Gene Symbol: Gpnmb
Description: glycoprotein (transmembrane) nmb
Alias: DC-HIL, Dchil, ipd, transmembrane glycoprotein NMB, dendritic cell-associated heparin sulfate proteoglycan-dependent integrin ligand, dendritic cell-associated transmembrane protein, iris pigment dispersion, osteoactivin
Species: mouse
Products:     Gpnmb

Top Publications

  1. Howell G, Libby R, Jakobs T, Smith R, Phalan F, Barter J, et al. Axons of retinal ganglion cells are insulted in the optic nerve early in DBA/2J glaucoma. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:1523-37 pubmed
    ..These experiments provide strong evidence for a local insult to axons in the optic nerve. ..
  2. Howell G, Libby R, Marchant J, Wilson L, Cosma I, Smith R, et al. Absence of glaucoma in DBA/2J mice homozygous for wild-type versions of Gpnmb and Tyrp1. BMC Genet. 2007;8:45 pubmed
    ..We have shown previously that mutations in two genes, Gpnmb and Tyrp1, initiate the iris disease...
  3. Owen T, Smock S, Prakash S, Pinder L, Brees D, Krull D, et al. Identification and characterization of the genes encoding human and mouse osteoactivin. Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr. 2003;13:205-20 pubmed
    b>Osteoactivin (OA) is more highly expressed in the bones of osteopetrotic mutant rats (op/op) than in those of their normal littermates and is the homologue of human nmb, a cDNA more highly expressed in melanoma-derived cell lines of low ..
  4. Zhou X, Li F, Kong L, Tomita H, Li C, Cao W. Involvement of inflammation, degradation, and apoptosis in a mouse model of glaucoma. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:31240-8 pubmed
    ..The possibility that altered IL-18 expression in the eye of DBA/2J mice initiates and/or amplifies the pathogenesis of pigmentary glaucoma requires further investigation. ..
  5. Inman D, Sappington R, Horner P, Calkins D. Quantitative correlation of optic nerve pathology with ocular pressure and corneal thickness in the DBA/2 mouse model of glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:986-96 pubmed
    ..In young mice with elevated IOP, the loss of axons resembled that of older animals with similar IOP. Whether corneal thickness is a byproduct of elevated IOP remains unknown, but it may be useful as an index of optic nerve degeneration. ..
  6. Sheng M, Wergedal J, Mohan S, Lau K. Osteoactivin is a novel osteoclastic protein and plays a key role in osteoclast differentiation and activity. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:1451-8 pubmed publisher
    ..protein expression, and in situ immunohistochemical evidence that osteoclasts express high levels of osteoactivin (OA), which had previously been reported to be an osteoblast-specific protein in bone...
  7. Ogawa T, Nikawa T, Furochi H, Kosyoji M, Hirasaka K, Suzue N, et al. Osteoactivin upregulates expression of MMP-3 and MMP-9 in fibroblasts infiltrated into denervated skeletal muscle in mice. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005;289:C697-707 pubmed
    In this study, we examined pathophysiological roles of osteoactivin, a functionally unknown type I membrane glycoprotein, in mouse skeletal muscle atrophied by denervation (sciatic neurectomy)...
  8. Anderson M, Libby R, Mao M, Cosma I, Wilson L, Smith R, et al. Genetic context determines susceptibility to intraocular pressure elevation in a mouse pigmentary glaucoma. BMC Biol. 2006;4:20 pubmed
    DBA/2J (D2) mice develop an age-related form of glaucoma. Their eyes progressively develop iris pigment dispersion and iris atrophy followed by increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucomatous optic nerve damage...
  9. John S, Anderson M, Smith R. Mouse genetics: a tool to help unlock the mechanisms of glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 1999;8:400-12 pubmed
    ..This article summarizes the recent use of mice and the future potential of applying approaches of mouse genetics to intraocular pressure and glaucoma research. ..

