Gene Symbol: Gpi1
Description: glucose phosphate isomerase 1
Alias: Amf, Gpi, Gpi-1, Gpi-1r, Gpi-1s, Gpi-1t, Gpi1-r, Gpi1-s, Gpi1-t, Gpi1s, NK/GPI, Nlk, Org, Pgi, Phi, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, autocrine motility factor, glucose phosphate isomerase 1 complex, glucose phosphate isomerase 1, regulatory, glucose phosphate isomerase 1, structural, glucose phosphate isomerase 1, temporal, maturation factor, neuroleukin, phosphoglucose isomerase, phosphohexose isomerase
Species: mouse
Products:     Gpi1

Top Publications

  1. Johnson K, Lu S, Murtha M, Ruddle F, Davisson M. Genetic mapping of a new homeobox gene to mouse chromosome 7. Genomics. 1992;14:1107-9 pubmed
    ..No recombination was observed between Dbx and Odc-rs6, indicating that Dbx lies approximately 25 cM distal to the Chr 7 centromere in a region that has conserved linkage relationships with regions of human Chrs 11 and 19. ..
  2. West J. A genetically defined animal model of anembryonic pregnancy. Hum Reprod. 1993;8:1316-23 pubmed
    ..mouse conceptuses, homozygous for a defect in the gene encoding the glycolytic enzyme, glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) died in utero by 9 1/2 days post coitum...
  3. Chapman V, Ruddle F, Roderick T. Linkage of isozyyme loci in the mouse: phosphoglucomutase-2 (Pgm-2), mitochondrial NADP malate dehydrogenase (Mod-2), and dipeptidase-1 (Dip-1). Biochem Genet. 1971;5:101-10 pubmed
  4. Pretsch W. Enzyme-activity mutants in Mus musculus. I. Phenotypic description and genetic characterization of ethylnitrosourea-induced mutations. Mamm Genome. 2000;11:537-42 pubmed
    ..Genetic and biochemical characterizations were routinely performed. These mutants provide insight into the mechanism of ENU mutagenesis and can serve as models for structure-function studies of the corresponding enzymes. ..
  5. MacInnes J, Morris V, Flintoff W, Kozak C. Characterization and chromosomal location of endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus loci in GR, NFS, and DBA mice. Virology. 1984;132:12-25 pubmed
  6. Stoll J, Kozak C, Goldman D. Characterization and chromosomal mapping of a cDNA encoding tryptophan hydroxylase from a mouse mastocytoma cell line. Genomics. 1990;7:88-96 pubmed
    ..Because TPH has been mapped to human chromosome 11, this assignment further defines regions of homology between these mouse and human chromosomes...
  7. Felfly H, Trudel M. Successful correction of murine sickle cell disease with reduced stem cell requirements reinforced by fractionated marrow infusions. Br J Haematol. 2010;148:646-58 pubmed publisher
  8. Dlouhy S, Taylor B, Karn R. The genes for mouse salivary androgen-binding protein (ABP) subunits alpha and gamma are located on chromosome 7. Genetics. 1987;115:535-43 pubmed
    ..of recombinant inbred strains demonstrates that Abpa is located on chromosome 7 near Glucose phosphate isomerase-1 (Gpi-1)...
  9. Benveniste P, Frelin C, Janmohamed S, Barbara M, Herrington R, Hyam D, et al. Intermediate-term hematopoietic stem cells with extended but time-limited reconstitution potential. Cell Stem Cell. 2010;6:48-58 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Haga A, Tanaka N, Funasaka T, Hashimoto K, Nakamura K, Watanabe H, et al. The autocrine motility factor (AMF) and AMF-receptor combination needs sugar chain recognition ability and interaction using the C-terminal region of AMF. J Mol Biol. 2006;358:741-53 pubmed
    The autocrine motility factor (AMF) promotes cellular locomotion or invasion, and regulates tumor angiogenesis or ascites accumulation...
  2. Matsumoto I, Maccioni M, Lee D, Maurice M, Simmons B, Brenner M, et al. How antibodies to a ubiquitous cytoplasmic enzyme may provoke joint-specific autoimmune disease. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:360-5 pubmed
    ..pathogenic immunoglobulins (Igs) that recognize the ubiquitous cytoplasmic enzyme glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI)...
  3. Kondoh H, Lleonart M, Gil J, Wang J, Degan P, Peters G, et al. Glycolytic enzymes can modulate cellular life span. Cancer Res. 2005;65:177-85 pubmed
    ..Because wild-type p53 down-regulates PGM, mutation of p53 can facilitate immortalization via effects on PGM levels and glycolysis. ..
