Gene Symbol: Gpd1
Description: glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (soluble)
Alias: AI747587, Gdc-1, Gdc1, mKIAA4010, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD(+)], cytoplasmic, GPD-C, GPDH-C, glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase 1, cytoplasmic adult, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD+], cytoplasmic, glycerolphosphate dehydrogenase 1, cytoplasmic adult
Species: mouse
Products:     Gpd1

Top Publications

  1. Meruelo D, Rossomando A, Scandalis S, D EUSTACHIO P, Fournier R, Roop D, et al. Assignment of the Ly-6--Ril-1--Sis--H-30--Pol-5/Xmmv-72--Ins-3--Krt-1--Int-1 --Gdc-1 region to mouse chromosome 15. Immunogenetics. 1987;25:361-72 pubmed
    ..C-H-30c, C3H.B-Ly-6b, and C57BL/6By-Eh/+ congenic mouse strains and in situ hybridization experiments support the above gene order and indicate further that the cluster is located on distal chromosome 15, with Ly-6 and Sis near Eh. ..
  2. Hayakawa J, Nikaido H, Koizumi T. Assignment of the gene locus for the sixth component (C6) of complement in mice to chromosome 15. Immunogenetics. 1985;22:637-42 pubmed
    ..In addition, a new C6 form found in AKR mice is described. We propose the designation C6B for it and C-6b for the allele encoding C6B. ..
  3. Kozak L, Birkenmeier E. Mouse sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: molecular cloning and genetic mapping of a cDNA sequence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983;80:3020-4 pubmed
    ..This GPDH cDNA clone was mapped to the Gdc-1 locus by identification of a restriction enzyme polymorphism present in genomic DNA isolated from Gdc-1 congeneic lines of mice. ..
  4. Kozak L, Erdelsky K. The genetics and developmental regulation of L-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. J Cell Physiol. 1975;85:437-47 pubmed
    ..The elusion profile of the L-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase indicates that the Gdc-1 locus is also the major structural locus in heart muscle. ..
  5. Pretsch W, Charles D. An inherited variant of mouse sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase detected by isoelectric focusing: genetical and biochemical analyses. Biochem Genet. 1984;22:419-28 pubmed
    ..The mutated allele causes a greater heat stability to the GPDH protein. Enzymes extracted from the three genotypes are indistinguishable in terms of their pH optima. Gdc-1e is proposed as the allele symbol for the new mutation. ..
  6. Swendeman S, Spielholz C, Jenkins N, Gilbert D, Copeland N, Sheffery M. Characterization of the genomic structure, chromosomal location, promoter, and development expression of the alpha-globin transcription factor CP2. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:11663-71 pubmed
    ..Lastly, a study of the pattern of CP2 gene expression showed that the factor was expressed in all adult and fetal murine tissues examined from at least day 9.5 of development. ..
  7. Hogarth P, McKenzie I, Sutton V, Curnow K, Lee B, Eicher E. Mapping of the mouse Ly-6, Xp-14, and Gdc-1 loci to chromosome 15. Immunogenetics. 1987;25:21-7 pubmed
  8. Johnston L, Kotarski M, Jerry D, Kozak L. An ubiquitously expressed gene 3.5 kilobases upstream of the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene in mice. Mol Cell Biol. 1989;9:935-45 pubmed
    ..This conservation of gene sequences suggests that D15Kz1 encodes a protein with an important cellular function. ..
  9. Bruisten S, Skamene E, Demant P. Haplotype-specific interactions of non-H-2-linked genetic factors controlling the mouse C4 and Slp protein levels. Genetics. 1989;121:795-801 pubmed
    ..BY) but not in C57BL/10 and C57BL/6 (both H-2b). Mice from RI strains with H-2b haplotype have in general higher C4 levels than mice with H-2a haplotype. ..

More Information


  1. Taketo M, Hoopes C, Howard T, Linney E, Seldin M. Mapping of the mouse Rar loci encoding retinoic acid receptors RAR alpha, RAR beta and RAR gamma. Jpn J Genet. 1993;68:175-84 pubmed
    ..Rara mapped to mChr 11, Rarb mapped to mChr 14, and Rarg mapped to mChr 15. The results are consistent with the previous reports and the human data in terms of syntenic homology between mouse and human chromosomes. ..
