Gpbar1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Gpbar1
Description: G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1
Alias: BG37, GPCR, GPR131, M-BAR, TGR5, G-protein coupled bile acid receptor 1, G protein-coupled receptor TGR5, membrane bile acid receptor, membrane-type receptor for bile acids
Species: mouse
Products:     Gpbar1

Top Publications

  1. Poole D, Godfrey C, Cattaruzza F, Cottrell G, Kirkland J, Pelayo J, et al. Expression and function of the bile acid receptor GpBAR1 (TGR5) in the murine enteric nervous system. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010;22:814-25, e227-8 pubmed publisher
    Bile acids (BAs) regulate cells by activating nuclear and membrane-bound receptors. G protein coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GpBAR1) is a membrane-bound G-protein-coupled receptor that can mediate the rapid, transcription-independent ..
  2. Maruyama T, Miyamoto Y, Nakamura T, Tamai Y, Okada H, Sugiyama E, et al. Identification of membrane-type receptor for bile acids (M-BAR). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;298:714-9 pubmed
    ..Here we report a novel category of bile acid receptor, a membrane-type G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), BG37. Bile acids induced rapid and dose-dependent elevation of intracellular cAMP levels in BG37-expressing cells, but ..
  3. Katsuma S, Hirasawa A, Tsujimoto G. Bile acids promote glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion through TGR5 in a murine enteroendocrine cell line STC-1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;329:386-90 pubmed
    ..Recently, a G protein-coupled receptor, TGR5, was identified as a cell-surface bile acid receptor...
  4. Vassileva G, Golovko A, Markowitz L, Abbondanzo S, Zeng M, Yang S, et al. Targeted deletion of Gpbar1 protects mice from cholesterol gallstone formation. Biochem J. 2006;398:423-30 pubmed
    The Gpbar1 [G-protein-coupled BA (bile acid) receptor 1] is a recently identified cell-surface receptor that can bind and is activated by BAs, but its physiological role is unclear...
  5. Wang Y, Chen W, Yu D, Forman B, Huang W. The G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor, Gpbar1 (TGR5), negatively regulates hepatic inflammatory response through antagonizing nuclear factor ? light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) in mice. Hepatology. 2011;54:1421-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Gpbar1 (TGR5), a membrane-bound bile acid receptor, is well known for its roles in regulation of energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism...
  6. Sato H, Genet C, Strehle A, Thomas C, Lobstein A, Wagner A, et al. Anti-hyperglycemic activity of a TGR5 agonist isolated from Olea europaea. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;362:793-8 pubmed
    ..e. oleanolic acid. We show that this triterpene is an agonist for TGR5, a member of G-protein coupled receptor activated by bile acids and which mediates some of their various cellular ..
  7. Thomas C, Gioiello A, Noriega L, Strehle A, Oury J, Rizzo G, et al. TGR5-mediated bile acid sensing controls glucose homeostasis. Cell Metab. 2009;10:167-77 pubmed publisher
    b>TGR5 is a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in brown adipose tissue and muscle, where its activation by bile acids triggers an increase in energy expenditure and attenuates diet-induced obesity...
  8. Kawamata Y, Fujii R, Hosoya M, Harada M, Yoshida H, Miwa M, et al. A G protein-coupled receptor responsive to bile acids. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:9435-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that a novel G protein-coupled receptor, TGR5, is responsive to bile acids as a cell-surface receptor...
  9. Pols T, Nomura M, Harach T, Lo Sasso G, Oosterveer M, Thomas C, et al. TGR5 activation inhibits atherosclerosis by reducing macrophage inflammation and lipid loading. Cell Metab. 2011;14:747-57 pubmed publisher
    The G protein-coupled receptor TGR5 has been identified as an important component of the bile acid signaling network, and its activation has been linked to enhanced energy expenditure and improved glycemic control...

More Information

Publications56

  1. Watanabe M, Morimoto K, Houten S, Kaneko Iwasaki N, Sugizaki T, Horai Y, et al. Bile acid binding resin improves metabolic control through the induction of energy expenditure. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38286 pubmed publisher
    ..We have shown that strategies aimed at activating TGR5 by increasing the BA pool size with BA administration may constitute a significant therapeutic advance to combat ..
  2. Li T, Holmstrom S, Kir S, Umetani M, Schmidt D, Kliewer S, et al. The G protein-coupled bile acid receptor, TGR5, stimulates gallbladder filling. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:1066-71 pubmed publisher
    b>TGR5 is a G protein-coupled bile acid receptor present in brown adipose tissue and intestine, where its agonism increases energy expenditure and lowers blood glucose...
