Gene Symbol: Gria2
Description: glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA2 (alpha 2)
Alias: GluA2, GluR-B, Glur-2, Glur2, gluR-K2, glutamate receptor 2, AMPA selective glutamate receptor, AMPA-selective glutamate receptor 2, glutamate receptor B, glutamate receptor ionotropic, AMPA 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Gria2

Top Publications

  1. Sommer B, Kohler M, Sprengel R, Seeburg P. RNA editing in brain controls a determinant of ion flow in glutamate-gated channels. Cell. 1991;67:11-9 pubmed
    ..This process apparently edits subunit transcripts of the two glutamate receptor classes with different efficiency and selectivity. ..
  2. Adesnik H, Nicoll R. Conservation of glutamate receptor 2-containing AMPA receptors during long-term potentiation. J Neurosci. 2007;27:4598-602 pubmed
    ..Here, we rigorously test these hypotheses and conclude that calcium-permeable AMPA receptors are not inserted during LTP nor does potentiation require ongoing activity to be maintained. ..
  3. Asrar S, Zhou Z, Ren W, Jia Z. Ca(2+) permeable AMPA receptor induced long-term potentiation requires PI3/MAP kinases but not Ca/CaM-dependent kinase II. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4339 pubmed publisher
    Ca(2+) influx via GluR2-lacking Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA glutamate receptors (CP-AMPARs) can trigger changes in synaptic efficacy in both interneurons and principle neurons, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown...
  4. Yan J, Zhang Y, Jia Z, Taverna F, McDonald R, Muller R, et al. Place-cell impairment in glutamate receptor 2 mutant mice. J Neurosci. 2002;22:RC204 pubmed
    ..We made glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) null mutant mice that show enhanced non-Hebbian LTP in hippocampal CA1 neurons and impaired ..
  5. Shimshek D, Jensen V, Celikel T, Geng Y, Schupp B, Bus T, et al. Forebrain-specific glutamate receptor B deletion impairs spatial memory but not hippocampal field long-term potentiation. J Neurosci. 2006;26:8428-40 pubmed
    We demonstrate the fundamental importance of glutamate receptor B (GluR-B) containing AMPA receptors in hippocampal function by analyzing mice with conditional GluR-B deficiency in postnatal forebrain principal neurons (GluR-B(deltaFb))...
  6. Huang L, Barclay M, Lee K, Peter S, Housley G, Thorne P, et al. Synaptic profiles during neurite extension, refinement and retraction in the developing cochlea. Neural Dev. 2012;7:38 pubmed publisher
    ..The OHC connections are then selectively eliminated, leaving sparse innervation by type II afferent fibres, whilst the type I afferent synapses with IHCs are consolidated...
  7. Liberman L, Wang H, Liberman M. Opposing gradients of ribbon size and AMPA receptor expression underlie sensitivity differences among cochlear-nerve/hair-cell synapses. J Neurosci. 2011;31:801-8 pubmed publisher
    ..imaging of mouse cochleas immunostained for CtBP2 (C-terminal binding protein 2, a major ribbon protein) and GluR2/3 (glutamate receptors 2 and 3)...
  8. Lu Y, Allen M, Halt A, Weisenhaus M, Dallapiazza R, Hall D, et al. Age-dependent requirement of AKAP150-anchored PKA and GluR2-lacking AMPA receptors in LTP. EMBO J. 2007;26:4879-90 pubmed
    ..It abolished hippocampal LTP in 7-12 but not 4-week-old mice. Inhibitors of PKA and of GluR2-lacking AMPA receptors blocked single tetanus LTP in hippocampal slices of 8 but not 4-week-old WT mice...
  9. Wang S, Jia Z, Roder J, Murphy T. AMPA receptor-mediated miniature synaptic calcium transients in GluR2 null mice. J Neurophysiol. 2002;88:29-40 pubmed
    AMPA-type glutamate receptors are normally Ca(2+) impermeable due to the expression of the GluR2 receptor subunit...