  2. Watanabe T, Ohno K, Shimizu A, Sakai Y, Takahashi M, Takahashi N. Mapping of the Hox-3.1 and Myc-1.2 genes on chromosome 15 of the mouse by restriction fragment length variations. Biochem Genet. 1990;28:257-66 pubmed
    ..1a and Myc-1.2b alleles. Other wild subspecies from Europe and Asia, M. m. musculus, M. m. castaneus, M. m. molossinus, Chinese mice of wild origin, and M. m. yamashinai carry the Hox-3.1b and Myc-1.2b alleles. ..
  3. Saburi S, Hester I, Fischer E, Pontoglio M, Eremina V, Gessler M, et al. Loss of Fat4 disrupts PCP signaling and oriented cell division and leads to cystic kidney disease. Nat Genet. 2008;40:1010-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, Fat4 represses Fjx1 expression, indicating that Fat signaling is conserved. Together, these data suggest that Fat4 regulates vertebrate PCP and that loss of PCP signaling may underlie some cystic diseases in humans. ..
  4. Domalik L, Chaplin D, Kirkman M, Wu R, Liu W, Howard T, et al. Different isozymes of mouse 11 beta-hydroxylase produce mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids. Mol Endocrinol. 1991;5:1853-61 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words) ..
  5. Hameister H, Schulz W, Meyer J, Thoma S, Adolph S, Gaa A, et al. Gene order and genetic distance of 13 loci spanning murine chromosome 15. Genomics. 1992;14:417-22 pubmed
    ..Despite the unequal distribution along chromosome 15 of G-versus R-bands, a comparison of distances determined by physical and genetic mapping does not indicate an overt difference in distance between both mapping techniques. ..
  6. LeClair K, Rabin M, Nesbitt M, Pravtcheva D, Ruddle F, Palfree R, et al. Murine Ly-6 multigene family is located on chromosome 15. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:1638-42 pubmed
    ..The possible involvement of the Ly-6 lymphocyte activation and differentiation antigen genes in chromosome 15-related lymphoid malignancies is discussed. ..
  7. Kozak L. Genetic control of -glycerolphosphate dehydrogenase in mouse brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1972;69:3170-4 pubmed
    ..The affect of these genes on enzyme activity is codominant and additive. ..
  8. Kozak L, Ratner P. Genetic regulation of translatable mRNA levels for mouse sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase during development of the cerebellum. J Biol Chem. 1980;255:7589-94 pubmed
  9. Spiegelman B, Frank M, Green H. Molecular cloning of mRNA from 3T3 adipocytes. Regulation of mRNA content for glycerophosphate dehydrogenase and other differentiation-dependent proteins during adipocyte development. J Biol Chem. 1983;258:10083-9 pubmed
    ..The time course of mRNA accumulation was different for each of these mRNAs, indicating they do not respond synchronously during differentiation. ..
  10. Walter L, Dirks B, Rothermel E, Heyens M, Szpirer C, Levan G, et al. A novel, conserved gene of the rat that is developmentally regulated in the testis. Mamm Genome. 1994;5:216-21 pubmed
    ..Analysis of rat RNA from different stages of spermatogenesis indicated that accumulation of the short transcript occurred mainly postmeiotically. The rat Tegt gene maps to Chromosome (Chr) 7, and its mouse homolog to Chr 15. ..
  11. Duncan R, Matthai R, Huppi K, Roderick T, Potter M. Genes that modify expression of major urinary proteins in mice. Mol Cell Biol. 1988;8:2705-12 pubmed
    ..The chromosomal location of Mupm-1 suggests that it produces a trans-acting factor which regulates MUP expression. ..
  12. Kingsmore S, Bieniarz M, Watson M, Seldin M. Genetic mapping of Pp11r, a thymocyte gene expressed during apoptosis, to mouse chromosome 15. Mamm Genome. 1993;4:459-60 pubmed
  13. Adolph S, Berchtold M, Hameister H. Fine localization of genes on distal murine chromosome 15. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1989;52:177-9 pubmed
    ..These genes belong to three different conserved chromosomal linkage groups on human chromosomes 8, 22, and 12, respectively. ..