  4. Kyuwa S, Yamaguchi K, Toyoda Y, Fujiwara K, Hilgers J. Acute and late disease induced by murine coronavirus, strain JHM, in a series of recombinant inbred strains between BALB/cHeA and STS/A mice. Microb Pathog. 1992;12:95-104 pubmed
    ..These results may suggest that JHMV-induced late disease is also under multifactorial control. The pathogenesis of JHMV infection is discussed. ..
  5. van Zutphen L, den Bieman M, Lankhorst A, Demant P. Segregation of genes from donor strain during the production of recombinant congenic strains. Lab Anim. 1991;25:193-7 pubmed
    ..Four marker genes (Pep-3; Pgm-1; Gpi-1 and Es-3) located at 4 different chromosomes were selected and the allelic distribution was tested after 3-4 and ..
  6. Faik P, Walker J, Redmill A, Morgan M. Mouse glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and neuroleukin have identical 3' sequences. Nature. 1988;332:455-7 pubmed
    ..genetics of carbohydrate metabolism we have recently isolated a mouse glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (or phosphoglucose isomerase, PGI) cDNA clone using the yeast PGI gene (PGI 1) as a probe...
  7. Pearce S, Morgan M, Ball S, Peters J, Faik P. Sequence characterization of alleles Gpi1-Sa and Gpi1-Sb at the glucose phosphate isomerase structural locus. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:537-9 pubmed
    The sequences of alleles Gpi1-sa and Gpi1-sb at the glucose phosphate isomerase structural locus have been determined from cDNA of the mouse inbred strains 101/H Gpi1-sa and C3H/HeH Gpi1-sb by RT PCR and direct sequencing of the amplified ..
  8. Chen S, Wang Q, Nie Z, Sun H, Lennon G, Copeland N, et al. Crx, a novel Otx-like paired-homeodomain protein, binds to and transactivates photoreceptor cell-specific genes. Neuron. 1997;19:1017-30 pubmed
    ..These studies implicate Crx as a potentially important regulator of photoreceptor cell development and gene expression and also identify it as a candidate gene for CORDII and other retinal diseases. ..
  9. Kelly A, West J. Survival and normal function of glycolysis-deficient mouse oocytes. Reproduction. 2002;124:469-73 pubmed
    Mouse embryos homozygous for a null allele of Gpi1 which encodes the glycolytic enzyme glucose phosphate isomerase fail to complete gastrulation and die at about embryonic day 7...
  10. Stallings R, Siciliano M. Confirmational, provisional, and/or regional assignment of 15 enzyme loci onto Chinese hamster autosomes 1, 2, and 7. Somatic Cell Genet. 1981;7:683-98 pubmed
    ..The assignments provide markers for the study of the genetic consequences of chromosomal rearrangements in Chinese hamster cell lines and support the concept of conservation of mammalian autosomal linkage groups. ..
  11. Danciger M, Farber D, Kozak C. Genetic mapping of three GABAA receptor-subunit genes in the mouse. Genomics. 1993;16:361-5 pubmed
    ..The Gabrb-1, Gabra-2 pair of genes on Chr 5 maps near the mouse "circling mutation" pi (pirouette). ..
  12. Szuber N, Buss J, Soe Lin S, Felfly H, Trudel M, Ponka P. Alternative treatment paradigm for thalassemia using iron chelators. Exp Hematol. 2008;36:773-85 pubmed publisher
  13. Charles D, Lee C. Biochemical and immunological characterization of genetic variants of phosphoglucose isomerase from mouse. Biochem Genet. 1980;18:153-69 pubmed
    Two electrophoretic variants of phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) were purified from whole body extracts of DBA/2J and C57BL/6J mice by a substrate-affinity elution from an 8-(6-aminohexyl)amino-ATP-Sepharose column followed by preparative ..
  14. Roderick T, Ruddle F, Chapman V, Shows T. Biochemical polymorphisms in feral and inbred mice (mus musculus). Biochem Genet. 1971;5:457-66 pubmed
  15. Ansell J, Barlow P, McLaren A. Binucleate and polyploid cells in the decidua of the mouse. J Embryol Exp Morphol. 1974;31:223-7 pubmed
  16. Matsunaga T, Nomoto M, Kozak C, Gonzalez F. Structure and in vitro transcription of the rat CYP2A1 and CYP2A2 genes and regional localization of the CYP2A gene subfamily on mouse chromosome 7. Biochemistry. 1990;29:1329-41 pubmed
    ..CYP2A genes in backcross offspring from an interspecies cross between the laboratory strain NFS/N and the wild mouse Mus musculus musculus, the Cyp2a subfamily was mapped proximal to the Gpi-1 locus near the centromere on chromosome 7.