More Information


  1. Chung J, Dougherty I, Cruz P, Ariizumi K. Syndecan-4 mediates the coinhibitory function of DC-HIL on T cell activation. J Immunol. 2007;179:5778-84 pubmed
    ..We conclude that SD-4 is the T cell ligand through which DC-HIL mediates its negative coregulatory function. ..
  2. Ripoll V, Irvine K, Ravasi T, Sweet M, Hume D. Gpnmb is induced in macrophages by IFN-gamma and lipopolysaccharide and acts as a feedback regulator of proinflammatory responses. J Immunol. 2007;178:6557-66 pubmed
    ..restricted and further elevated in inflammatory macrophages, and characterized the function of one such gene, gpnmb. Gpnmb mRNA expression was enriched in myelomonocytic cell lines and macrophage-related tissues and strongly up-..
  3. Anderson M, Smith R, Savinova O, Hawes N, Chang B, Zabaleta A, et al. Genetic modification of glaucoma associated phenotypes between AKXD-28/Ty and DBA/2J mice. BMC Genet. 2001;2:1 pubmed DBA/2J mice caused by recessive alleles at two loci, isa and ipd, that cause iris stromal atrophy and iris pigment dispersion, respectively...
  4. Anderson M, Nair K, Amonoo L, Mehalow A, Trantow C, Masli S, et al. GpnmbR150X allele must be present in bone marrow derived cells to mediate DBA/2J glaucoma. BMC Genet. 2008;9:30 pubmed publisher
    The Gpnmb gene encodes a transmembrane protein whose function(s) remain largely unknown. Here, we assess if a mutant allele of Gpnmb confers susceptibility to glaucoma by altering immune functions...
  5. Rose A, Annis M, Dong Z, Pepin F, Hallett M, Park M, et al. ADAM10 releases a soluble form of the GPNMB/Osteoactivin extracellular domain with angiogenic properties. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12093 pubmed publisher
    Glycoprotein non-metastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB)/Osteoactivin (OA) is a transmembrane protein expressed in approximately 40-75% of breast cancers...
  6. Bächner D, Schröder D, Gross G. mRNA expression of the murine glycoprotein (transmembrane) nmb (Gpnmb) gene is linked to the developing retinal pigment epithelium and iris. Brain Res Gene Expr Patterns. 2002;1:159-65 pubmed
    The murine homologue of the human glycoprotein (transmembrane) NMB (GPNMB) gene was identified by subtractive cloning from in vitro cultured murine primary osteoblast cells and subsequent RACE-PCR...
  7. Chang B, Smith R, Hawes N, Anderson M, Zabaleta A, Savinova O, et al. Interacting loci cause severe iris atrophy and glaucoma in DBA/2J mice. Nat Genet. 1999;21:405-9 pubmed
    ..Progeny homozygous for the D2 allele of one locus on chromosome 6 (called ipd) develop an iris pigment dispersion phenotype similar to human PDS...
  8. Shikano S, Bonkobara M, Zukas P, Ariizumi K. Molecular cloning of a dendritic cell-associated transmembrane protein, DC-HIL, that promotes RGD-dependent adhesion of endothelial cells through recognition of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:8125-34 pubmed
    ..We propose that DC-HIL serves as a DC-associated, heparan sulfate proteoglycan-dependent integrin ligand, which may be involved in transendothelial migration of DC. ..
  9. Furochi H, Tamura S, Mameoka M, Yamada C, Ogawa T, Hirasaka K, et al. Osteoactivin fragments produced by ectodomain shedding induce MMP-3 expression via ERK pathway in mouse NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:5743-50 pubmed
    Intact osteoactivin, a novel type I membrane glycoprotein, were shed at a dibasic motif in the juxtamembrane region in C2C12 myoblasts. Extracellular fragments were secreted into the culture media by a putative metalloprotease...
  10. Ripoll V, Meadows N, Raggatt L, Chang M, Pettit A, Cassady A, et al. Microphthalmia transcription factor regulates the expression of the novel osteoclast factor GPNMB. Gene. 2008;413:32-41 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Gpnmb is a macrophage-enriched gene that has also been shown to be expressed in osteoblasts...
