programs underlying the differentiation of specific cell types in the pontocerebellar projection system...
  90. ncbi New role of delta2-glutamate receptors in AMPA receptor trafficking and cerebellar function
    Hirokazu Hirai
    Laboratory for Memory and Learning, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    Nat Neurosci 6:869-76. 2003
    Previous gene knockout studies have shown that the orphan glutamate receptor delta2 (GluRdelta2) is critically involved in synaptogenesis between parallel fibers and Purkinje cells during development...
  91. ncbi Afferent-target cell interactions in the cerebellum: negative effect of granule cells on Purkinje cell development in lurcher mice
    M L Doughty
    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie du Developpement, Institut des Neurosciences Unite Mixte de Recherche 7624, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris, France
    J Neurosci 19:3448-56. 1999
    b>Lurcher (Lc) is a gain-of-function mutation in the delta2 glutamate receptor gene that results in a large, constitutive inward current in the cerebellar Purkinje cells of +/Lc mice...
  92. ncbi A quantitative morphological analysis of the cerebellar nuclei in normal and lurcher mutant mice. II. Volumetric changes in cytological components
    J A Heckroth
    Indiana University School of Medicine, Terre Haute Center for Medical Education at Indiana State University 47809
    J Comp Neurol 343:183-92. 1994
    ..point counting method has been used to determine volumetric changes in the cytological components of the lurcher cerebellar nuclei...
  93. ncbi Expression of the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR1 alpha and the ionotropic glutamate receptor GluR1 in the brain during the postnatal development of normal mouse and in the cerebellum from mutant mice
    Y Ryo
    Department of Molecular Neurobiology, University of Tokyo, Japan
    J Neurosci Res 36:19-32. 1993
    ..in the cerebellum of the Purkinje cell-deficient and underdeveloped mutant mice, Purkinje-cell-degeneration, Lurcher, and staggerer, suggesting that GluR1 expression in Bergmann glia cells may be correlated with the sustained ..
  94. ncbi Two reciprocal translocations provide new clues to the high mutability of the Grid2 locus
    Kellie O Robinson
    Genome Biology Division, Biology and Biotechnology Research Program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, L 441, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California, 94550, USA
    Mamm Genome 16:32-40. 2005
    ..experiments confirmed that 153Gso and 154Gso mutations are allelic, and both fail to complement a known mutation hotfoot (ho), a Mmu6 mutation involving the glutamate receptor gene, Grid2, that is associated with a virtually identical ..
  95. ncbi A point mutation in the IL-12R beta 2 gene underlies the IL-12 unresponsiveness of Lps-defective C57BL/10ScCr mice
    A Poltorak
    The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037 Max Planck Institut für Immunbiologie, Freiburg, Germany
    J Immunol 167:2106-11. 2001
    ..Because the phosphorylation of STAT4 is a prerequisite for the IL-12-mediated induction of IFN-gamma, its absence in Cr mice is responsible for their defective IFN-gamma response to microorganisms...
  96. ncbi Selective breeding, quantitative trait locus analysis, and gene arrays identify candidate genes for complex drug-related behaviors
    Boris Tabakoff
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado 80262, USA
    J Neurosci 23:4491-8. 2003
    ....
  97. ncbi Analysis of the hotfoot (ho) locus by creation of an insertional mutation in a transgenic mouse
    J W Gordon
    Brookdale Center for Molecular Biology, Department of Geriatrics and Adult Development, Mt Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029
    Dev Biol 137:349-58. 1990
    b>Hotfoot (ho) mutation is a recessive trait in mice, characterized by motor disorder and male sterility, that maps to chromosome 6. We have identified a transgenic mouse pedigree with a similar trait...

Research Grants17

  1. Neurodevelopmental model of sensorimotor deficits
    Michael Vogel; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The model will be used to analyze the neurobiological basis of schizophrenia-like behavioral deficits and to identify novel targets for the development of new treatments for this devastating mental illness. ..
  2. Colorado Gene Array Core
    Boris Tabakoff; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The Core will also perform gene expression analysis and quantitative RT-PCR for collaborating INIA investigators, and provide access to methodology for normalization, statistical analysis and eQTL searches of the generated data. ..
  3. Pathways to Alcohol Tolerance
    Boris Tabakoff; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In all, our studies should provide an excellent foundation for understanding the neuroadaptive processes leading to ethanol tolerance in reference to the anxiolytic action of this drug. ..
  4. Gene Array Technology Center for Alcohol Research (The R-GAP)
    Boris Tabakoff; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..GeneNetwork will generate the "front end" features to make all data available to the research community at large. ..
  5. The development of monkey models for the study of autism
    LOREN MARTIN; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  6. RGS Protein (2,4,9,10) Survey in Schizophrenia
    Michael Vogel; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Thus, we can accomplish this experiment in a timely manner. ..
  7. CELL DEATH AND THE REGULATION OF PURKINJE CELL NUMBER
    Michael Vogel; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The number of pyknotic Purkinje cells in wild type mice will be compared to Hu-bcl-2 transgenics. The mechanisms of Purkinje cell loss in staggerer mutants will be investigated by searching for evidence of Purkinje cell degeneration. ..