  17. Yamada Y, Matsushiro H, Ogawa M, Okamoto K, Nakakuki Y, Toyokuni S, et al. Genetic predisposition to pre-B lymphomas in SL/Kh strain mice. Cancer Res. 1994;54:403-7 pubmed
    ..One, encoded by a 27-kilobase EcoRI fragment, was closely linked to Gpi-1a on chromosome 7 and its expression seemed to be a prerequisite for the occurrence of all types of hemopoietic ..
  18. Lalley P, Minna J, Francke U. Conservation of autosomal gene synteny groups in mouse and man. Nature. 1978;274:160-3 pubmed
  19. Faik P, Walker J, Morgan M. Identification of a novel tandemly repeated sequence present in an intron of the glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) gene in mouse and man. Genomics. 1994;21:122-7 pubmed
    Glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI, glucose 6-phosphate ketol-isomerase, EC is a housekeeping gene expressed in all tissues and organisms that utilize glycolysis and gluconeogenesis...
  20. Ben Porath I, Kozak C, Benvenisty N. Chromosomal mapping of Tmp (Emp1), Xmp (Emp2), and Ymp (Emp3), genes encoding membrane proteins related to Pmp22. Genomics. 1998;49:443-7 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that this family of membrane glycoproteins evolved as a result of chromosomal duplications. ..
  21. Watanabe H, Kimata K, Line S, Strong D, Gao L, Kozak C, et al. Mouse cartilage matrix deficiency (cmd) caused by a 7 bp deletion in the aggrecan gene. Nat Genet. 1994;7:154-7 pubmed
    ..DNA sequencing of the aggrecan gene identified a 7 bp deletion in exon 5 resulting in a severely truncated molecule. The finding of an aggrecan mutation in the cmd mouse confirms the critical role of aggrecan in cartilage formation. ..
  22. Katz L. Transkingdom transfer of the phosphoglucose isomerase gene. J Mol Evol. 1996;43:453-9 pubmed
    Previous analysis of the gene encoding phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) suggests that this gene may have been transferred between a eukaryote and a bacterium...
  23. Ahouse J, Hagerman C, Mittal P, Gilbert D, Copeland N, Jenkins N, et al. Mouse MHC class I-like Fc receptor encoded outside the MHC. J Immunol. 1993;151:6076-88 pubmed
    ..The mouse FcRn alpha-chain is similar in sequence to the class I MHC Ag, encoded on chromosome 17 in the mouse. However, we find that the mouse FcRn gene lies outside the MHC, on chromosome 7. ..
  24. Collinson J, Quinn J, Hill R, West J. The roles of Pax6 in the cornea, retina, and olfactory epithelium of the developing mouse embryo. Dev Biol. 2003;255:303-12 pubmed
  25. Naba N, Tanaka N, Shiraiwa K, Kusakabe Y, Funasaka T, Haga A, et al. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of mouse autocrine motility factor. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004;60:2084-6 pubmed
    Mouse autocrine motility factor (mAMF), a tumour-secreted cytokine that stimulates cell migration in vitro and metastasis in vivo, has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method...
  26. Chapman V, Nichols E, Ruddle F. Esterase-8 (Es-8): characterization, polymorphism, and linkage of an erythrocyte esterase locus on chromosome 7 of Mus musculus. Biochem Genet. 1974;11:347-58 pubmed
  27. Warner C, Meyer T, Balinsky D, Briggs C. Variations in the amount of glucose phosphate isomerase in lymphocytes and erythrocytes from A/J and C57BL/6J mice. Biochem Genet. 1985;23:815-25 pubmed
    In a comparative study of A/J (Gpi-1a) and C57BL/6J (Gpi-1b) mice, we observed that erythrocytes of A/J mice exhibited significantly higher glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) activity compared to erythrocytes of C57BL/6J mice on a per ..
  28. Bronson R, Sweet H, Spencer C, Davisson M. Genetic and age related models of neurodegeneration in mice: dystrophic axons. J Neurogenet. 1992;8:71-83 pubmed
    ..The mutant models of neuroaxonal dystrophy may prove useful in studies of the pathophysiology of DA in general and of specific inherited diseases of man, such as infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy and Hallervordin-Spatz disease. ..