  11. Howell G, Macalinao D, Sousa G, Walden M, Soto I, Kneeland S, et al. Molecular clustering identifies complement and endothelin induction as early events in a mouse model of glaucoma. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:1429-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting early molecular events, such as complement and endothelin induction, may provide effective new treatments for human glaucoma. ..
  12. Chung J, Sato K, Dougherty I, Cruz P, Ariizumi K. DC-HIL is a negative regulator of T lymphocyte activation. Blood. 2007;109:4320-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that endogenous DC-HIL is a negative regulator of T lymphocyte activation, and that this native inhibitory function can be blocked by exogenous DC-HIL, leading to enhanced immune responses. ..
  13. Libby R, Li Y, Savinova O, Barter J, Smith R, Nickells R, et al. Susceptibility to neurodegeneration in a glaucoma is modified by Bax gene dosage. PLoS Genet. 2005;1:17-26 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate a need to understand axon-specific degeneration pathways in glaucoma, and they suggest that distinct somal and axonal degeneration pathways may need to be targeted to save vision. ..
  14. Jakobs T, Libby R, Ben Y, John S, Masland R. Retinal ganglion cell degeneration is topological but not cell type specific in DBA/2J mice. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:313-25 pubmed
    ..However, the architecture of the mouse eye seems to preclude a commonly postulated source of mechanical damage within the nerve head. ..
  15. Abdelmagid S, Barbe M, Rico M, Salihoglu S, Arango Hisijara I, Selim A, et al. Osteoactivin, an anabolic factor that regulates osteoblast differentiation and function. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:2334-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Osteoactivin (OA) is a novel glycoprotein that is highly expressed during osteoblast differentiation...
  16. Anderson M, Smith R, Hawes N, Zabaleta A, Chang B, Wiggs J, et al. Mutations in genes encoding melanosomal proteins cause pigmentary glaucoma in DBA/2J mice. Nat Genet. 2002;30:81-5 pubmed
    ..DBA/2J (D2) mice develop a form of pigmentary glaucoma involving iris pigment dispersion (IPD) and iris stromal atrophy (ISA)...
  17. Nguyen J, Soto I, Kim K, Bushong E, Oglesby E, Valiente Soriano F, et al. Myelination transition zone astrocytes are constitutively phagocytic and have synuclein dependent reactivity in glaucoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:1176-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest the possibility that a newly discovered normal degradative pathway for axons might contribute to glaucomatous neurodegeneration. ..
  18. Trantow C, Cuffy T, Fingert J, Kuehn M, Anderson M. Microarray analysis of iris gene expression in mice with mutations influencing pigmentation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:237-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Iris samples from albino mice with a Tyr mutation, pigment dispersion-prone mice with Tyrp1 and Gpnmb mutations, and mice resembling exfoliation syndrome with a Lyst mutation were compared with samples from wild-type ..
  19. Chung J, Tamura K, Akiyoshi H, Cruz P, Ariizumi K. The DC-HIL/syndecan-4 pathway regulates autoimmune responses through myeloid-derived suppressor cells. J Immunol. 2014;192:2576-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that the DC-HIL/SD-4 pathway regulates autoimmune responses by mediating the T cell suppressor function of MDSCs. ..
  20. Kumagai K, Tabu K, Sasaki F, Takami Y, Morinaga Y, Mawatari S, et al. Glycoprotein Nonmetastatic Melanoma B (Gpnmb)-Positive Macrophages Contribute to the Balance between Fibrosis and Fibrolysis during the Repair of Acute Liver Injury in Mice. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0143413 pubmed publisher
    Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma B (Gpnmb), a transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed in macrophages, negatively regulates inflammation...
  21. Prizant H, Taya M, Lerman I, Light A, Sen A, Mitra S, et al. Estrogen maintains myometrial tumors in a lymphangioleiomyomatosis model. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2016;23:265-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we identify glycoprotein NMB (GPNMB) as a melanocytic marker up-regulated in Tsc2-null mouse uteri and human LAM samples...
