Gene Symbol: Gria3
Description: glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA3 (alpha 3)
Alias: 2900064I19Rik, GluA3, GluR-C, GluR-K3, Glur-3, Glur3, Gluralpha3, glutamate receptor 3, AMPA-selective glutamate receptor 3, glutamate receptor channel alpha3 subunit
Species: mouse
Products:     Gria3

Top Publications

  1. Steenland H, Kim S, Zhuo M. GluR3 subunit regulates sleep, breathing and seizure generation. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:1166-73 pubmed publisher
    The functional role of GluR3 AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid) receptor subunits has remained elusive...
  2. Liberman L, Wang H, Liberman M. Opposing gradients of ribbon size and AMPA receptor expression underlie sensitivity differences among cochlear-nerve/hair-cell synapses. J Neurosci. 2011;31:801-8 pubmed publisher
    ..2010). ..
  3. Miyamoto M, Tsuboi Y, Takamiya K, Huganir R, Kondo M, Shinoda M, et al. Involvement of GluR2 and GluR3 subunit C-termini in the trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis and C1-C2 neurons in trigeminal neuropathic pain. Neurosci Lett. 2011;491:8-12 pubmed publisher
    To clarify the involvement of GluR2 and GluR3 subunits of AMPA receptor in orofacial neuropathic pain, we studied changes in nocifensive behavior and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation followed by infraorbital ..
  4. Watson J, Ho H, Greger I. Synaptic transmission and plasticity require AMPA receptor anchoring via its N-terminal domain. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, synaptic transmission and the expression of LTP are dependent upon an AMPAR anchoring mechanism that is driven by the NTD. ..
  5. Kolleker A, Zhu J, Schupp B, Qin Y, Mack V, Borchardt T, et al. Glutamatergic plasticity by synaptic delivery of GluR-B(long)-containing AMPA receptors. Neuron. 2003;40:1199-212 pubmed
    ..Trafficking of GluR-B(long)-containing receptors thus mediates a GluR-A-independent form of glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the juvenile hippocampus. ..
  6. Nakanishi S, Nakajima Y, Masu M, Ueda Y, Nakahara K, Watanabe D, et al. Glutamate receptors: brain function and signal transduction. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1998;26:230-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, the two closely related mGluR subtypes mediate diverging intracellular signaling in glutamate transmission. ..
  7. Humeau Y, Reisel D, Johnson A, Borchardt T, Jensen V, Gebhardt C, et al. A pathway-specific function for different AMPA receptor subunits in amygdala long-term potentiation and fear conditioning. J Neurosci. 2007;27:10947-56 pubmed
    ..Here, we dissected the role of GluR1 and GluR3 (GluR-C) subunits in AMPA receptor-dependent amygdala LTP and fear conditioning using knock-out mice (GluR1-/- and ..
  8. Lu W, Shi Y, Jackson A, Bjorgan K, During M, Sprengel R, et al. Subunit composition of synaptic AMPA receptors revealed by a single-cell genetic approach. Neuron. 2009;62:254-68 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a functional quantification of the subunit composition of AMPARs in the CNS and suggests novel roles for AMPAR subunits in receptor trafficking. ..
  9. Xiang J, Yang H, Zhao T, Sun M, Xu X, Zhou X, et al. Huntingtin-associated protein 1 regulates postnatal neurogenesis and neurotrophin receptor sorting. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:85-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that intracellular sorting of neurotrophin receptors is critical for postnatal neurogenesis and could provide a therapeutic target for defective postnatal neurogenesis. ..

More Information


  1. Linden A, Baez M, Bergeron M, Schoepp D. Effects of mGlu2 or mGlu3 receptor deletions on mGlu2/3 receptor agonist (LY354740)-induced brain c-Fos expression: specific roles for mGlu2 in the amygdala and subcortical nuclei, and mGlu3 in the hippocampus. Neuropharmacology. 2006;51:213-28 pubmed
  2. Gardner S, Takamiya K, Xia J, Suh J, Johnson R, Yu S, et al. Calcium-permeable AMPA receptor plasticity is mediated by subunit-specific interactions with PICK1 and NSF. Neuron. 2005;45:903-15 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that PICK1 and NSF dynamically regulate the synaptic delivery of GluR2-containing receptors during CARP and thus regulate the calcium permeability of AMPA receptors at excitatory synapses. ..