More Information


  1. Lu W, Shi Y, Jackson A, Bjorgan K, During M, Sprengel R, et al. Subunit composition of synaptic AMPA receptors revealed by a single-cell genetic approach. Neuron. 2009;62:254-68 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a functional quantification of the subunit composition of AMPARs in the CNS and suggests novel roles for AMPAR subunits in receptor trafficking. ..
  2. Mameli M, Balland B, Lujan R, Lüscher C. Rapid synthesis and synaptic insertion of GluR2 for mGluR-LTD in the ventral tegmental area. Science. 2007;317:530-3 pubmed
    ..We show that mGluR-LTD is expressed by an exchange of GluR2-lacking AMPA receptors for GluR2-containing receptors with a lower single-channel conductance...
  3. Sun L, June Liu S. Activation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors induces a PKC-dependent switch in AMPA receptor subtypes in mouse cerebellar stellate cells. J Physiol. 2007;583:537-53 pubmed
    ..This extrasynaptic NMDAR-induced switch in synaptic AMPARs from GluR2-lacking (Ca(2+)-permeable) to GluR2-containing (Ca(2+)-impermeable) receptors requires the activation of protein ..
  4. Kask K, Zamanillo D, Rozov A, Burnashev N, Sprengel R, Seeburg P. The AMPA receptor subunit GluR-B in its Q/R site-unedited form is not essential for brain development and function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:13777-82 pubmed
    ..This constitutes proof in vivo that elevated calcium influx through AMPARs need not generate pathophysiological consequences. ..
  5. Gerlai R, Henderson J, Roder J, Jia Z. Multiple behavioral anomalies in GluR2 mutant mice exhibiting enhanced LTP. Behav Brain Res. 1998;95:37-45 pubmed
    We have previously disrupted the ionotropic glutamate receptor type 2 gene (GluR2) using gene targeting in embryonic stem cells and generated mice which lacked the GluR2 gene product...
  6. Steinberg J, Takamiya K, Shen Y, Xia J, Rubio M, Yu S, et al. Targeted in vivo mutations of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 and its interacting protein PICK1 eliminate cerebellar long-term depression. Neuron. 2006;49:845-60 pubmed
    ..Phosphorylation of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 on serine-880 as well as interaction of GluR2 with PICK1 have been suggested to contribute to the endocytic ..
  7. Higuchi M, Maas S, Single F, Hartner J, Rozov A, Burnashev N, et al. Point mutation in an AMPA receptor gene rescues lethality in mice deficient in the RNA-editing enzyme ADAR2. Nature. 2000;406:78-81 pubmed
    ..We conclude that this transcript is the physiologically most important substrate of ADAR2. ..
  8. Gray E, Fink A, Sarinana J, Vissel B, O Dell T. Long-term potentiation in the hippocampal CA1 region does not require insertion and activation of GluR2-lacking AMPA receptors. J Neurophysiol. 2007;98:2488-92 pubmed
    ..Although it is widely accepted that the AMPA receptors at these synapses contain glutamate receptor type 2 (GluR2) subunits, recent findings suggest that LTP in hippocampal slices obtained from 2- to 3-wk-old rodents is ..
  9. Hartmann B, Ahmadi S, Heppenstall P, Lewin G, Schott C, Borchardt T, et al. The AMPA receptor subunits GluR-A and GluR-B reciprocally modulate spinal synaptic plasticity and inflammatory pain. Neuron. 2004;44:637-50 pubmed
  10. Chung H, Steinberg J, Huganir R, Linden D. Requirement of AMPA receptor GluR2 phosphorylation for cerebellar long-term depression. Science. 2003;300:1751-5 pubmed
    ..LTD was absent in cultured cerebellar Purkinje cells from mutant mice lacking the AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit and could be rescued by transient transfection with the wild-type GluR2 subunit...