  3. Rajagopal S, Kumar D, Mahavadi S, Bhattacharya S, Zhou R, Corvera C, et al. Activation of G protein-coupled bile acid receptor, TGR5, induces smooth muscle relaxation via both Epac- and PKA-mediated inhibition of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2013;304:G527-35 pubmed publisher
    The present study characterized the TGR5 expression and the signaling pathways coupled to this receptor that mediates the relaxation of gastric smooth muscle. TGR5 was detected in gastric muscle cells by RT-PCR and Western blotting...
  4. Maruyama T, Tanaka K, Suzuki J, Miyoshi H, Harada N, Nakamura T, et al. Targeted disruption of G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (Gpbar1/M-Bar) in mice. J Endocrinol. 2006;191:197-205 pubmed
    G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (Gpbar1/M-Bar) is a novel G protein-coupled receptor for bile acid...
  5. Harach T, Pols T, Nomura M, Maida A, Watanabe M, Auwerx J, et al. TGR5 potentiates GLP-1 secretion in response to anionic exchange resins. Sci Rep. 2012;2:430 pubmed publisher
    ..glycemic control in diet-induced animal models of "diabesity", effects which are critically dependent on TGR5, a G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by bile acids...
  6. Yang H, Zhou H, Zhuang L, Auwerx J, Schoonjans K, Wang X, et al. Plasma membrane-bound G protein-coupled bile acid receptor attenuates liver ischemia/reperfusion injury via the inhibition of toll-like receptor 4 signaling in mice. Liver Transpl. 2017;23:63-74 pubmed publisher
    The plasma membrane-bound G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (TGR5) displays varied levels of expression in different tissues...
  7. Renga B, Bucci M, Cipriani S, Carino A, Monti M, Zampella A, et al. Cystathionine γ-lyase, a H2S-generating enzyme, is a GPBAR1-regulated gene and contributes to vasodilation caused by secondary bile acids. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2015;309:H114-26 pubmed publisher
    b>GPBAR1 is a bile acid-activated receptor (BAR) for secondary bile acids, lithocholic (LCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA), expressed in the enterohepatic tissues and in the vasculature by endothelial and smooth muscle cells...
  8. Perides G, Laukkarinen J, Vassileva G, Steer M. Biliary acute pancreatitis in mice is mediated by the G-protein-coupled cell surface bile acid receptor Gpbar1. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:715-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We reasoned that key events responsible for this phenomenon might be mediated by Gpbar1, a recently identified and widely expressed G-protein-coupled, cell surface bile acid receptor...
  9. Biagioli M, Carino A, Cipriani S, Francisci D, Marchianò S, Scarpelli P, et al. The Bile Acid Receptor GPBAR1 Regulates the M1/M2 Phenotype of Intestinal Macrophages and Activation of GPBAR1 Rescues Mice from Murine Colitis. J Immunol. 2017;199:718-733 pubmed publisher
    b>GPBAR1 (TGR5 or M-BAR) is a G protein-coupled receptor for secondary bile acids that is highly expressed in monocytes/macrophages...
  10. Trabelsi M, Daoudi M, Prawitt J, Ducastel S, Touche V, Sayin S, et al. Farnesoid X receptor inhibits glucagon-like peptide-1 production by enteroendocrine L cells. Nat Commun. 2015;6:7629 pubmed publisher
    Bile acids are signalling molecules, which activate the transmembrane receptor TGR5 and the nuclear receptor FXR. BA sequestrants (BAS) complex bile acids in the intestinal lumen and decrease intestinal FXR activity...
  11. Alemi F, Kwon E, Poole D, Lieu T, Lyo V, Cattaruzza F, et al. The TGR5 receptor mediates bile acid-induced itch and analgesia. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:1513-30 pubmed publisher
    ..are elevated in the circulation and tissues during cholestasis, cause itch and analgesia by activating the GPCR TGR5. TGR5 was detected in peptidergic neurons of mouse dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord that transmit itch and pain, ..
  12. Lajczak N, Saint Criq V, O Dwyer A, Perino A, Adorini L, Schoonjans K, et al. Bile acids deoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid differentially regulate human β-defensin-1 and -2 secretion by colonic epithelial cells. FASEB J. 2017;31:3848-3857 pubmed publisher
    ..Effects of DCA were mimicked by the Takeda GPCR 5 agonist, INT-777 (50 μM), but not by the farnesoid X receptor agonist, GW4064 (10 μM)...