  3. Sultana A, Nakaya N, Dong L, Abu Asab M, Qian H, Tomarev S. Deletion of olfactomedin 2 induces changes in the AMPA receptor complex and impairs visual, olfactory, and motor functions in mice. Exp Neurol. 2014;261:802-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that heterodimers of Olfm1 and Olfm2 interact with AMPAR more efficiently than Olfm2 homodimers and that Olfm2 plays a role in the organization of the AMPA receptor complexes. ..
  4. McNamara J, Eubanks J, McPherson J, Wasmuth J, Evans G, Heinemann S. Chromosomal localization of human glutamate receptor genes. J Neurosci. 1992;12:2555-62 pubmed
    ..processes together with concordance of the chromosomal locales and results of linkage analyses establishes GluR3 and GluR4 as candidate genes for a number of nervous system disorders including the oculocerebral-renal syndrome ..
  5. Puyal J, Sage C, Demêmes D, Dechesne C. Distribution of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4 isoazolepropionic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits in the vestibular and spiral ganglia of the mouse during early development. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2002;139:51-7 pubmed
    ..GluR2/R3 immunoreactivity was detected in these neurons on E12. This signal probably corresponded exclusively to GluR3, as no signal was obtained for GluR2 alone at this stage...
  6. von Engelhardt J, Mack V, Sprengel R, Kavenstock N, Li K, Stern Bach Y, et al. CKAMP44: a brain-specific protein attenuating short-term synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus. Science. 2010;327:1518-22 pubmed publisher
    ..CKAMP44 thus modulates short-term plasticity at specific excitatory synapses. ..
  7. Lai C, Xie C, McCormack S, Chiang H, Michalak M, Lin X, et al. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2-deficiency leads to neuronal degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis through altered AMPA receptor trafficking. J Neurosci. 2006;26:11798-806 pubmed
  8. Hori K, Cholewa Waclaw J, Nakada Y, Glasgow S, Masui T, Henke R, et al. A nonclassical bHLH Rbpj transcription factor complex is required for specification of GABAergic neurons independent of Notch signaling. Genes Dev. 2008;22:166-78 pubmed publisher
  9. Hayashi T, Rumbaugh G, Huganir R. Differential regulation of AMPA receptor subunit trafficking by palmitoylation of two distinct sites. Neuron. 2005;47:709-23 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that regulated palmitoylation of AMPA receptor subunits modulates receptor trafficking and may be important for synaptic plasticity. ..
  10. Yamasaki M, Miyazaki T, Azechi H, Abe M, Natsume R, Hagiwara T, et al. Glutamate receptor ?2 is essential for input pathway-dependent regulation of synaptic AMPAR contents in cerebellar Purkinje cells. J Neurosci. 2011;31:3362-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we found an unexpected twofold increase in labeling density for GluA2 and GluA3, but not GluA4, at PF-interneuron synapses, where we identified low but significant expression of GluR?2...
  11. Tan Q, Yalamanchili H, Park J, De Maio A, Lu H, Wan Y, et al. Extensive cryptic splicing upon loss of RBM17 and TDP43 in neurodegeneration models. Hum Mol Genet. 2016;25:5083-5093 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that repression of cryptic splicing by RBPs is critical for neuronal health and survival. CrypSplice is available at ..
  12. Ahmed A, Oswald R. Piracetam defines a new binding site for allosteric modulators of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. J Med Chem. 2010;53:2197-203 pubmed publisher
    ..We have determined the structure of the ligand binding domain of the AMPA receptor subtypes GluA2 and GluA3 with piracetam and a corresponding structure of GluA3 with aniracetam...
  13. de Paola V, Arber S, Caroni P. AMPA receptors regulate dynamic equilibrium of presynaptic terminals in mature hippocampal networks. Nat Neurosci. 2003;6:491-500 pubmed
    ..Thus, synaptic activity can make stable presynaptic terminals become dynamic, providing a candidate mechanism to convert experience into changes in network connectivity. ..