  11. Youn D, Royle G, Kolaj M, Vissel B, Randic M. Enhanced LTP of primary afferent neurotransmission in AMPA receptor GluR2-deficient mice. Pain. 2008;136:158-67 pubmed
    ..potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in the SDH, was investigated using mice deficient in AMPAR GluR2 subunit...
  12. Park J, Voitenko N, Petralia R, Guan X, Xu J, Steinberg J, et al. Persistent inflammation induces GluR2 internalization via NMDA receptor-triggered PKC activation in dorsal horn neurons. J Neurosci. 2009;29:3206-19 pubmed publisher
    Spinal cord GluR2-lacking AMPA receptors (AMPARs) contribute to nociceptive hypersensitivity in persistent pain, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this event are not completely understood...
  13. Brusa R, Zimmermann F, Koh D, Feldmeyer D, Gass P, Seeburg P, et al. Early-onset epilepsy and postnatal lethality associated with an editing-deficient GluR-B allele in mice. Science. 1995;270:1677-80 pubmed
    ..These mice developed seizures and died by 3 weeks of age, showing that GluR-B pre-mRNA editing is essential for brain function. ..
  14. Gardner S, Takamiya K, Xia J, Suh J, Johnson R, Yu S, et al. Calcium-permeable AMPA receptor plasticity is mediated by subunit-specific interactions with PICK1 and NSF. Neuron. 2005;45:903-15 pubmed
    ..Since the AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit confers calcium permeability, this plasticity is thought to occur through the dynamic exchange of synaptic ..
  15. Panicker S, Brown K, Nicoll R. Synaptic AMPA receptor subunit trafficking is independent of the C terminus in the GluR2-lacking mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1032-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In hippocampal pyramidal cells, AMPA receptors are heteromeric receptors containing the GluR2 subunit and either GluR1 or GluR3...
  16. Petralia R, Sans N, Wang Y, Vissel B, Chang K, Noben Trauth K, et al. Loss of GLUR2 alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleproprionic acid receptor subunit differentially affects remaining synaptic glutamate receptors in cerebellum and cochlear nuclei. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;19:2017-29 pubmed
    ..Most AMPA receptors are impermeable to calcium because they contain the GluR2 subunit...
  17. Jensen V, Kaiser K, Borchardt T, Adelmann G, Rozov A, Burnashev N, et al. A juvenile form of postsynaptic hippocampal long-term potentiation in mice deficient for the AMPA receptor subunit GluR-A. J Physiol. 2003;553:843-56 pubmed
    ..Our results show that in the developing hippocampus synaptic plasticity can be expressed by AMPA receptors lacking the GluR-A subunit. ..
  18. Hashimoto K, Fukaya M, Qiao X, Sakimura K, Watanabe M, Kano M. Impairment of AMPA receptor function in cerebellar granule cells of ataxic mutant mouse stargazer. J Neurosci. 1999;19:6027-36 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the defect in MF to GC synaptic transmission is a major factor that causes the cerebellar dysfunction in the stg mutant mouse. ..
  19. Meng Y, Zhang Y, Jia Z. Synaptic transmission and plasticity in the absence of AMPA glutamate receptor GluR2 and GluR3. Neuron. 2003;39:163-76 pubmed
    The AMPA glutamate receptor (AMPAR) subunits GluR2 and GluR3 are thought to be important for synaptic targeting/stabilization of AMPARs and the expression of hippocampal long-term depression (LTD)...
  20. Krestel H, Shimshek D, Jensen V, Nevian T, Kim J, Geng Y, et al. A genetic switch for epilepsy in adult mice. J Neurosci. 2004;24:10568-78 pubmed
  21. Sans N, Vissel B, Petralia R, Wang Y, Chang K, Royle G, et al. Aberrant formation of glutamate receptor complexes in hippocampal neurons of mice lacking the GluR2 AMPA receptor subunit. J Neurosci. 2003;23:9367-73 pubmed
    ..To investigate the mechanism that neurons use to regulate the assembly of receptor subunits, we studied a GluR2 knock-out mouse...