  22. Kleesattel D, Crish S, Inman D. Decreased Energy Capacity and Increased Autophagic Activity in Optic Nerve Axons With Defective Anterograde Transport. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015;56:8215-27 pubmed publisher
    ..DBA/2J and DBA/2J(wt-gpnmb) control mice 11 to 14 months of age were injected with cholera toxin-B (CTB) to assay anterograde axonal ..
  23. Sheng M, Wergedal J, Mohan S, Amoui M, Baylink D, Lau K. Targeted overexpression of osteoactivin in cells of osteoclastic lineage promotes osteoclastic resorption and bone loss in mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35280 pubmed publisher
    This study sought to test whether targeted overexpression of osteoactivin (OA) in cells of osteoclastic lineage, using the tartrate-resistant acid phosphase (TRAP) exon 1B/C promoter to drive OA expression, would increase bone resorption ..
  24. Lu H, Lu L, Williams R, Jablonski M. Iris transillumination defect and its gene modulators do not correlate with intraocular pressure in the BXD family of mice. Mol Vis. 2016;22:224-33 pubmed
    ..crosses between the C57BL/6J (B6) strain and the glaucoma-prone DBA/2J (D2) strain that has mutations in Tyrp1 and Gpnmb. The role of these genes in the iris transillumination defect (TID) has been well documented; however, their ..
  25. Katayama A, Nakatsuka A, Eguchi J, Murakami K, Teshigawara S, Kanzaki M, et al. Beneficial impact of Gpnmb and its significance as a biomarker in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Sci Rep. 2015;5:16920 pubmed publisher
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Gpnmb is classified as a type 1 membrane protein and its soluble form is secreted by ADAM10-mediated cleavage...
  26. Loftus S, Baxter L, Buac K, Watkins Chow D, Larson D, Pavan W. Comparison of melanoblast expression patterns identifies distinct classes of genes. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2009;22:611-22 pubmed publisher
  27. Sondag G, Salihoglu S, Lababidi S, Crowder D, Moussa F, Abdelmagid S, et al. Osteoactivin induces transdifferentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into osteoblasts. J Cell Physiol. 2014;229:955-66 pubmed publisher
    b>Osteoactivin (OA) is a novel osteogenic factor important for osteoblast differentiation and function...
  28. Tomihari M, Hwang S, Chung J, Cruz P, Ariizumi K. Gpnmb is a melanosome-associated glycoprotein that contributes to melanocyte/keratinocyte adhesion in a RGD-dependent fashion. Exp Dermatol. 2009;18:586-95 pubmed publisher
    b>Gpnmb is a glycosylated transmembrane protein implicated in the development of glaucoma in mice and melanoma in humans. It shares significant amino acid sequence homology with the melanosome protein Pmel-17...
  29. Marques A, Gabriel T, Aten J, van Roomen C, Ottenhoff R, Claessen N, et al. Gpnmb Is a Potential Marker for the Visceral Pathology in Niemann-Pick Type C Disease. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0147208 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcript levels of Gpnmb have been shown to be elevated in various tissues of an NPC mouse model...
  30. Abdelmagid S, Belcher J, Moussa F, Lababidi S, Sondag G, Novak K, et al. Mutation in osteoactivin decreases bone formation in vivo and osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Am J Pathol. 2014;184:697-713 pubmed publisher
    We have previously identified osteoactivin (OA), encoded by Gpnmb, as an osteogenic factor that stimulates osteoblast differentiation in vitro...
  31. Coughlin L, Morrison R, Horner P, Inman D. Mitochondrial morphology differences and mitophagy deficit in murine glaucomatous optic nerve. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015;56:1437-46 pubmed publisher
    ..optic nerve axons of the DBA/2J mouse, a model of glaucoma secondary to iris pigment disease, and the DBA/2(wt-gpnmb) control strain...
  32. Moussa F, Hisijara I, Sondag G, Scott E, Frara N, Abdelmagid S, et al. Osteoactivin promotes osteoblast adhesion through HSPG and ?v?1 integrin. J Cell Biochem. 2014;115:1243-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Osteoactivin (OA), also known as glycoprotein nmb (gpnmb) plays an important role in the regulation of osteoblast differentiation and function...