  14. Seifert G, Rehn L, Weber M, Steinhauser C. AMPA receptor subunits expressed by single astrocytes in the juvenile mouse hippocampus. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1997;47:286-94 pubmed
    ..The glial receptors might be involved in the modulation of gene expression as well as the regulation of proliferation and differentiation. ..
  15. Renner M, Albers E, Gutierrez Castellanos N, Reinders N, van Huijstee A, Xiong H, et al. Synaptic plasticity through activation of GluA3-containing AMPA-receptors. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..of AMPARs predominate: those that contain subunits GluA1 and GluA2 (GluA1/2), and those that contain GluA2 and GluA3 (GluA2/3)...
  16. Linden A, Shannon H, Baez M, Yu J, Koester A, Schoepp D. Anxiolytic-like activity of the mGLU2/3 receptor agonist LY354740 in the elevated plus maze test is disrupted in metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 and 3 knock-out mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005;179:284-91 pubmed
  17. Biou V, Bhattacharyya S, Malenka R. Endocytosis and recycling of AMPA receptors lacking GluR2/3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1038-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we address the roles of GluR2 and GluR3 in controlling the recycling- and activity-dependent endocytosis of AMPARs by using cultured hippocampal neurons ..
  18. Hou G, Zhang Z. NMDA Receptors Regulate the Development of Neuronal Intrinsic Excitability through Cell-Autonomous Mechanisms. Front Cell Neurosci. 2017;11:353 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that NMDARs regulate intrinsic excitability and morphology of thalamic neurons through cell autonomous mechanisms that implicate mTOR signaling. ..
  19. Morita T, Sakimura K, Kushiya E, Yamazaki M, Meguro H, Araki K, et al. Cloning and functional expression of a cDNA encoding the mouse beta 2 subunit of the kainate-selective glutamate receptor channel. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1992;14:143-6 pubmed
    ..The beta 2 subunit has structural characteristics common to the subunits of glutamate-gated ion channels. Expression of the cloned cDNA in Xenopus oocytes yields functional glutamate receptor channels selective for kainate. ..
  20. Chen Z, Kujawa S, Sewell W. Auditory sensitivity regulation via rapid changes in expression of surface AMPA receptors. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:1238-40 pubmed
    ..Thus we show that AMPA receptor cycling is important for optimizing synaptic transfer at one of the most exacting synapses in the body. ..
  21. Templin J, Bang S, Soiza Reilly M, Berde C, Commons K. Patterned expression of ion channel genes in mouse dorsal raphe nucleus determined with the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas. Brain Res. 2012;1457:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The identified genes likely contribute to unique excitable properties of different groups of neurons in the DR and may include novel pharmacologic targets for affective disorders. ..
  22. Schwenk J, Harmel N, Brechet A, Zolles G, Berkefeld H, Müller C, et al. High-resolution proteomics unravel architecture and molecular diversity of native AMPA receptor complexes. Neuron. 2012;74:621-33 pubmed publisher
    ..6 and 1 MDa. The additional constituents change the gating properties of AMPARs and provide links to the protein dynamics fundamental for the complex role of AMPARs in formation and operation of glutamatergic synapses. ..
  23. Vaillend C, Poirier R, Laroche S. Genes, plasticity and mental retardation. Behav Brain Res. 2008;192:88-105 pubmed publisher
  24. Meng Y, Zhang Y, Jia Z. Synaptic transmission and plasticity in the absence of AMPA glutamate receptor GluR2 and GluR3. Neuron. 2003;39:163-76 pubmed
    The AMPA glutamate receptor (AMPAR) subunits GluR2 and GluR3 are thought to be important for synaptic targeting/stabilization of AMPARs and the expression of hippocampal long-term depression (LTD)...
  25. Zhou Z, Hu J, Passafaro M, Xie W, Jia Z. GluA2 (GluR2) regulates metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression through N-cadherin-dependent and cofilin-mediated actin reorganization. J Neurosci. 2011;31:819-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide compelling evidence that the extracellular domain of GluA2 regulates long-lasting synaptic plasticity through a signaling mechanism that is distinct from those used by the other domains of the receptor subunit. ..
