gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor


Gene Symbol: gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor
Description: gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor
Alias: gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor, gnRH receptor
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. Kaiser U, Zhao D, Cardona G, Chin W. Isolation and characterization of cDNAs encoding the rat pituitary gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992;189:1645-52 pubmed
    ..8 Kb was present in the rat pituitary and ovary, and in alpha T3 cells. The receptor mRNA levels were increased in the female rat pituitary after ovariectomy compared to levels in intact female rats. ..
  2. Nelson S, Horvat R, Malvey J, Roess D, Barisas B, Clay C. Characterization of an intrinsically fluorescent gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor and effects of ligand binding on receptor lateral diffusion. Endocrinology. 1999;140:950-7 pubmed
    The GnRH receptor (GnRHR) is a G protein-coupled receptor expressed by gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland...
  3. Pask A, Kanasaki H, Kaiser U, Conn P, Janovick J, Stockton D, et al. A novel mouse model of hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism: N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene mutation. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:972-81 pubmed
    ..determined that the N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced lesion is in the third transmembrane domain of the GnRH receptor gene (Gnrhr)...
  4. Knollman P, Janovick J, Brothers S, Conn P. Parallel regulation of membrane trafficking and dominant-negative effects by misrouted gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor mutants. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:24506-14 pubmed
    ..mouse mutants exert a DN effect on rat (r) WT sequence) but, unlike human or mouse, escapes the DN effect of GnRH receptor (Gn-RHR) mutants because rGnRHR mutants route to the plasma membrane with higher efficiency than mouse or ..
  5. Navratil A, Farmerie T, Bogerd J, Nett T, Clay C. Differential impact of intracellular carboxyl terminal domains on lipid raft localization of the murine gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor. Biol Reprod. 2006;74:788-97 pubmed
    The mammalian type I GNRH receptor (GNRHR) is unique among G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) because of the absence of an intracellular C-terminus...
  6. Wen S, Ai W, Alim Z, Boehm U. Embryonic gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling is necessary for maturation of the male reproductive axis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:16372-7 pubmed publisher
    ..GnRH is released by a subset of hypothalamic neurons and binds to GnRH receptor (GnRHR) on gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland to control production and secretion of gonadotropins ..
  7. Wen S, Schwarz J, Niculescu D, Dinu C, Bauer C, Hirdes W, et al. Functional characterization of genetically labeled gonadotropes. Endocrinology. 2008;149:2701-11 pubmed publisher
    ..gene targeting in embryonic stem cells, we generated mice in which Cre recombinase is coexpressed with the GnRH receptor, which is expressed in gonadotrope cells...
  8. Finch A, Sedgley K, Caunt C, McArdle C. Plasma membrane expression of GnRH receptors: regulation by antagonists in breast, prostate, and gonadotrope cell lines. J Endocrinol. 2008;196:353-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The low PCSE of hGnRHRs and this novel peptide antagonist effect may be important for understanding GnRHR function in extrapituitary sites. ..
  9. Kreisman M, Song C, Yip K, Natale B, Natale D, Breen K. Androgens Mediate Sex-Dependent Gonadotropin Expression During Late Prenatal Development in the Mouse. Endocrinology. 2017;158:2884-2894 pubmed publisher

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Cogliati T, Delgado Romero P, Norwitz E, Guduric Fuchs J, Kaiser U, Wray S, et al. Pubertal impairment in Nhlh2 null mice is associated with hypothalamic and pituitary deficiencies. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:3013-27 pubmed
  2. Beck A, Götz V, Qiao S, Weissgerber P, Flockerzi V, Freichel M, et al. Functional Characterization of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Channel C5 in Female Murine Gonadotropes. Endocrinology. 2017;158:887-902 pubmed publisher
  3. Kaiser U, Dushkin H, Altherr M, Beier D, Chin W. Chromosomal localization of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene to human chromosome 4q13.1-q21.1 and mouse chromosome 5. Genomics. 1994;20:506-8 pubmed
    ..The localization of the GRHR gene may be useful in the study of disorders of reproduction. ..
  4. Resuehr D, Wildemann U, Sikes H, Olcese J. E-box regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor expression in immortalized gonadotrope cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007;278:36-43 pubmed
    ..hormone GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) depends directly on the gonadotrope-specific expression of the GnRH receptor (GnRHR), a G-protein coupled transmembrane protein coded by the GnRHR gene...