  33. Chung J, Tamura K, Cruz P, Ariizumi K. DC-HIL-expressing myelomonocytic cells are critical promoters of melanoma growth. J Invest Dermatol. 2014;134:2784-2794 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, DC-HIL is the critical mediator of these cells' suppressor function in melanoma-bearing mice and a potential target for improving melanoma immunotherapy. ..
  34. Porciatti V, Chou T, Feuer W. C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, and DBA/2J.Gpnmb mice have different visual signal processing in the inner retina. Mol Vis. 2010;16:2939-47 pubmed
    ..D2 has two mutated genes, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (Tyrp1) and glycoprotein non-metastatic melanoma protein B (Gpnmb), causing iris disease and intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation after 6 months of age that results in RGC ..
  35. Tomihari M, Chung J, Akiyoshi H, Cruz P, Ariizumi K. DC-HIL/glycoprotein Nmb promotes growth of melanoma in mice by inhibiting the activation of tumor-reactive T cells. Cancer Res. 2010;70:5778-87 pubmed publisher
    DC-HIL/glycoprotein nmb (Gpnmb) expressed on antigen-presenting cells attenuates T-cell activation by binding to syndecan-4 (SD-4) on activated T cells...
  36. Chung J, Yudate T, Tomihari M, Akiyoshi H, Cruz P, Ariizumi K. Binding of DC-HIL to dermatophytic fungi induces tyrosine phosphorylation and potentiates antigen presenting cell function. J Immunol. 2009;183:5190-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support a dual role for DC-HIL: inhibition of adaptive immunity following ligation of syndecan-4 on activated T cells and induction of innate immunity against dermatophytic fungi. ..
  37. Yu B, Sondag G, Malcuit C, Kim M, Safadi F. Macrophage-Associated Osteoactivin/GPNMB Mediates Mesenchymal Stem Cell Survival, Proliferation, and Migration Via a CD44-Dependent Mechanism. J Cell Biochem. 2016;117:1511-21 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Osteoactivin (OA)/Glycoprotein non-metastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB), a transmembrane glycoprotein that plays a role in ..
  38. Sondag G, Mbimba T, Moussa F, Novak K, Yu B, Jaber F, et al. Osteoactivin inhibition of osteoclastogenesis is mediated through CD44-ERK signaling. Exp Mol Med. 2016;48:e257 pubmed publisher
    b>Osteoactivin is a heavily glycosylated protein shown to have a role in bone remodeling. Previous studies from our lab have shown that mutation in Osteoactivin enhances osteoclast differentiation but inhibits their function...
  39. Harder J, Braine C, Williams P, Zhu X, MacNicoll K, Sousa G, et al. Early immune responses are independent of RGC dysfunction in glaucoma with complement component C3 being protective. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E3839-E3848 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, therapies that target specific components of the complement cascade, rather than global inhibition, may be more applicable for treating human glaucoma. ..
  40. Lee D, Shim M, Kim K, Noh Y, Kim H, Kim S, et al. Coenzyme Q10 inhibits glutamate excitotoxicity and oxidative stress-mediated mitochondrial alteration in a mouse model of glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;55:993-1005 pubmed publisher
    ..Preglaucomatous DBA/2J and age-matched control DBA/2J-Gpnmb(+) mice were fed with CoQ10 (1%) or a control diet daily for 6 months...
  41. Selim A, Castaneda J, Owen T, Popoff S, Safadi F. The role of osteoactivin-derived peptides in osteoblast differentiation. Med Sci Monit. 2007;13:BR259-70 pubmed
    In our previous studies, we found that osteoactivin (OA) plays an important role in the regulation of osteoblast differentiation in vitro...
  42. Campana L, Starkey Lewis P, Pellicoro A, Aucott R, Man J, O Duibhir E, et al. The STAT3-IL-10-IL-6 Pathway Is a Novel Regulator of Macrophage Efferocytosis and Phenotypic Conversion in Sterile Liver Injury. J Immunol. 2018;200:1169-1187 pubmed publisher
    ..Using sterile liver injury models, we show that the STAT3-IL-10-IL-6 axis is a positive regulator of macrophage efferocytosis, survival, and phenotypic conversion, directly linking debris engulfment to tissue repair. ..