  26. García Hernández S, Abe M, Sakimura K, Rubio M. Impaired auditory processing and altered structure of the endbulb of Held synapse in mice lacking the GluA3 subunit of AMPA receptors. Hear Res. 2017;344:284-294 pubmed publisher
    AMPA glutamate receptor complexes with fast kinetics conferred by subunits like GluA3 and GluA4 are essential for temporal precision of synaptic transmission...
  27. Miyamoto M, Tsuboi Y, Honda K, Kobayashi M, Takamiya K, Huganir R, et al. Involvement of AMPA receptor GluR2 and GluR3 trafficking in trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis and C1/C2 neurons in acute-facial inflammatory pain. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44055 pubmed publisher
    ..involvement of trafficking of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) GluR2 and GluR3 subunits in an acute inflammatory orofacial pain, we analyzed nocifensive behavior, phosphorylated extracellular ..
  28. Lu W, Isozaki K, Roche K, Nicoll R. Synaptic targeting of AMPA receptors is regulated by a CaMKII site in the first intracellular loop of GluA1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:22266-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we show that S567 is a key residue that regulates Loop1-mediated AMPAR trafficking. Thus, our study reveals a unique mechanism for targeting AMPARs to synapses to mediate synaptic transmission. ..
  29. Lomeli H, Mosbacher J, Melcher T, Hoger T, Geiger J, Kuner T, et al. Control of kinetic properties of AMPA receptor channels by nuclear RNA editing. Science. 1994;266:1709-13 pubmed
    ..quot; The extent of editing at this site progresses with brain development in a manner specific for subunit and splice form, and edited channels possess faster recovery rates from desensitization. ..
  30. Aguado F, Díaz Ruiz C, Parlato R, MARTINEZ A, Carmona M, Bleckmann S, et al. The CREB/CREM transcription factors negatively regulate early synaptogenesis and spontaneous network activity. J Neurosci. 2009;29:328-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the functions of CREB/CREM genes in neural activity differ in distinct periods of neural development. ..
  31. Kaczmarek L, Kossut M, Skangiel Kramska J. Glutamate receptors in cortical plasticity: molecular and cellular biology. Physiol Rev. 1997;77:217-55 pubmed
    ..Functional studies involving either activation or blocking, and effects of such manipulation on cortical plasticity are discussed...
  32. Wang H, Liu H, Zhang Z. Elimination of redundant synaptic inputs in the absence of synaptic strengthening. J Neurosci. 2011;31:16675-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of GluA3 or GluA4 caused significant reductions of synaptic AMPAR currents in thalamic neurons at P16-P17, with a greater ..
  33. Bannerman P, Horiuchi M, Feldman D, Hahn A, Itoh A, See J, et al. GluR2-free alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptors intensify demyelination in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neurochem. 2007;102:1064-70 pubmed
    ..lineage cells from mice lacking functional copies of the gene encoding the GluR3 AMPA receptor subunit (Gria3) had a diminished capacity to assemble edited GluR2-free AMPA receptors, and were resistant to excitotoxicity in ..
  34. Sanchis D, Fleury C, Chomiki N, Goubern M, Huang Q, Neverova M, et al. BMCP1, a novel mitochondrial carrier with high expression in the central nervous system of humans and rodents, and respiration uncoupling activity in recombinant yeast. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:34611-5 pubmed
  35. Gutierrez Castellanos N, Da Silva Matos C, Zhou K, Canto C, Renner M, Koene L, et al. Motor Learning Requires Purkinje Cell Synaptic Potentiation through Activation of AMPA-Receptor Subunit GluA3. Neuron. 2017;93:409-424 pubmed publisher
    ..parallel-fiber-to-Purkinje-cell synapse and adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex depend not on GluA1- but on GluA3-containing AMPARs...