  22. Feldmeyer D, Kask K, Brusa R, Kornau H, Kolhekar R, Rozov A, et al. Neurological dysfunctions in mice expressing different levels of the Q/R site-unedited AMPAR subunit GluR-B. Nat Neurosci. 1999;2:57-64 pubmed
    ..Thus, changes in GluR-B gene expression and Q/R site editing can affect critical architectural and functional aspects of excitatory principal neurons. ..
  23. Jia Z, Agopyan N, Miu P, Xiong Z, Henderson J, Gerlai R, et al. Enhanced LTP in mice deficient in the AMPA receptor GluR2. Neuron. 1996;17:945-56 pubmed
    ..However, one subunit of the AMPARs, GluR2, is also known to control Ca2+ influx...
  24. Iihara K, Joo D, Henderson J, Sattler R, Taverna F, Lourensen S, et al. The influence of glutamate receptor 2 expression on excitotoxicity in Glur2 null mutant mice. J Neurosci. 2001;21:2224-39 pubmed
    ..Consequently, the mechanisms governing AMPAR-mediated excitotoxicity have been difficult to elucidate. The GluR2 subunit is of particular interest because it influences AMPAR pharmacology, Ca(2+) permeability, and AMPAR ..
  25. Hollmann M, Heinemann S. Cloned glutamate receptors. Annu Rev Neurosci. 1994;17:31-108 pubmed
  26. Matsugami T, Tanemura K, Mieda M, Nakatomi R, Yamada K, Kondo T, et al. From the Cover: Indispensability of the glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT1 to brain development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:12161-6 pubmed
  27. Puyal J, Sage C, Demêmes D, Dechesne C. Distribution of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4 isoazolepropionic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits in the vestibular and spiral ganglia of the mouse during early development. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2002;139:51-7 pubmed
    ..distribution of the glutamate receptor subunits, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4 isoazolepropionic acid (AMPA) GluR2 and GluR2/R3, and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) NR1, and the timing of their appearance during early development of ..
  28. Brene S, Messer C, Okado H, Hartley M, Heinemann S, Nestler E. Regulation of GluR2 promoter activity by neurotrophic factors via a neuron-restrictive silencer element. Eur J Neurosci. 2000;12:1525-33 pubmed
    The AMPA glutamate receptor subunit GluR2, which plays a critical role in regulation of AMPA channel function, shows altered levels of expression in vivo after several chronic perturbations...
  29. Holst B, Vanderklish P, Krushel L, Zhou W, Langdon R, McWhirter J, et al. Allosteric modulation of AMPA-type glutamate receptors increases activity of the promoter for the neural cell adhesion molecule, N-CAM. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:2597-602 pubmed
  30. Ellis A, Fosnocht A, Lucerne K, Briand L. Disruption of GluA2 phosphorylation potentiates stress responsivity. Behav Brain Res. 2017;333:83-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposure to both cocaine and stress can lead to alterations in protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of GluA2 AMPA subunits and thus alter the trafficking of GluA2-containing AMPARs...
  31. Mateo Z, Porter J. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors inhibit glutamate release at thalamocortical synapses in the developing somatosensory cortex. Neuroscience. 2007;146:1062-72 pubmed
    ..This inhibition provides a feedback mechanism for preventing excessive excitation of cortical neurons that could play a role in the plasticity and refinement of thalamocortical connections during this early developmental period. ..
  32. Yu W, Appler J, Kim Y, Nishitani A, Holt J, Goodrich L. A Gata3-Mafb transcriptional network directs post-synaptic differentiation in synapses specialized for hearing. elife. 2013;2:e01341 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, Mafb is a powerful regulator of cell-type specific features of auditory synaptogenesis that offers a new entry point for treating hearing loss. DOI:
  33. Sakimura K, Morita T, Kushiya E, Mishina M. Primary structure and expression of the gamma 2 subunit of the glutamate receptor channel selective for kainate. Neuron. 1992;8:267-74 pubmed
    ..Expression of the gamma 2 subunit together with the beta 2 subunit in Xenopus oocytes yields functional glutamate receptor channels selective for kainate. ..