  29. Kelly L, Pereira J, Yi T, Xu Y, Cyster J. EBI2 guides serial movements of activated B cells and ligand activity is detectable in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues. J Immunol. 2011;187:3026-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings establish a role for EBI2 in helping control B cell position at multiple stages during the Ab response and they suggest that EBI2 responds to a broadly distributed lipid ligand. ..
  30. Bosserhoff A, Kondo S, Moser M, Dietz U, Copeland N, Gilbert D, et al. Mouse CD-RAP/MIA gene: structure, chromosomal localization, and expression in cartilage and chondrosarcoma. Dev Dyn. 1997;208:516-25 pubmed
    ..7 at the same site as the transforming growth factor beta 1 (Tgf-beta 1) and the glucose phosphate isomerase 1 (Gpi 1) genes. Potential mouse mutants that mapped to the same region of chromosome 7 were identified...
  31. Altomare D, Kozak C, Sonoda G, Testa J. Chromosome mapping of the mouse Akt2 gene and Akt2 pseudogene. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1996;74:248-51 pubmed
    ..The Akt2 pseudogene was mapped to proximal MMU11 by both multilocus mapping and fluorescence in situ hybridization. ..
  32. Wood A, Taylor B. Genetic regulation of coumarin hydroxylase activity in mice. Evidence for single locus control on chromosome. J Biol Chem. 1979;254:5647-51 pubmed
  33. Clamp P, Feltes R, Shalhevet D, Beever J, Atac E, Schook L. Linkage relationships between ALPL, ENO1, GPI, PGD, and TGFB1 on porcine chromosome 6. Genomics. 1993;17:324-9 pubmed
    ..loci encoding liver/bone/kidney alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), enolase 1-alpha (ENO1), glucose-phosphate isomerase (GPI), phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD), and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) in swine...
  34. Elliott R, Berger F. DNA sequence polymorphism in an androgen-regulated gene is associated with alteration in the encoded RNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983;80:501-4 pubmed
    ..908 structural gene, revealed by Southern blotting of HindIII-generated DNA fragments, was found to map near the Gpi-1 and Tam-1 loci on chromosome 7. The 908 structural gene has been termed RP2...
  35. Coleman D, Eicher E. Fat (fat) and tubby (tub): two autosomal recessive mutations causing obesity syndromes in the mouse. J Hered. 1990;81:424-7 pubmed
  36. Johnson K, Smith L, Johnson D, Rhodes J, Rinchik E, Thayer M, et al. Mapping of the ARIX homeodomain gene to mouse chromosome 7 and human chromosome 11q13. Genomics. 1996;33:527-31 pubmed
    ..3-q13.4. These map locations extend and further define regions of conserved synteny between mouse and human genomes and identify a new candidate gene for inherited developmental disorders linked to human 11q13. ..
  37. Funasaka T, Haga A, Raz A, Nagase H. Tumor autocrine motility factor induces hyperpermeability of endothelial and mesothelial cells leading to accumulation of ascites fluid. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;293:192-200 pubmed
    ..Here, we report a new factor that is involved in this process, e.g., autocrine motility factor (AMF)...
  38. Danciger M, Brady J, Adamson M, Farber D, Piatigorsky J, Kozak C. Chromosomal localization of the genes for five zinc finger proteins expressed in mouse lens. Genomics. 1995;28:39-43 pubmed
    ..Because the zinc finger proteins encoded by these genes may be involved in regulating other genes that are expressed in lens, they can be considered candidates for the large number of yet unmapped cataract loci. ..
  39. Eicher E, Washburn L. Assignment of genes to regions of mouse chromosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978;75:946-50 pubmed
  40. Eppig J, Eicher E. Application of the ovarian teratoma mapping method in the mouse. Genetics. 1983;103:797-812 pubmed
    ..Centromere-gene recombination was measured at 11.3 +/- 1.2% for the centromere of chromosome 7 - Gpi-1 interval and 15.8 +/- 2.4% for the centromere of chromosome 14 - Np-1 interval using the ovarian teratoma method...
  41. Stockert E, Sato H, Itakura K, Boyse E, Old L, Hutton J. Location of the second gene required for expression of the leukemia-associated mouse antigens G IX . Science. 1972;178:862-3 pubmed
    ..Expression depends on two genes, Gv-1 and Gv-2, in linkage groups IX and I, respectively. Cells producing leukemia virus, however, express G(IX) antigen regardless of their inherited Gv-1 and Gv-2 genotype. ..