  36. Eom T, Zhang C, Wang H, Lay K, Fak J, Noebels J, et al. NOVA-dependent regulation of cryptic NMD exons controls synaptic protein levels after seizure. elife. 2013;2:e00178 pubmed publisher
    ..The data reveal a hidden means of dynamic RNA regulation linking electrical activity to splicing and protein output, and of mediating homeostatic excitation/inhibition balance in neurons.DOI: ..
  37. Beyer B, Deleuze C, Letts V, Mahaffey C, Boumil R, Lew T, et al. Absence seizures in C3H/HeJ and knockout mice caused by mutation of the AMPA receptor subunit Gria4. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:1738-49 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, null mutants for the related gene Gria3 do not have SWD, and Gria3 loss actually lowers SWD of spkw1 homozygotes...
  38. Sommer B, Kohler M, Sprengel R, Seeburg P. RNA editing in brain controls a determinant of ion flow in glutamate-gated channels. Cell. 1991;67:11-9 pubmed
    ..This process apparently edits subunit transcripts of the two glutamate receptor classes with different efficiency and selectivity. ..
  39. Liu S, Zhang M, Cheng L, Shi J, Lu J, Zhuo M. Long-term upregulation of cortical glutamatergic AMPA receptors in a mouse model of chronic visceral pain. Mol Brain. 2015;8:76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide direct evidence for cortical AMPA receptors to contribute to zymosan-induced visceral and spontaneous pain and inhibition of AC1 activity may help to reduce chronic visceral pain. ..
  40. Linden A, Johnson B, Trokovic N, Korpi E, Schoepp D. Use of MGLUR2 and MGLUR3 knockout mice to explore in vivo receptor specificity of the MGLUR2/3 selective antagonist LY341495. Neuropharmacology. 2009;57:172-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Alternatively, functions of mGluR2 and mGluR3 may be redundant, resulting similar effects irrespective the receptor subtype being antagonized in vivo by LY341495. ..
  41. Aguado F, Carmona M, Pozas E, Aguiló A, Martinez Guijarro F, Alcantara S, et al. BDNF regulates spontaneous correlated activity at early developmental stages by increasing synaptogenesis and expression of the K+/Cl- co-transporter KCC2. Development. 2003;130:1267-80 pubmed
    ..Given that BDNF itself is regulated by neuronal activity, we suggest that BDNF acts as a homeostatic factor controlling the emergence, complexity and networking properties of spontaneous networks. ..
  42. Sakimura K, Morita T, Kushiya E, Mishina M. Primary structure and expression of the gamma 2 subunit of the glutamate receptor channel selective for kainate. Neuron. 1992;8:267-74 pubmed
    ..Expression of the gamma 2 subunit together with the beta 2 subunit in Xenopus oocytes yields functional glutamate receptor channels selective for kainate. ..
  43. Bouwman J, Maia A, Camoletto P, Posthuma G, Roubos E, Oorschot V, et al. Quantification of synapse formation and maintenance in vivo in the absence of synaptic release. Neuroscience. 2004;126:115-26 pubmed
    ..These two observations suggest that secretion of neurotransmitters and neuromodulatory substances is required for synapse maintenance, not for synaptogenesis. Multivesicular structures may develop out of unstable synapses. ..
  44. Rembach A, Turner B, Bruce S, Cheah I, Scott R, Lopes E, et al. Antisense peptide nucleic acid targeting GluR3 delays disease onset and progression in the SOD1 G93A mouse model of familial ALS. J Neurosci Res. 2004;77:573-82 pubmed
    ..In particular, the Ca(2+) permeable glutamate receptor subunit 3 (GluR3) has been implicated in several neurologic conditions such as bipolar disorder and epilepsy...
  45. Sanchis Segura C, Borchardt T, Vengeliene V, Zghoul T, Bachteler D, Gass P, et al. Involvement of the AMPA receptor GluR-C subunit in alcohol-seeking behavior and relapse. J Neurosci. 2006;26:1231-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, AMPA receptors seem to be involved in the neuroplastic changes underlying alcohol seeking behavior and relapse. Thus, AMPA receptors represent a novel therapeutic target in preventing relapse. ..