  34. Linden A, Baez M, Bergeron M, Schoepp D. Effects of mGlu2 or mGlu3 receptor deletions on mGlu2/3 receptor agonist (LY354740)-induced brain c-Fos expression: specific roles for mGlu2 in the amygdala and subcortical nuclei, and mGlu3 in the hippocampus. Neuropharmacology. 2006;51:213-28 pubmed
  35. Inagaki H, Maeda S, Lin K, Shimizu N, Saito T. rDLG6: a novel homolog of Drosophila DLG expressed in rat brain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;265:462-8 pubmed
    ..GST pull-down assays showed that the PDZ domain of rDLG6 protein binds to the C-terminus of the AMPA (alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-Methyl-isoxazole-4-Propionic Acid) receptor GluR2 subunit.
  36. Kaczmarek L, Kossut M, Skangiel Kramska J. Glutamate receptors in cortical plasticity: molecular and cellular biology. Physiol Rev. 1997;77:217-55 pubmed
    ..Functional studies involving either activation or blocking, and effects of such manipulation on cortical plasticity are discussed...
  37. Schuurmans C, Armant O, Nieto M, Stenman J, Britz O, Klenin N, et al. Sequential phases of cortical specification involve Neurogenin-dependent and -independent pathways. EMBO J. 2004;23:2892-902 pubmed
    ..Our study thus reveals an unanticipated heterogeneity in the genetic mechanisms specifying the identity of neocortical projection neurons. ..
  38. Ives J, Fung S, Tiwari P, Payne H, Thompson C. Microtubule-associated protein light chain 2 is a stargazin-AMPA receptor complex-interacting protein in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:31002-9 pubmed
    ..soluble cerebellar extracts revealed that LC2 is pulled down not only by anti-stargazin antibodies but also anti-GluR2 antibodies suggesting that stargazin and AMPA receptor subunits associate with LC2...
  39. Hideyama T, Yamashita T, Suzuki T, Tsuji S, Higuchi M, Seeburg P, et al. Induced loss of ADAR2 engenders slow death of motor neurons from Q/R site-unedited GluR2. J Neurosci. 2010;30:11917-25 pubmed publisher
    b>GluR2 is a subunit of the AMPA receptor, and the adenosine for the Q/R site of its pre-mRNA is converted to inosine (A-to-I conversion) by the enzyme called adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2)...
  40. Kohda K, Kamiya Y, Matsuda S, Kato K, Umemori H, Yuzaki M. Heteromer formation of delta2 glutamate receptors with AMPA or kainate receptors. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003;110:27-37 pubmed
    ..receptors were partially co-immunoprecipitated from cerebellar synaptosomal fractions by antibodies against GluR2 or KA2...
  41. Doretto S, Malerba M, Ramos M, Ikrar T, Kinoshita C, De Mei C, et al. Oligodendrocytes as regulators of neuronal networks during early postnatal development. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19849 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show a novel oligodendrocyte function expressed during early postnatal brain development, where these cells participate in the formation of cerebellar circuitries, and influence its development. ..
  42. Yamashita T, Hideyama T, Hachiga K, Teramoto S, Takano J, Iwata N, et al. A role for calpain-dependent cleavage of TDP-43 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathology. Nat Commun. 2012;3:1307 pubmed publisher
    ..fragments and causes mislocalization of TDP-43 in the motor neurons expressing glutamine/arginine site-unedited GluA2 of conditional ADAR2 knockout (AR2) mice that mimic the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathology...
  43. Xiang J, Yang H, Zhao T, Sun M, Xu X, Zhou X, et al. Huntingtin-associated protein 1 regulates postnatal neurogenesis and neurotrophin receptor sorting. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:85-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that intracellular sorting of neurotrophin receptors is critical for postnatal neurogenesis and could provide a therapeutic target for defective postnatal neurogenesis. ..