  14. Blankenhorn E, Duncan R, Huppi K, Potter M. Chromosomal location of the regulator of mouse alpha-fetoprotein, Afr-1. Genetics. 1988;119:687-91 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed with respect to the susceptibility or resistance of different BALB/c sublines (which are either Afr-1a or Afr-1b, respectively) to pristane-induced plasmacytomas. ..
  15. DeGregori J, Russ A, von Melchner H, Rayburn H, Priyaranjan P, Jenkins N, et al. A murine homolog of the yeast RNA1 gene is required for postimplantation development. Genes Dev. 1994;8:265-76 pubmed
    ..These similarities suggest that Fug1 may be required for developmental changes in RNA processing or chromatin structure prior to gastrulation. ..
  16. Puliti A, Prehu M, Simon Chazottes D, Ferkdadji L, Peuchmaur M, Goossens M, et al. A high-resolution genetic map of mouse chromosome 15 encompassing the Dominant megacolon (Dom) locus. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:763-8 pubmed
    ..In this publication we report mapping the Dom locus with high definition, using several intra-and interspecific crosses and a set of 16 Chr 15-specific microsatellites flanking this locus. ..
  17. Saint Marc P, Kozak L, Ailhaud G, Darimont C, Negrel R. Angiotensin II as a trophic factor of white adipose tissue: stimulation of adipose cell formation. Endocrinology. 2001;142:487-92 pubmed
    ..It is proposed that AngII enhances the formation of GPDH-expressing cells from preadipocytes in response to prostacyclin released from adipocytes. ..
  18. MacDonald M, Marshall L. Mouse lacking NAD+-linked glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase has normal pancreatic beta cell function but abnormal metabolite pattern in skeletal muscle. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2000;384:143-53 pubmed
    ..Glycerol kinase is also absent in the pancreatic insulin cell, but this cell's function is essentially normal probably because of redundancy of NAD(H) shuttles. ..
  19. Seldin M, Corton J. Mapping the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor to chromosome 15 in the mouse. Mamm Genome. 1994;5:193-4 pubmed
  20. Kozak L, Murphy E. The reversible expression of an adult isozyme locus, Gdc-1, in tumors of the mouse. Cancer Res. 1976;36:3711-7 pubmed
  21. Sato T, Morita A, Mori N, Miura S. Glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 deficiency enhances exercise capacity due to increased lipid oxidation during strenuous exercise. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;457:653-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1) catalyzes an oxidation reaction in the glycerophosphate shuttle...
  22. Dobson D, Groves D, Spiegelman B. Nucleotide sequence and hormonal regulation of mouse glycerophosphate dehydrogenase mRNA during adipocyte and muscle cell differentiation. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:1804-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that GPD gene expression is linked to cell differentiation in both fat and muscle cells, and suggest certain similarities in hormonal modulation in both cell types. ..
  23. Cheah K, Au P, Lau E, Little P, Stubbs L. The mouse Col2a-1 gene is highly conserved and is linked to Int-1 on chromosome 15. Mamm Genome. 1991;1:171-83 pubmed
    ..Col2a-1 is therefore included in a linkage group which is conserved on human Chr 12q. ..
  24. Phillips M, Djian P, Green H. The nucleotide sequence of three genes participating in the adipose differentiation of 3T3 cells. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:10821-7 pubmed
    ..It remains to be demonstrated whether the information for common participation of the genes in the program of differentiation resides in controlling elements within the regions sequenced. ..
  25. Davisson M, Roderick T, Akeson E, Hawes N, Sweet H. The hairy ears (Eh) mutation is closely associated with a chromosomal rearrangement in mouse chromosome 15. Genet Res. 1990;56:167-78 pubmed
    ..The effect of the inversion extends over a minimum of 30 cM, taking into account the genetic data and the cytologically determined chromosomal involvement extending to the region of the telomere. ..