  46. Liu X, Oliver F, Brown S, Denny P, Keightley P. High-resolution quantitative trait locus mapping for body weight in mice by recombinant progeny testing. Genet Res. 2001;77:191-7 pubmed
  47. Holst B, Vanderklish P, Krushel L, Zhou W, Langdon R, McWhirter J, et al. Allosteric modulation of AMPA-type glutamate receptors increases activity of the promoter for the neural cell adhesion molecule, N-CAM. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:2597-602 pubmed
  48. Hashimoto K, Fukaya M, Qiao X, Sakimura K, Watanabe M, Kano M. Impairment of AMPA receptor function in cerebellar granule cells of ataxic mutant mouse stargazer. J Neurosci. 1999;19:6027-36 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the defect in MF to GC synaptic transmission is a major factor that causes the cerebellar dysfunction in the stg mutant mouse. ..
  49. Sans N, Vissel B, Petralia R, Wang Y, Chang K, Royle G, et al. Aberrant formation of glutamate receptor complexes in hippocampal neurons of mice lacking the GluR2 AMPA receptor subunit. J Neurosci. 2003;23:9367-73 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that in the absence of GluR2, aberrant receptor complexes composed of GluR1 and GluR3 are formed in the hippocampus, and that there is an increased number of homomeric GluR1 and GluR3 receptors...
  50. Tamura S, Morikawa Y, Iwanishi H, Hisaoka T, Senba E. Foxp1 gene expression in projection neurons of the mouse striatum. Neuroscience. 2004;124:261-7 pubmed
    ..The expression pattern of Foxp1 mRNA suggests that Foxp1 may play a role in the development and formation of a circuit in the basal ganglia, which is involving the matrix neurons. ..
  51. Nash S, Giros B, Kingsmore S, Rochelle J, Suter S, Gregor P, et al. Cloning, pharmacological characterization, and genomic localization of the human creatine transporter. Receptors Channels. 1994;2:165-74 pubmed
    ..Genetic mapping in the mouse localizes the creatine transporter to a region on the X chromosome in linkage conservation with the human region Xq28, the location of the genes for several neuromuscular diseases. ..
  52. Yang Y, Aitoubah J, Lauer A, Nuriya M, Takamiya K, Jia Z, et al. GluA4 is indispensable for driving fast neurotransmission across a high-fidelity central synapse. J Physiol. 2011;589:4209-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these subunits, rapidly gating GluA3/4 appears to be the most abundantly expressed to enable neurotransmission with submillisecond precision at fast ..
  53. Yamasaki M, Fukaya M, Yamazaki M, Azechi H, Natsume R, Abe M, et al. TARP ?-2 and ?-8 Differentially Control AMPAR Density Across Schaffer Collateral/Commissural Synapses in the Hippocampal CA1 Area. J Neurosci. 2016;36:4296-312 pubmed publisher
    ..In comparison, TARP ?-8 is the only TARP expressed at nonperforated type of pyramidal cell synapses, playing an essential role in low-density or basal AMPAR expression. ..
  54. Zhang C, Hammassaki Britto D, Britto L, Duvoisin R. Expression of glutamate receptor subunit genes during development of the mouse retina. Neuroreport. 1996;8:335-40 pubmed
    ..This suggests they play a role in the processes of neuronal differentiation and synaptogenesis that occur during the early postnatal days in the rodent retina. ..
  55. Kneussel M, Brandstätter J, Laube B, Stahl S, Muller U, Betz H. Loss of postsynaptic GABA(A) receptor clustering in gephyrin-deficient mice. J Neurosci. 1999;19:9289-97 pubmed
    ..In addition, gephyrin may be important for efficient membrane insertion and/or metabolic stabilization of inhibitory receptors at developing postsynaptic sites. ..
  56. Kougioumtzidou E, Shimizu T, Hamilton N, Tohyama K, Sprengel R, Monyer H, et al. Signalling through AMPA receptors on oligodendrocyte precursors promotes myelination by enhancing oligodendrocyte survival. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..Murine OPs in white matter express AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunits GluA2, GluA3 and GluA4...