  13. Cipriani S, Renga B, D Amore C, Simonetti M, De Tursi A, Carino A, et al. Impaired Itching Perception in Murine Models of Cholestasis Is Supported by Dysregulation of GPBAR1 Signaling. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0129866 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the mechanisms supporting this effect remain elusive. Recently, GPBAR1 (TGR5) a G-protein coupled receptor has been shown to mediate itching caused by intradermal administration of DCA ..
  14. Ding L, Sousa K, Jin L, Dong B, Kim B, Ramirez R, et al. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy activates GPBAR-1/TGR5 to sustain weight loss, improve fatty liver, and remit insulin resistance in mice. Hepatology. 2016;64:760-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that the membrane-bound G protein-coupled bile acid receptor, GPBAR-1 (also known as TGR5), is required to mediate the effects of anti-obesity, anti-hyperglycemia, and improvements of fatty liver of VSG in ..
  15. Perino A, Pols T, Nomura M, Stein S, Pellicciari R, Schoonjans K. TGR5 reduces macrophage migration through mTOR-induced C/EBPβ differential translation. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:5424-36 pubmed publisher
    The bile acid-responsive G protein-coupled receptor TGR5 is involved in several metabolic processes, and recent studies suggest that TGR5 activation may promote pathways that are protective against diet-induced diabetes...
  16. Masyuk T, Masyuk A, Lorenzo Pisarello M, Howard B, Huang B, Lee P, et al. TGR5 contributes to hepatic cystogenesis in rodents with polycystic liver diseases through cyclic adenosine monophosphate/Gαs signaling. Hepatology. 2017;66:1197-1218 pubmed publisher
    ..Takeda G protein receptor 5 (TGR5), a G protein-coupled bile acid receptor, is linked to cAMP and expressed in cholangiocytes...
  17. Kida T, Omori K, Hori M, Ozaki H, Murata T. Stimulation of G protein-coupled bile acid receptor enhances vascular endothelial barrier function via activation of protein kinase A and Rac1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2014;348:125-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that stimulation of GPBAR enhances endothelial barrier function by cAMP/PKA/Rac1-dependent cytoskeletal rearrangement. ..
  18. Moepps B, Nuesseler E, Braun M, Gierschik P. A homolog of the human chemokine receptor CXCR1 is expressed in the mouse. Mol Immunol. 2006;43:897-914 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that a homolog or ortholog of hCXCR1 is expressed in the mouse to be activated by a hitherto unknown CXC chemokine of the mouse. ..
  19. Cipriani S, Mencarelli A, Chini M, Distrutti E, Renga B, Bifulco G, et al. The bile acid receptor GPBAR-1 (TGR5) modulates integrity of intestinal barrier and immune response to experimental colitis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25637 pubmed publisher
    ..GP-BAR1 regulates intestinal barrier structure. Its expression increases in rodent models of colitis and Crohn's disease. Ciprofloxacin is a GP-BAR1 ligand. ..
  20. Keitel V, Ullmer C, Haussinger D. The membrane-bound bile acid receptor TGR5 (Gpbar-1) is localized in the primary cilium of cholangiocytes. Biol Chem. 2010;391:785-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether or not cholangiocyte cilia are responsive to bile acids is unknown. TGR5 (Gpbar-1) is a membrane-bound bile acid receptor which is expressed in biliary epithelial cells and promotes ..
  21. Vassileva G, Hu W, Hoos L, Tetzloff G, Yang S, Liu L, et al. Gender-dependent effect of Gpbar1 genetic deletion on the metabolic profiles of diet-induced obese mice. J Endocrinol. 2010;205:225-32 pubmed publisher
    G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1/TGR5/M-Bar/GPR131) is a cell surface receptor involved in the regulation of bile acid metabolism...
  22. Velázquez Villegas L, Perino A, Lemos V, Zietak M, Nomura M, Pols T, et al. TGR5 signalling promotes mitochondrial fission and beige remodelling of white adipose tissue. Nat Commun. 2018;9:245 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the bile acid-responsive membrane receptor TGR5 mediates beiging of the subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT) under multiple environmental cues including cold ..
  23. Kida T, Tsubosaka Y, Hori M, Ozaki H, Murata T. Bile acid receptor TGR5 agonism induces NO production and reduces monocyte adhesion in vascular endothelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:1663-9 pubmed publisher
    b>TGR5 is a G-protein-coupled receptor for bile acids. So far, little is known about the function of TGR5 in vascular endothelial cells. ..
  24. Carino A, Cipriani S, Marchianò S, Biagioli M, Scarpelli P, Zampella A, et al. Gpbar1 agonism promotes a Pgc-1?-dependent browning of white adipose tissue and energy expenditure and reverses diet-induced steatohepatitis in mice. Sci Rep. 2017;7:13689 pubmed publisher
    b>Gpbar1 is a bile acid activated receptor for secondary bile acids. Here we have investigated the mechanistic role of Gpbar1 in the regulation of adipose tissues functionality in a murine model of steatohepatitis (NASH)...