  5. Ellsworth B, Burns A, Escudero K, Duval D, Nelson S, Clay C. The gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor activating sequence (GRAS) is a composite regulatory element that interacts with multiple classes of transcription factors including Smads, AP-1 and a forkhead DNA binding protein. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2003;206:93-111 pubmed
    Activin responsiveness of the murine GnRH receptor gene promoter is mediated at a regulatory element we termed the GnRH receptor activating sequence (GRAS)...
  6. Arora K, Sakai A, Catt K. Effects of second intracellular loop mutations on signal transduction and internalization of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:22820-6 pubmed
    ..The predicted 2i loop of the GnRH receptor contains serine rather than tyrosine in the DRY sequence but retains the conserved hydrophobic Leu residue, ..
  7. Boerboom D, Kumar V, Boyer A, Wang Y, Lambrot R, Zhou X, et al. β-catenin stabilization in gonadotropes impairs FSH synthesis in male mice in vivo. Endocrinology. 2015;156:323-33 pubmed publisher
    ..However, sustained CTNNB1 signaling potentiates activin-induced Fshb expression in gonadotropes, but this effect is overcome in vivo by enhanced inhibin feedback sensitivity and Fst expression. ..
  8. Janovick J, Stewart M, Jacob D, Martin L, Deng J, Stewart C, et al. Restoration of testis function in hypogonadotropic hypogonadal mice harboring a misfolded GnRHR mutant by pharmacoperone drug therapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:21030-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacoperones of the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) have efficacy in cell culture systems, and their cellular and biochemical mechanisms of ..
  9. Torrealday S, Lalioti M, Guzeloglu Kayisli O, Seli E. Characterization of the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) expression and activity in the female mouse ovary. Endocrinology. 2013;154:3877-87 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we aimed to determine whether GnRHa have a direct effect on ovarian granulosa cells. GnRH receptor (GnRHR) expression was determined in mouse somatic and gonadal tissues including granulosa/cumulus cells and ..
  10. Albertson A, Navratil A, Mignot M, Dufourny L, Cherrington B, Skinner D. Immunoreactive GnRH type I receptors in the mouse and sheep brain. J Chem Neuroanat. 2008;35:326-33 pubmed publisher
    ..GnRH binding in numerous sites and this has been supported by in situ hybridization studies reporting GnRH receptor mRNA distribution...
  11. Odle A, Benes H, Melgar Castillo A, Akhter N, Syed M, Haney A, et al. Association of Gnrhr mRNA With the Stem Cell Determinant Musashi: A Mechanism for Leptin-Mediated Modulation of GnRHR Expression. Endocrinology. 2018;159:883-894 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show MSI1 interaction with the 3'-UTR of Gnrhr mRNA. These findings now open the door to future studies of leptin-modulated posttranscriptional pathways. ..
  12. Li Y, Schang G, Boehm U, Deng C, Graff J, Bernard D. SMAD3 Regulates Follicle-stimulating Hormone Synthesis by Pituitary Gonadotrope Cells in Vivo. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:2301-2314 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, luteinizing hormone production was altered in a sex-specific fashion. Overall, our analyses demonstrate that SMAD3 is required for FSH synthesis in vivo. ..
  13. McGillivray S, Bailey J, Ramezani R, Kirkwood B, Mellon P. Mouse GnRH receptor gene expression is mediated by the LHX3 homeodomain protein. Endocrinology. 2005;146:2180-5 pubmed
    Appropriate expression of GnRH receptor (GnRHR) is necessary for the correct regulation of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH, by GnRH...
  14. Maya Nunez G, Conn P. Transcriptional regulation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene is mediated in part by a putative repressor element and by the cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate response element. Endocrinology. 1999;140:3452-8 pubmed
    The levels of the GnRH receptor (GnRHR) and its messenger RNA depend on the pattern of administration of GnRH...
  15. Tiong J, Locastro T, Wray S. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-1 (GnRH-1) is involved in tooth maturation and biomineralization. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:2980-92 pubmed
    ..In sum, in tooth development a signal transduction pathway exists for GnRH-1 via the GnRH-1 receptor and disruption of such signaling affects incisor growth and biomineralization. ..
  16. Wen S, Götze I, Mai O, Schauer C, Leinders Zufall T, Boehm U. Genetic identification of GnRH receptor neurons: a new model for studying neural circuits underlying reproductive physiology in the mouse brain. Endocrinology. 2011;152:1515-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we used a binary genetic strategy to visualize GnRH receptor (GnRHR) neurons in the mouse brain and started to characterize these cells...