  44. HARLOW D, Saul K, Komuro H, Macklin W. Myelin Proteolipid Protein Complexes with αv Integrin and AMPA Receptors In Vivo and Regulates AMPA-Dependent Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cell Migration through the Modulation of Cell-Surface GluR2 Expression. J Neurosci. 2015;35:12018-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that in wild-type cerebellum, PLP associates with αv integrin and the calcium-impermeable GluR2 subunit of the AMPA receptor, but in mice lacking PLP, αv integrin did not associate with GluR2...
  45. MATTA J, Pelkey K, Craig M, Chittajallu R, Jeffries B, McBain C. Developmental origin dictates interneuron AMPA and NMDA receptor subunit composition and plasticity. Nat Neurosci. 2013;16:1032-41 pubmed publisher
    ..MGE-derived interneuron synapses were dominated by GluA2-lacking AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs), with little contribution from NMDA-type receptors (NMDARs) ..
  46. Schonewille M, Gao Z, Boele H, Veloz M, Amerika W, Simek A, et al. Reevaluating the role of LTD in cerebellar motor learning. Neuron. 2011;70:43-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that PF-PC LTD is not essential for cerebellar motor learning. ..
  47. Corbetta S, Gualdoni S, Ciceri G, Monari M, Zuccaro E, Tybulewicz V, et al. Essential role of Rac1 and Rac3 GTPases in neuronal development. FASEB J. 2009;23:1347-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show for the first time that both Rac1 and Rac3 are important for the development of the nervous system, wherein they play complementary roles during late stages of neuronal and brain development. ..
  48. Van Damme P, Braeken D, Callewaert G, Robberecht W, Van Den Bosch L. GluR2 deficiency accelerates motor neuron degeneration in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2005;64:605-12 pubmed
    ..e. GluR2-lacking) AMPA receptors...
  49. Terrier J, Lüscher C, Pascoli V. Cell-Type Specific Insertion of GluA2-Lacking AMPARs with Cocaine Exposure Leading to Sensitization, Cue-Induced Seeking, and Incubation of Craving. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2016;41:1779-89 pubmed publisher
    ..In D1-MSN, we found the presence of GluA2-lacking α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) after single or chronic non-..
  50. Watson J, Ho H, Greger I. Synaptic transmission and plasticity require AMPA receptor anchoring via its N-terminal domain. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, synaptic transmission and the expression of LTP are dependent upon an AMPAR anchoring mechanism that is driven by the NTD. ..
  51. Christie L, Russell T, Xu J, Wood L, Shepherd G, Contractor A. AMPA receptor desensitization mutation results in severe developmental phenotypes and early postnatal lethality. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:9412-7 pubmed publisher
    ..a knock-in mouse in which a single amino acid residue, which controls desensitization, was mutated in the GluA2 (GluR2) receptor subunit (GluA2(L483Y)). This mutation was homozygous lethal...
  52. Miyazaki T, Hashimoto K, Uda A, Sakagami H, Nakamura Y, Saito S, et al. Disturbance of cerebellar synaptic maturation in mutant mice lacking BSRPs, a novel brain-specific receptor-like protein family. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:4057-64 pubmed
    ..Because cerebellar maturation and plasticity require metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling and resulting PKC activation, BSRPs are likely involved in ER functions supporting PKCalpha activation in PCs. ..
  53. Rozov A, Sprengel R, Seeburg P. GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors in hippocampal CA1 cell synapses: evidence from gene-targeted mice. Front Mol Neurosci. 2012;5:22 pubmed publisher
    The GluA2 subunit in heteromeric alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor channels restricts Ca(2+) permeability and block by polyamines, rendering linear the current-voltage relationship of these ..
  54. Yu G, Zerucha T, Ekker M, Rubenstein J. Evidence that GRIP, a PDZ-domain protein which is expressed in the embryonic forebrain, co-activates transcription with DLX homeodomain proteins. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2001;130:217-30 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these results suggest a link between glutamate receptors, PDZ proteins and the DLX transcription factors, all of which are co-expressed in the developing basal ganglia. ..