  25. McMillin M, Frampton G, Tobin R, Dusio G, Smith J, Shin H, et al. TGR5 signaling reduces neuroinflammation during hepatic encephalopathy. J Neurochem. 2015;135:565-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of the neurosteroid/bile acid receptor Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) has been demonstrated in the brain and is thought to be neuroprotective...
  26. Fang S, Suh J, Reilly S, Yu E, Osborn O, Lackey D, et al. Intestinal FXR agonism promotes adipose tissue browning and reduces obesity and insulin resistance. Nat Med. 2015;21:159-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These pronounced metabolic improvements suggest tissue-restricted FXR activation as a new approach in the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. ..
  27. Reich M, Deutschmann K, Sommerfeld A, Klindt C, Kluge S, Kubitz R, et al. TGR5 is essential for bile acid-dependent cholangiocyte proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Gut. 2016;65:487-501 pubmed publisher
    ..b>TGR5 is a G-protein coupled BA receptor, which is highly expressed in cholangiocytes and postulated to mediate the ..
  28. Cortés V, Amigo L, Zanlungo S, Galgani J, Robledo F, Arrese M, et al. Metabolic effects of cholecystectomy: gallbladder ablation increases basal metabolic rate through G-protein coupled bile acid receptor Gpbar1-dependent mechanisms in mice. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0118478 pubmed publisher
    Bile acids (BAs) regulate energy expenditure by activating G-protein Coupled Bile Acid Receptor Gpbar1/TGR5 by cAMP-dependent mechanisms...
  29. Alemi F, Poole D, Chiu J, Schoonjans K, Cattaruzza F, Grider J, et al. The receptor TGR5 mediates the prokinetic actions of intestinal bile acids and is required for normal defecation in mice. Gastroenterology. 2013;144:145-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The G protein-coupled BA receptor TGR5 (or GPBAR1) is expressed by enteric neurons and endocrine cells, which regulate motility and secretion...
  30. Lieu T, Jayaweera G, Zhao P, Poole D, Jensen D, Grace M, et al. The bile acid receptor TGR5 activates the TRPA1 channel to induce itch in mice. Gastroenterology. 2014;147:1417-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The G-protein-coupled BA receptor 1 TGR5 (encoded by GPBAR1) is expressed by primary sensory neurons; its activation induces neuronal hyperexcitability and scratching by ..
  31. McMahan R, Wang X, Cheng L, Krisko T, Smith M, El Kasmi K, et al. Bile acid receptor activation modulates hepatic monocyte activity and improves nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:11761-70 pubmed publisher
    ..FXR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, and TGR5, a G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (GPBAR1). Both FXR and TGR5 demonstrate pleiotropic functions, including immune modulation...
  32. Keely S. Missing link identified: GpBAR1 is a neuronal bile acid receptor. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010;22:711-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The discovery of the bile acid receptor, GpBAR1, represented a major step forward in our understanding of how cells can sense and respond to bile acids...
  33. Lavoie B, Balemba O, Godfrey C, Watson C, Vassileva G, Corvera C, et al. Hydrophobic bile salts inhibit gallbladder smooth muscle function via stimulation of GPBAR1 receptors and activation of KATP channels. J Physiol. 2010;588:3295-305 pubmed publisher
    ..RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate expression of the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor, GPBAR1. Application of tauro-chenodeoxycholate (CDC, 50-100 microm) to in situ GBSM rapidly reduced spontaneous Ca(2+) ..
  34. Brighton C, Rievaj J, Kuhre R, Glass L, Schoonjans K, Holst J, et al. Bile Acids Trigger GLP-1 Release Predominantly by Accessing Basolaterally Located G Protein-Coupled Bile Acid Receptors. Endocrinology. 2015;156:3961-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This action has been attributed to activation of the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor GPBAR1 (TGR5), although other potential bile acid sensors include the nuclear farnesoid receptor and the apical sodium-..
  35. McGavigan A, Garibay D, Henseler Z, Chen J, Bettaieb A, Haj F, et al. TGR5 contributes to glucoregulatory improvements after vertical sleeve gastrectomy in mice. Gut. 2017;66:226-234 pubmed publisher
    ..VSG increases circulating bile acid concentrations and bile acid signalling through TGR5 improves glucose homeostasis...
  36. Cipriani S, Mencarelli A, Bruno A, Renga B, Distrutti E, Santucci L, et al. Activation of the bile acid receptor GPBAR1 protects against gastrointestinal injury caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and aspirin in mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2013;168:225-37 pubmed publisher
    ..b>GPBAR1 is a bile acid receptor expressed in the gastrointestinal tract...