  17. Busby E, Sherwood N. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (Gnrhr) gene knock out: Normal growth and development of sensory, motor and spatial orientation behavior but altered metabolism in neonatal and prepubertal mice. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0174452 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we examined the effect of disrupting the GnRH receptor in mice to determine if growth, metabolism or behaviors that are not associated with reproduction were ..
  18. Mayevu N, Choe H, Abagyan R, Seong J, Millar R, Katz A, et al. Histidine(7.36(305)) in the conserved peptide receptor activation domain of the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor couples peptide binding and receptor activation. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015;402:95-106 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated GnRH interactions with the His(7.36(305)) residue of the GnRH receptor, using functional and computational analysis of modified GnRH receptors and peptides. Non-polar His(7...
  19. Tello J, Kohout T, Pineda R, Maki R, Scott Struthers R, Millar R. Reproductive physiology of a humanized GnRH receptor mouse model: application in evaluation of human-specific analogs. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013;305:E67-77 pubmed publisher
    The human GnRH receptor (GNRHR1) has a specific set of properties with physiological and pharmacological influences not appropriately modeled in laboratory animals or cell-based systems...
  20. Ellsworth B, White B, Burns A, Cherrington B, Otis A, Clay C. c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation of activator protein-1 underlies homologous regulation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene in alpha T3-1 cells. Endocrinology. 2003;144:839-49 pubmed
    ..GnRH activation of the GnRH receptor (GnRHR) is a potent stimulus for increased expression of multiple genes including the gene encoding the GnRHR ..
  21. Kam K, Jeong K, Norwitz E, Jorgensen E, Kaiser U. Oct-1 and nuclear factor Y bind to the SURG-1 element to direct basal and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-stimulated mouse GnRH receptor gene transcription. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:148-62 pubmed
    The cis-regulatory element localized to position -292/-285 of the mouse GnRH receptor (mGnRHR) gene promoter, designated Sequence Underlying Responsiveness to GnRH 1 (SURG-1), has been shown previously to contribute to stimulation of ..
  22. Kumar T, Agno J, Janovick J, Conn P, Matzuk M. Regulation of FSHbeta and GnRH receptor gene expression in activin receptor II knockout male mice. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2003;212:19-27 pubmed
    ..we tested whether in vivo signaling via ACVR2 is necessary for hypothalamic GnRH biosynthesis and for GnRH receptor expression...
  23. Xie H, Hoffmann H, Meadows J, Mayo S, Trang C, Leming S, et al. Homeodomain Proteins SIX3 and SIX6 Regulate Gonadotrope-specific Genes During Pituitary Development. Mol Endocrinol. 2015;29:842-55 pubmed publisher
    ..an immature gonadotrope cell line and represses transcription of the early lineage-specific pituitary genes, GnRH receptor (GnRHR) and the common α-subunit (Cga), whereas Six6 is expressed in a mature gonadotrope cell line and ..
  24. Davidson J, Wakefield I, Millar R. Absence of rapid desensitization of the mouse gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor. Biochem J. 1994;300 ( Pt 2):299-302 pubmed
    ..the IP response to GnRH was observed in either alpha T3 gonadotrope cells line or GH3 cells transfected with GnRH receptor cDNA...
  25. Savulescu D, Feng J, Ping Y, Mai O, Boehm U, He B, et al. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-regulated prohibitin mediates apoptosis of the gonadotrope cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2013;27:1856-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus demonstrate a role for PHB in GnRH-induced cell death in mature gonadotropes, which is crucial for the normal development and function of the reproductive axis. ..
  26. Holley S, Hall S, Mellon P. Complementary expression of IGF-II and IGFBP-5 during anterior pituitary development. Dev Biol. 2002;244:319-28 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the timing of IGF-II expression and regulation of its accessibility by IGFBP-5 may play a role in anterior pituitary differentiation, survival, and/or proliferation. ..
  27. Wu S, Wilson M, Busby E, Isaac E, Sherwood N. Disruption of the single copy gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor in mice by gene trap: severe reduction of reproductive organs and functions in developing and adult mice. Endocrinology. 2010;151:1142-52 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the GnRH receptor gene (GNRHR) can result in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in humans. Unlike most mammals, mice lack a second form of GnRH (GnRH2) and a type 2 GnRH receptor...
  28. Waldstreicher J, Seminara S, Jameson J, Geyer A, Nachtigall L, Boepple P, et al. The genetic and clinical heterogeneity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone deficiency in the human. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996;81:4388-95 pubmed
  29. Fortin J, Kumar V, Zhou X, Wang Y, Auwerx J, Schoonjans K, et al. NR5A2 regulates Lhb and Fshb transcription in gonadotrope-like cells in vitro, but is dispensable for gonadotropin synthesis and fertility in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59058 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data establish that NR5A2 can act in a non-redundant manner to regulate Lhb and Fshb transcription in vitro, but is dispensable in vivo. ..