  26. Kozak L. Interacting genes control glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase expression in developing cerebellum of the mouse. Genetics. 1985;110:123-43 pubmed
  27. Blankenhorn E, Duncan R, Teuscher C, Potter M. Genetic map location of Afr-1: results from four genetic crosses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1988;137:264-7 pubmed
  28. Brannan C, Gilbert D, Ceci J, Matsuda Y, Chapman V, Mercer J, et al. An interspecific linkage map of mouse chromosome 15 positioned with respect to the centromere. Genomics. 1992;13:1075-81 pubmed
  29. Sato T, Morita A, Mori N, Miura S. The role of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 in the progression of fatty liver after acute ethanol administration in mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;444:525-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Although glycerol-3-phosphate (Gro3P), formed by glycerol kinase (GYK) or glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1), is also required for TG synthesis, the roles of GYK and GPD1 have been the subject of some debate...
  30. Brown L, Koza R, Marshall L, Kozak L, MacDonald M. Lethal hypoglycemic ketosis and glyceroluria in mice lacking both the mitochondrial and the cytosolic glycerol phosphate dehydrogenases. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:32899-904 pubmed
  31. Saffer J, Thurston S, Annarella M, Compton J. Localization of the gene for the trans-acting transcription factor Sp1 to the distal end of mouse chromosome 15. Genomics. 1990;8:571-4 pubmed
    ..Int-1 and other markers flanking the Sp1-1 locus are part of a conserved linkage group represented on human chromosome 12q. ..
  32. Lobach D, Rochelle J, Watson M, Seldin M, Blackshear P. Nucleotide sequence, expression, and chromosomal mapping of Mrp and mapping of five related sequences. Genomics. 1993;17:194-204 pubmed
    ..Three of these related sequences have been cloned, and all appear to represent pseudogenes. ..
  33. Huppi K, Duncan R, Potter M. Myc-1 is centromeric to the linkage group Ly-6--Sis--Gdc-1 on mouse chromosome 15. Immunogenetics. 1988;27:215-9 pubmed
    ..This gene order is consistent with conservation of man-mouse synteny. ..
  34. Prochazka M, Kozak U, Kozak L. A glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase null mutant in BALB/cHeA mice. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:4679-83 pubmed
    ..This suggests that alternate pathways of energy metabolism and lipid synthesis exist which obviate the function of glycerol-P dehydrogenase. ..
  35. Marigo V, Roberts D, Lee S, Tsukurov O, Levi T, Gastier J, et al. Cloning, expression, and chromosomal location of SHH and IHH: two human homologues of the Drosophila segment polarity gene hedgehog. Genomics. 1995;28:44-51 pubmed
    ..Shh mapped to a position 0.6 cM distal to En2 and 1.9 cM proximal to Il6 on mouse chromosome 5. This location is closely linked but distinct from the murine limb mutation Hx and syntenic to human chromosome 7q36. ..
  36. Brisson D, Vohl M, St Pierre J, Hudson T, Gaudet D. Glycerol: a neglected variable in metabolic processes?. Bioessays. 2001;23:534-42 pubmed
    ..Considering the importance of glycerol in multiple vital physiological processes, its study could help unlock important physiopathological mechanisms. ..
  37. Eicher E, Lee B. Growth hormone receptor (Ghr) and hemoglobin alpha-chain pseudogene 3 (Hba-ps3) map proximal to the myelocytomatosis oncogene (Myc) on mouse chromosome 15. Mamm Genome. 1991;1:57-8 pubmed
  38. Ireland R, Kotarski M, Johnston L, Stadler U, Birkenmeier E, Kozak L. Primary structure of the mouse glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:11779-85 pubmed
  39. Gwynn B, Lyford K, Birkenmeier E. Sequence conservation and structural organization of the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter in mice and humans. Mol Cell Biol. 1990;10:5244-56 pubmed
    ..Human clones obtained spanned 25 kilobases of genomic DNA containing the human GPDH gene, GPD1. The 4 kb of sequence obtained from the 5'-flanking region and first exon of GPD1 was compared with the ..
  40. Chan A, Thompson E. Appearance of a second form of hepatic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase during neonatal development in the mouse. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1981;207:96-102 pubmed