  55. Kolleker A, Zhu J, Schupp B, Qin Y, Mack V, Borchardt T, et al. Glutamatergic plasticity by synaptic delivery of GluR-B(long)-containing AMPA receptors. Neuron. 2003;40:1199-212 pubmed
    ..Trafficking of GluR-B(long)-containing receptors thus mediates a GluR-A-independent form of glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the juvenile hippocampus. ..
  56. Wilson S, Householder D, Coppola V, Tessarollo L, Fritzsch B, Lee E, et al. Mutations in Cdh23 cause nonsyndromic hearing loss in waltzer mice. Genomics. 2001;74:228-33 pubmed
    ..Finally, mutations in human CDH23 have recently been described for two loci, DFNB12 and USH1D, which cause nonsyndromic deafness, identifying waltzer as a mouse model for human hearing loss. ..
  57. Mead A, Morris H, Dixon C, Rulten S, Mayne L, Zamanillo D, et al. AMPA receptor GluR2, but not GluR1, subunit deletion impairs emotional response conditioning in mice. Behav Neurosci. 2006;120:241-8 pubmed
    Deletions of gria1 or gria2 genes encoding alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic-acid-receptor subunits differ in their effects on appetitive conditioning...
  58. Beppu K, Kosai Y, Kido M, Akimoto N, Mori Y, Kojima Y, et al. Expression, subunit composition, and function of AMPA-type glutamate receptors are changed in activated microglia; possible contribution of GluA2 (GluR-B)-deficiency under pathological conditions. Glia. 2013;61:881-91 pubmed publisher
    ..of glutamate (Glu) receptors (AMPAR), which are highly Ca(2+) impermeable due to the expression of GluA2. However, the functional importance of AMPAR in microglia remains to be investigated, especially under ..
  59. Cho J, Chen L, Kim M, Chow R, Hille B, Koh D. Characteristics and functions of {alpha}-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptors expressed in mouse pancreatic {alpha}-cells. Endocrinology. 2010;151:1541-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, iGluRs expressed in mouse alpha-cells resemble the low Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptor in brain and can stimulate exocytosis. ..
  60. Chenaux G, Matt L, Hill T, Kaur I, Liu X, Kirk L, et al. Loss of SynDIG1 Reduces Excitatory Synapse Maturation But Not Formation In Vivo. Eneuro. 2016;3: pubmed
    ..Together, these data are consistent with a model in which SynDIG1 regulates the maturation of excitatory synapse structure and function in the mouse hippocampus in vivo. ..
  61. Gonzalez Maeso J, ANG R, Yuen T, Chan P, Weisstaub N, Lopez Gimenez J, et al. Identification of a serotonin/glutamate receptor complex implicated in psychosis. Nature. 2008;452:93-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These regulatory changes indicate that the 2AR-mGluR2 complex may be involved in the altered cortical processes of schizophrenia, and this complex is therefore a promising new target for the treatment of psychosis. ..
  62. Liu X, Munoz A, Jones E. Changes in subcellular localization of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes during postnatal development of mouse thalamus. J Comp Neurol. 1998;395:450-65 pubmed
  63. Rainey Smith S, Andersson D, Williams R, Rattray M. Tumour necrosis factor alpha induces rapid reduction in AMPA receptor-mediated calcium entry in motor neurones by increasing cell surface expression of the GluR2 subunit: relevance to neurodegeneration. J Neurochem. 2010;113:692-703 pubmed publisher
    The alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptor (AMPAR) subunit GluR2, which regulates excitotoxicity and the inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) have both been implicated in motor neurone ..
  64. Hayashi T, Huganir R. Tyrosine phosphorylation and regulation of the AMPA receptor by SRC family tyrosine kinases. J Neurosci. 2004;24:6152-60 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the GluR2 subunit of AMPA receptors is tyrosine phosphorylated in vitro and in vivo by Src family tyrosine kinases on ..