  30. Bjelobaba I, Janjic M, Tavcar J, Kucka M, Tomic M, Stojilkovic S. The relationship between basal and regulated Gnrhr expression in rodent pituitary gonadotrophs. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016;437:302-311 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the age-dependent basal and regulated Gnrhr transcription could account for the initial blockade and subsequent activation of the reproductive system during development. ..
  31. Fink M, Pincas H, Choi S, Nudelman G, Sealfon S. Research resource: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor-mediated signaling network in LbetaT2 cells: a pathway-based web-accessible knowledgebase. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:1863-71 pubmed publisher
    The GnRH receptor (GnRHR), expressed at the cell surface of the anterior pituitary gonadotrope, is critical for normal secretion of gonadotropins LH and FSH, pubertal development, and reproduction...
  32. Cherrington B, Farmerie T, Lents C, Cantlon J, Roberson M, Clay C. Activin responsiveness of the murine gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene is mediated by a composite enhancer containing spatially distinct regulatory elements. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:898-912 pubmed
    The promoters of mouse and rat GnRH receptor (GnRHR) genes differ markedly in regard to activin regulation. Activin stimulates the mouse GnRHR promoter, although it has no impact on that of the rat...
  33. Albarracin C, Kaiser U, Chin W. Isolation and characterization of the 5'-flanking region of the mouse gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene. Endocrinology. 1994;135:2300-6 pubmed
    The GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) is a cell surface, G protein-coupled receptor that is highly expressed in pituitary gonadotropes. Activation of the receptor by GnRH stimulates the release of FSH and LH...
  34. Nuruddin S, Syverstad G, Lillehaug S, Leergaard T, Nilsson L, Ropstad E, et al. Elevated mRNA-levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and its receptor in plaque-bearing Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e103607 pubmed publisher
    ..The present experimental approach should serve as a platform for further studies on the usefulness of Gnrh-a treatment in suppressing plaque development in AD. ..
  35. Fortin J, Boehm U, Deng C, Treier M, Bernard D. Follicle-stimulating hormone synthesis and fertility depend on SMAD4 and FOXL2. FASEB J. 2014;28:3396-410 pubmed publisher
    ..Not only do these results establish SMAD4 and FOXL2 as essential master regulators of Fshb transcription in vivo, they also suggest that activins, or related ligands, could play more important roles in FSH synthesis than GnRH. ..
  36. Stewart M, Deng J, Stewart C, Mullen R, Wang Y, Lopez S, et al. Mice harboring Gnrhr E90K, a mutation that causes protein misfolding and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in humans, exhibit testis size reduction and ovulation failure. Mol Endocrinol. 2012;26:1847-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest decreased GnRH receptor signaling in the mutant animal, compared with wild type...
  37. Montgomery G, Penty J, Lord E, Brooks J, McNeilly A. The gonadotrophin-releasing hormone receptor maps to sheep chromosome 6 outside of the region of the FecB locus. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:436-8 pubmed
  38. Raga F, Casañ E, Kruessel J, Wen Y, Bonilla Musoles F, Polan M. The role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in murine preimplantation embryonic development. Endocrinology. 1999;140:3705-12 pubmed
    Previous studies have established the presence of an extrahypothalamic GnRH in a variety of tissues. GnRH receptor is known to be present in the placenta, which produces and secretes the decapeptide from the very early stages of ..
  39. Sheng H, Moriyama K, Yamashita T, Li H, Potter S, Mahon K, et al. Multistep control of pituitary organogenesis. Science. 1997;278:1809-12 pubmed
    ..Thus, Lhx3 and Lhx4 dictate pituitary organ identity by controlling developmental decisions at multiple stages of organogenesis. ..
  40. Lopez de Maturana R, Martin B, Millar R, Brown P, Davidson L, Pawson A, et al. GnRH-mediated DAN production regulates the transcription of the GnRH receptor in gonadotrope cells. Neuromolecular Med. 2007;9:230-48 pubmed
    ..We further tested the effects of DAN on classical GnRH effects viz. gonadotropin and GnRH receptor gene expression...