  57. Chen N, Pandya N, Koopmans F, Castelo Székelv V, van der Schors R, Smit A, et al. Interaction proteomics reveals brain region-specific AMPA receptor complexes. J Proteome Res. 2014;13:5695-706 pubmed publisher
    ..Depending on the brain region, an interacting protein can be involved in an AMPA and a non-AMPA receptor complex. ..
  58. Doretto S, Malerba M, Ramos M, Ikrar T, Kinoshita C, De Mei C, et al. Oligodendrocytes as regulators of neuronal networks during early postnatal development. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19849 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show a novel oligodendrocyte function expressed during early postnatal brain development, where these cells participate in the formation of cerebellar circuitries, and influence its development. ..
  59. Reinders N, Pao Y, Renner M, Da Silva Matos C, Lodder T, Malinow R, et al. Amyloid-? effects on synapses and memory require AMPA receptor subunit GluA3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E6526-E6534 pubmed
    ..We show that all A?-driven effects measured in these mice depend on AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunit GluA3. Hippocampal neurons that lack GluA3 were resistant against A?-mediated synaptic depression and spine loss...
  60. Altimimi H, Stellwagen D. Persistent synaptic scaling independent of AMPA receptor subunit composition. J Neurosci. 2013;33:11763-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed HSP in cultures from GluA1?/?, GluA2?/?, and GluA2?/? GluA3?/? mice, and conclude that, as with LTP, there is no subunit requirement for HSP.
  61. Huang L, Barclay M, Lee K, Peter S, Housley G, Thorne P, et al. Synaptic profiles during neurite extension, refinement and retraction in the developing cochlea. Neural Dev. 2012;7:38 pubmed publisher
    ..The OHC connections are then selectively eliminated, leaving sparse innervation by type II afferent fibres, whilst the type I afferent synapses with IHCs are consolidated...
  62. Corbetta S, Gualdoni S, Ciceri G, Monari M, Zuccaro E, Tybulewicz V, et al. Essential role of Rac1 and Rac3 GTPases in neuronal development. FASEB J. 2009;23:1347-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show for the first time that both Rac1 and Rac3 are important for the development of the nervous system, wherein they play complementary roles during late stages of neuronal and brain development. ..
  63. Aruscavage P, Bass B. A phylogenetic analysis reveals an unusual sequence conservation within introns involved in RNA editing. RNA. 2000;6:257-69 pubmed
    ..The approximately 600-nt intron 13 of gluR-C was particularly remarkable, showing >94% nucleotide identity between human and chicken, organisms estimated to have diverged 310 million years ago. ..
  64. Pierre K, Chatton J, Parent A, Repond C, Gardoni F, Di Luca M, et al. Linking supply to demand: the neuronal monocarboxylate transporter MCT2 and the alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptor GluR2/3 subunit are associated in a common trafficking process. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;29:1951-63 pubmed publisher
    ..MCT2 emerges as a novel component of the synaptic machinery putatively linking neuroenergetics to synaptic transmission. ..
  65. Utvik J, Haglerød C, Mylonakou M, Holen T, Kropf M, Hirling H, et al. Neuronal enriched endosomal protein of 21 kDa colocalizes with glutamate receptor subunit GLUR2/3 at the postsynaptic membrane. Neuroscience. 2009;158:96-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings are consistent with a role for NEEP21 in facilitating vesicular transport of GluR2 between intracellular compartments and the postsynaptic plasma membrane. ..
  66. Jiang J, Parameshwaran K, Seibenhener M, Kang M, Suppiramaniam V, Huganir R, et al. AMPA receptor trafficking and synaptic plasticity require SQSTM1/p62. Hippocampus. 2009;19:392-406 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support a model where p62 interaction and aPKC phosphorylation act together to mediate AMPA receptor trafficking and long-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. ..
  67. Ancona Esselmann S, Díaz Alonso J, Levy J, Bemben M, Nicoll R. Synaptic homeostasis requires the membrane-proximal carboxy tail of GluA2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:13266-13271 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our results point to a critical role for a single amino acid within the membrane-proximal region of the GluA2 cytoplasmic tail, and suggest a distinct model for the regulation of AMPAR trafficking in synaptic homeostasis. ..