  37. Yanguas Casás N, Barreda Manso M, Nieto Sampedro M, Romero Ramirez L. TUDCA: An Agonist of the Bile Acid Receptor GPBAR1/TGR5 With Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Microglial Cells. J Cell Physiol. 2017;232:2231-2245 pubmed publisher
    ..resident macrophages) express the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1/Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (GPBAR1/TGR5) in vivo and in vitro...
  38. Péan N, Doignon I, Garcin I, Besnard A, Julien B, Liu B, et al. The receptor TGR5 protects the liver from bile acid overload during liver regeneration in mice. Hepatology. 2013;58:1451-60 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the effect of the BA receptor, TGR5 (G-protein-coupled BA receptor 1) after PH remains to be studied...
  39. Kumar D, Asgharpour A, Mirshahi F, Park S, Liu S, Imai Y, et al. Activation of Transmembrane Bile Acid Receptor TGR5 Modulates Pancreatic Islet α Cells to Promote Glucose Homeostasis. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:6626-40 pubmed publisher
    The physiological role of the TGR5 receptor in the pancreas is not fully understood. We previously showed that activation of TGR5 in pancreatic β cells by bile acids induces insulin secretion...
  40. Chen X, Xu H, Ding L, Lou G, Liu Y, Yao Y, et al. Identification of miR-26a as a target gene of bile acid receptor GPBAR-1/TGR5. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0131294 pubmed publisher
    b>GPBAR1/TGR5 is a G protein-coupled receptor of bile acids. TGR5 is known to regulate the BA homeostasis and energy metabolism...
  41. Pathak P, Liu H, Boehme S, Xie C, Krausz K, Gonzalez F, et al. Farnesoid X receptor induces Takeda G-protein receptor 5 cross-talk to regulate bile acid synthesis and hepatic metabolism. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:11055-11069 pubmed publisher
    The bile acid-activated receptors, nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the membrane Takeda G-protein receptor 5 (TGR5), are known to improve glucose and insulin sensitivity in obese and diabetic mice...
  42. Jourdainne V, Péan N, Doignon I, Humbert L, Rainteau D, Tordjmann T. The Bile Acid Receptor TGR5 and Liver Regeneration. Dig Dis. 2015;33:319-26 pubmed publisher
    Most of the literature on the bile acid (BA) membrane receptor TGR5 is dedicated to its potential role in the metabolic syndrome, through its regulatory impact on energy expenditure, insulin and GLP-1 secretion, and inflammatory processes...
  43. Baptissart M, Vega A, Martinot E, Pommier A, Houten S, Marceau G, et al. Bile acids alter male fertility through G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 signaling pathways in mice. Hepatology. 2014;60:1054-65 pubmed publisher
    ..the nuclear and membrane receptors, farnesoid X receptor (FXR-?) and TGR5 (G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1; GPBAR1)...
  44. Lou G, Ma X, Fu X, Meng Z, Zhang W, Wang Y, et al. GPBAR1/TGR5 mediates bile acid-induced cytokine expression in murine Kupffer cells. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e93567 pubmed publisher
    b>GPBAR1/TGR5 is a novel plasma membrane-bound G protein-coupled bile acid (BA) receptor. BAs are known to induce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the liver with unknown mechanism...
  45. Guo C, Xie S, Chi Z, Zhang J, Liu Y, Zhang L, et al. Bile Acids Control Inflammation and Metabolic Disorder through Inhibition of NLRP3 Inflammasome. Immunity. 2016;45:802-816 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrated that bile acids inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation via the TGR5-cAMP-PKA axis...
  46. Kumar D, Rajagopal S, Mahavadi S, Mirshahi F, Grider J, Murthy K, et al. Activation of transmembrane bile acid receptor TGR5 stimulates insulin secretion in pancreatic ? cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;427:600-5 pubmed publisher
    Bile acids act as signaling molecules and stimulate the G protein coupled receptor, TGR5, in addition to nuclear farnesoid X receptor to regulate lipid, glucose and energy metabolism...
  47. Wang X, Luo Y, Wang D, Adorini L, Pruzanski M, Dobrinskikh E, et al. A dual agonist of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the G protein-coupled receptor TGR5, INT-767, reverses age-related kidney disease in mice. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:12018-12024 pubmed publisher
    ..the bile acid-activated nuclear hormone receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled membrane receptor TGR5 that demonstrated beneficial effects of FXR and TGR5 activation in the kidney, we reasoned that FXR and TGR5 could ..