  41. Layman L, Cohen D, Jin M, Xie J, Li Z, Reindollar R, et al. Mutations in gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene cause hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Nat Genet. 1998;18:14-5 pubmed
  42. Lents C, Farmerie T, Cherrington B, Clay C. Multiple core homeodomain binding motifs differentially contribute to transcriptional activity of the murine gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene promoter. Endocrine. 2009;35:356-64 pubmed publisher
  43. Kotitschke A, Sadie Van Gijsen H, Avenant C, Fernandes S, Hapgood J. Genomic and nongenomic cross talk between the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor and glucocorticoid receptor signaling pathways. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:1726-45 pubmed publisher
    The GnRH receptor (GnRHR), a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family, is a central regulator of reproductive function in all vertebrates...
  44. Higa Nakamine S, Maeda N, Toku S, Yamamoto T, Yingyuenyong M, Kawahara M, et al. Selective cleavage of ErbB4 by G-protein-coupled gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor in cultured hypothalamic neurons. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:2492-501 pubmed publisher
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is secreted from hypothalamic neurons (GnRH neurons). GnRH neurons have a GnRH receptor belonging to the G-protein-coupled receptors...
  45. Hirdes W, Dinu C, Bauer C, Boehm U, Schwarz J. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone inhibits ether-à-go-go-related gene K+ currents in mouse gonadotropes. Endocrinology. 2010;151:1079-88 pubmed publisher
    ..To detect gonadotropes, we used a knock-in mouse strain, in which GnRH receptor-expressing cells are fluorescently labeled. Erg K(+) currents were recorded in 80-90% of gonadotropes...
  46. Fortin J, Boehm U, WEINSTEIN M, Graff J, Bernard D. Follicle-stimulating hormone synthesis and fertility are intact in mice lacking SMAD3 DNA binding activity and SMAD2 in gonadotrope cells. FASEB J. 2014;28:1474-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the observation that deletion of proximal exons does not remove all SMAD3 function may facilitate interpretation of divergent phenotypes previously described in different Smad3 knockout mouse lines. ..
  47. Gill J, Wadas B, Chen P, Portillo W, Reyna A, Jorgensen E, et al. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal population is normal in size and distribution in GnRH-deficient and GnRH receptor-mutant hypogonadal mice. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4596-604 pubmed publisher
    ..These data establish that autocrine-paracrine GnRH-signaling is not a prerequisite for the developmental migration of GnRH neurons into the brain or for the projection of GnRH neurosecretory axons. ..
  48. Zhou W, Sealfon S. Structure of the mouse gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene: variant transcripts generated by alternative processing. DNA Cell Biol. 1994;13:605-14 pubmed
    ..In a different group of transcripts (5%), exon 2 is absent, resulting in a shift in the reading frame and encoding a protein of 177 amino acids. These data support alternative processing of the mouse GnRHR gene. ..
  49. Fortin J, Ongaro L, Li Y, Tran S, Lamba P, Wang Y, et al. Minireview: Activin Signaling in Gonadotropes: What Does the FOX say… to the SMAD?. Mol Endocrinol. 2015;29:963-77 pubmed publisher
    ..According to subsequent in vitro observations, activins also stimulate the transcription of the GnRH receptor (Gnrhr) and the activin antagonist, follistatin (Fst)...
  50. Suh H, Gage P, Drouin J, Camper S. Pitx2 is required at multiple stages of pituitary organogenesis: pituitary primordium formation and cell specification. Development. 2002;129:329-37 pubmed
    ..The model developed for PITX gene function in pituitary development provides a better understanding of the etiology of Rieger syndrome and may extend to other PITX-sensitive developmental processes. ..
  51. Tran S, Zhou X, Lafleur C, Calderon M, Ellsworth B, Kimmins S, et al. Impaired fertility and FSH synthesis in gonadotrope-specific Foxl2 knockout mice. Mol Endocrinol. 2013;27:407-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data definitively establish FOXL2 as the first identified gonadotrope-restricted transcription factor required for selective FSH synthesis in vivo. ..
  52. Jeong K, Chin W, Kaiser U. Essential role of the homeodomain for pituitary homeobox 1 activation of mouse gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene expression through interactions with c-Jun and DNA. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:6127-39 pubmed
  53. Xie H, Cherrington B, Meadows J, Witham E, Mellon P. Msx1 homeodomain protein represses the ?GSU and GnRH receptor genes during gonadotrope development. Mol Endocrinol. 2013;27:422-36 pubmed publisher
    ..transcription of lineage-specific pituitary genes such as the common ?-glycoprotein subunit (?GSU) and GnRH receptor (GnRHR) promoters in the mouse gonadotrope-derived cell lines, ?T3-1 and L?T2...