  43. Ono Y, Chiba S, Yano H, Nakayama N, Saio M, Tsuruma K, et al. Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) promotes the progression of brain glioblastoma via Na+/K+-ATPase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;481:7-12 pubmed publisher
    Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB), which is involved in invasion and metastasis, was found to be overexpressed in various cancers...
  44. Smith M, Xia C, Dengler Crish C, Fening K, Inman D, Schofield B, et al. Persistence of intact retinal ganglion cell terminals after axonal transport loss in the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma. J Comp Neurol. 2016;524:3503-3517 pubmed publisher
    ..J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3503-3517, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  45. Ono Y, Tsuruma K, Takata M, Shimazawa M, Hara H. Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B extracellular fragment shows neuroprotective effects and activates the PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK pathways via the Na+/K+-ATPase. Sci Rep. 2016;6:23241 pubmed publisher
    Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) plays important roles in various types of cancer and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The details of GPNMB function and its interacting protein have not been clarified...
  46. Lu H, Wang X, Pullen M, Guan H, Chen H, Sahu S, et al. Genetic dissection of the Gpnmb network in the eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:4132-42 pubmed publisher
    To use a systematic genetics approach to investigate the regulation of Gpnmb, a gene that contributes to pigmentary dispersion syndrome (PDS) and pigmentary glaucoma (PG) in the DBA/2J (D2) mouse.
  47. Sasaki F, Kumagai K, Uto H, Takami Y, Kure T, Tabu K, et al. Expression of glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B in macrophages infiltrating injured mucosa is associated with the severity of experimental colitis in mice. Mol Med Rep. 2015;12:7503-11 pubmed publisher
    Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (Gpnmb) is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which negatively regulates the inflammatory responses of macrophages...
  48. Chung J, Tomihari M, Tamura K, Kojima T, Cruz P, Ariizumi K. The DC-HIL ligand syndecan-4 is a negative regulator of T-cell allo-reactivity responsible for graft-versus-host disease. Immunology. 2013;138:173-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that SD-4, as the T-cell ligand of DC-HIL, is a potent inhibitor of allo-reactive T cells responsible for GVHD and a potentially useful target for treating this disease. ..
  49. Harder J, Fernandes K, Libby R. The Bcl-2 family member BIM has multiple glaucoma-relevant functions in DBA/2J mice. Sci Rep. 2012;2:530 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that BIM has multiple roles in glaucoma pathophysiology, potentially affecting susceptibility to glaucoma through several mechanisms. ..
  50. Fernández Sánchez L, de Sevilla Müller L, Brecha N, Cuenca N. Loss of outer retinal neurons and circuitry alterations in the DBA/2J mouse. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;55:6059-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Retinal degeneration in DBA/2J mice includes photoreceptor death, loss of bipolar and horizontal cell processes, and loss of synaptic contacts in an aging-dependent manner. ..
  51. Abdelmagid S, Sondag G, Moussa F, Belcher J, Yu B, Stinnett H, et al. Mutation in Osteoactivin Promotes Receptor Activator of NFκB Ligand (RANKL)-mediated Osteoclast Differentiation and Survival but Inhibits Osteoclast Function. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:20128-46 pubmed publisher
    We previously reported on the importance of osteoactivin (OA/Gpnmb) in osteogenesis...
  52. Huang W, Xing W, Ryskamp D, Punzo C, Krizaj D. Localization and phenotype-specific expression of ryanodine calcium release channels in C57BL6 and DBA/2J mouse strains. Exp Eye Res. 2011;93:700-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A subset of experiments included retinas from D2-Gpnmb(+) mice as strain-specific controls for D2s...