  42. Merkle S, Pretsch W. Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase deficiency associated with nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia in the mouse: an animal model for the human disease. Blood. 1993;81:206-13 pubmed
    The first two mutations causing hereditary glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) deficiency associated with chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia in nonhuman mammals are described in the mouse...
  43. Wymore R, Korenberg J, Kinoshita K, Aiyar J, Coyne C, Chen X, et al. Genomic organization, nucleotide sequence, biophysical properties, and localization of the voltage-gated K+ channel gene KCNA4/Kv1.4 to mouse chromosome 2/human 11p14 and mapping of KCNC1/Kv3.1 to mouse 7/human 11p14.3-p15.2 and KCNA1/Kv1.1 to human . Genomics. 1994;20:191-202 pubmed
    ..1, lies approximately 1.8 cM from the Myod-1 gene on mouse chromosome 7, and in situ hybridization localizes KCNC1/hKv3.1 to the homologous region on human chromosome 11p14.3-p15.2. A third gene, KCNA1/hKv1.1, was mapped to human 12p13. ..
  44. Niinaka Y, Harada K, Fujimuro M, Oda M, Haga A, Hosoki M, et al. Silencing of autocrine motility factor induces mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition and suppression of osteosarcoma pulmonary metastasis. Cancer Res. 2010;70:9483-93 pubmed publisher
    ..and fructose inside the cell, while it acts as cytokine outside the cell, with properties that include autocrine motility factor (AMF)-regulating tumor cell motility...
  45. Duchen L, Scaravilli F. Quantitative and electron microscopic studies of sensory ganglion cells of the Sprawling mouse. J Neurocytol. 1977;6:465-81 pubmed
    ..Reconstructions from serial sections showed that ganglion cells in Swl were highly irregular in shape. ..
  46. Yanagawa T, Funasaka T, Tsutsumi S, Hu H, Watanabe H, Raz A. Regulation of phosphoglucose isomerase/autocrine motility factor activities by the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase family-14. Cancer Res. 2007;67:8682-9 pubmed
    ..PGI is a multifunctional dimeric protein that extracellularly acts as a cytokine [autocrine motility factor (AMF)] eliciting mitogenic, motogenic, and differentiation functions through binding to its cell surface ..
  47. Keighren M, Flockhart J, West J. Survival of glucose phosphate isomerase null somatic cells and germ cells in adult mouse chimaeras. Biol Open. 2016;5:596-610 pubmed publisher
    The mouse Gpi1 gene encodes the glycolytic enzyme glucose phosphate isomerase...
  48. Kwon O, Adamson M, Chin H, Kozak C. Genetic mapping of five mouse genes encoding synaptotagmins. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:880-1 pubmed
  49. Gurney M, Heinrich S, Lee M, Yin H. Molecular cloning and expression of neuroleukin, a neurotrophic factor for spinal and sensory neurons. Science. 1986;234:566-74 pubmed
    ..The factor was therefore named neuroleukin. Neuroleukin promotes the survival in culture of a subpopulation of embryonic spinal neurons that probably ..
  50. Newton M, Nash H, Peters J, Andrews S. Xylose dehydrogenase-1, a new gene on mouse chromosome 7. Biochem Genet. 1982;20:733-45 pubmed
    ..Two of these determine proteins differing in electrophoretic mobility and the third is a "null." This easily scored variation may prove useful both for gene mapping and in population genetics. ..
  51. Peters J, Ball S. Biochemical and recessive visible specific locus responses of C3H/HeH to fractionated, acute radiation. Mutat Res. 2003;543:137-43 pubmed
    ..The number of loci scored in the electrophoretic test has been reassessed, and it is now considered that six, not four were scored, and this has implications for the calculation of the doubling dose. ..
  52. Ito C, Li C, Bernstein A, Dick J, Stanford W. Hematopoietic stem cell and progenitor defects in Sca-1/Ly-6A-null mice. Blood. 2003;101:517-23 pubmed
    ..Thus, our studies conclusively demonstrate that Sca-1, in addition to being a marker of HSCs, regulates the developmental program of HSCs and specific progenitor populations. ..
  53. Pearce S, Peters J, Ball S, Morgan M, Walker J, Faik P. Sequence characterization of ENU-induced mutants of glucose phosphate isomerase in mouse. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:858-61 pubmed
    Four of five mutations producing GPI1 null lethal phenotypes in the homozygous state, which were previously identified from the offspring of male mice, spermatogonially treated with N-ethyl N-nitrosourea (ENU), have been characterized at ..