  65. Payne H, Connelly W, Ives J, Lehner R, Furtmuller B, Sieghart W, et al. GABAA alpha6-containing receptors are selectively compromised in cerebellar granule cells of the ataxic mouse, stargazer. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:29130-43 pubmed
    ..We propose that some aspects of assembly, trafficking, targeting, and/or expression of extrasynaptic alpha6-containing GABA(A) receptors in cerebellar granule cells are selectively regulated by AMPA receptor-mediated signaling. ..
  66. Bouwman J, Maia A, Camoletto P, Posthuma G, Roubos E, Oorschot V, et al. Quantification of synapse formation and maintenance in vivo in the absence of synaptic release. Neuroscience. 2004;126:115-26 pubmed
    ..These two observations suggest that secretion of neurotransmitters and neuromodulatory substances is required for synapse maintenance, not for synaptogenesis. Multivesicular structures may develop out of unstable synapses. ..
  67. Lee D, CHUNG J, Chung K, Kang M. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulate AMPA receptor phosphorylation and cell-surface localization in concert with pain-related behavior. Pain. 2012;153:1905-15 pubmed publisher
    ..have shown that elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phosphorylation-dependent trafficking of GluA2 subunit of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptors (AMPA-Rs) are a part of the signaling ..
  68. Aguado F, Carmona M, Pozas E, Aguiló A, Martinez Guijarro F, Alcantara S, et al. BDNF regulates spontaneous correlated activity at early developmental stages by increasing synaptogenesis and expression of the K+/Cl- co-transporter KCC2. Development. 2003;130:1267-80 pubmed
    ..Given that BDNF itself is regulated by neuronal activity, we suggest that BDNF acts as a homeostatic factor controlling the emergence, complexity and networking properties of spontaneous networks. ..
  69. Fontaine R, Olivier P, Massonneau V, Leroux P, Degos V, Lebon S, et al. Vulnerability of white matter towards antenatal hypoxia is linked to a species-dependent regulation of glutamate receptor subunits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:16779-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Gestational hypoxia may regulate the expression of specific glutamate-receptor subunits in fetal mice but not in fetal rats. Therefore, genetic factors may influence the susceptibility of rodents to WMD. ..
  70. Gangadharan V, Wang R, Ulzhöfer B, Luo C, Bardoni R, Bali K, et al. Peripheral calcium-permeable AMPA receptors regulate chronic inflammatory pain in mice. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:1608-23 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this issue, we generated mice specifically lacking either of the key AMPAR subunits, GluA1 or GluA2, in peripheral, pain-sensing neurons (nociceptors), while preserving expression of these subunits in the central ..
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    ..In both control and GluR?2-KO mice, GluA1-3 were localized at PF and CF synapses in PCs, while GluA2-4 were at PF synapses in interneurons...
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    ..the response to neuronal injury by regulating the functional expression of the glutamate receptor subunits GluR2 and NR2B in brain...
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    ..Furthermore, our results indicate that glutamatergic synaptic transmission is controlled by the nanometer-scale regulation of the size of these highly concentrated nanodomains. ..
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    ..internalization of the ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-(AMPA) receptor (AMPAR) subunits GluA1/GluA2 (formerly GluR1/GluR2)...
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    ..blot analysis revealed that after four weeks of SI, mice exhibited up-regulated AMPA receptor subunit (GluR1, GluR2) protein levels in the amygdala and down-regulated hypothalamic 5-HT3 receptor protein levels...
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    The GluA2 subunit of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) regulates excitatory synaptic transmission in neurons...
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    Activity-dependent synaptic delivery of GluR1-, GluR2L-, and GluR4-containing AMPA receptors (-Rs) and removal of GluR2-containing AMPA-Rs mediate synaptic potentiation and depression, respectively...
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    The complete amino acid sequences of two mouse glutamate receptor subunits (GluR1 and GluR2) have been deduced by cloning and sequencing the cDNAs...