  53. Frara N, Abdelmagid S, Sondag G, Moussa F, Yingling V, Owen T, et al. Transgenic Expression of Osteoactivin/gpnmb Enhances Bone Formation In Vivo and Osteoprogenitor Differentiation Ex Vivo. J Cell Physiol. 2016;231:72-83 pubmed publisher
    Initial identification of osteoactivin (OA)/glycoprotein non-melanoma clone B (gpnmb) was demonstrated in an osteopetrotic rat model, where OA expression was increased threefold in mutant bones, compared to normal...
  54. Murata K, Yoshino Y, Tsuruma K, Moriguchi S, Oyagi A, Tanaka H, et al. The extracellular fragment of GPNMB (Glycoprotein nonmelanosoma protein B, osteoactivin) improves memory and increases hippocampal GluA1 levels in mice. J Neurochem. 2015;132:583-94 pubmed publisher
    Glycoprotein nonmelanoma protein B (GPNMB, alias osteoactivin), a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, is cleaved by extracellular proteases, resulting in release of an extracellular fragment (ECF)...
  55. Williams P, Howell G, Barbay J, Braine C, Sousa G, John S, et al. Retinal ganglion cell dendritic atrophy in DBA/2J glaucoma. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72282 pubmed publisher
    ..These data may highlight alternative pathways to retinal ganglion cell loss in DBA/2J glaucoma. ..
  56. Li B, Castano A, Hudson T, Nowlin B, Lin S, Bonventre J, et al. The melanoma-associated transmembrane glycoprotein Gpnmb controls trafficking of cellular debris for degradation and is essential for tissue repair. FASEB J. 2010;24:4767-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the melanoma-associated, transmembrane glycoprotein, Gpnmb, is up-regulated 15-fold following ischemic damage in kidney tissue and by more than 10-fold in macrophages and 3-..
  57. Barabas P, Huang W, Chen H, Koehler C, Howell G, John S, et al. Missing optomotor head-turning reflex in the DBA/2J mouse. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:6766-73 pubmed publisher
    The optomotor reflex of DBA/2J (D2), DBA/2J-Gpnmb+ (D2-Gpnmb+), and C57BL/6J (B6) mouse strains was assayed, and the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) firing patterns, direction selectivity, vestibulomotor function and central vision was ..
  58. Abdelmagid S, Barbe M, Hadjiargyrou M, Owen T, Razmpour R, Rehman S, et al. Temporal and spatial expression of osteoactivin during fracture repair. J Cell Biochem. 2010;111:295-309 pubmed publisher
    We previously identified osteoactivin (OA) as a novel secreted osteogenic factor with high expression in developing long bones and calvaria, and that stimulates osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization in vitro...
  59. Loftus S, Antonellis A, Matera I, Renaud G, Baxter L, Reid D, et al. Gpnmb is a melanoblast-expressed, MITF-dependent gene. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2009;22:99-110 pubmed publisher
    Expression profile analysis clusters Gpnmb with known pigment genes, Tyrp1, Dct, and Si. During development, Gpnmb is expressed in a pattern similar to Mitf, Dct and Si with expression vastly reduced in Mitf mutant animals...
  60. Anderson D, Cannavino J, Li H, Anderson K, Nelson B, McAnally J, et al. Severe muscle wasting and denervation in mice lacking the RNA-binding protein ZFP106. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E4494-503 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a central role for Zfp106 in the maintenance of nerve-muscle signaling, and highlight the involvement of aberrant RNA processing in neuromuscular disease pathogenesis. ..
  61. Järve A, Mühlstedt S, Qadri F, Nickl B, Schulz H, Hubner N, et al. Adverse left ventricular remodeling by glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B in myocardial infarction. FASEB J. 2017;31:556-568 pubmed publisher rat hearts 24 h after myocardial infarction (MI) yielded glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB), which is known to be involved in inflammation and fibrosis after tissue injury...
  62. Narasaraju T, Shukla D, More S, Huang C, Zhang L, Xiao X, et al. Role of microRNA-150 and glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B in angiogenesis during hyperoxia-induced neonatal lung injury. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2015;52:253-61 pubmed publisher
    Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB), a transmembrane protein, has been reported to have an important role in tissue repair and angiogenesis...