Gnrh1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Gnrh1
Description: gonadotropin releasing hormone 1
Alias: Gnrh, Gnrh2, LHRH, Lhrh1, Lnrh, hpg, progonadoliberin-1, gonadotropin releasing hormone 2, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone I, progonadoliberin I
Species: mouse
Products:     Gnrh1

Top Publications

  1. Kramer P, Wray S. Novel gene expressed in nasal region influences outgrowth of olfactory axons and migration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1824-34 pubmed
    ..Olfactory axon pathfinding is also necessary for establishment of the neuroendocrine LHRH system, cells critical for reproductive function...
  2. Messina A, Ferraris N, Wray S, Cagnoni G, Donohue D, Casoni F, et al. Dysregulation of Semaphorin7A/?1-integrin signaling leads to defective GnRH-1 cell migration, abnormal gonadal development and altered fertility. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:4759-74 pubmed publisher
    ..in mammals is dependent on the function of specific neurons that secrete gonadotropin-releasing hormone-1 (GnRH-1)...
  3. Cariboni A, Davidson K, Dozio E, Memi F, Schwarz Q, Stossi F, et al. VEGF signalling controls GnRH neuron survival via NRP1 independently of KDR and blood vessels. Development. 2011;138:3723-33 pubmed publisher
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are neuroendocrine cells that are born in the nasal placode during embryonic development and migrate through the nose and forebrain to the hypothalamus, where they regulate reproduction...
  4. Livne I, Silverman A, Gibson M. Reversal of reproductive deficiency in the hpg male mouse by neonatal androgenization. Biol Reprod. 1992;47:561-7 pubmed
    Some aspects of reproductive function in the GnRH-deficient hypogonadal (hpg) mutant mouse can be restored by transplanting normal fetal brain tissue containing GnRH cells into the central nervous system of adult hpg mice...
  5. Kim H, Wolfe A, Smith G, Tobet S, Radovick S. Promoter sequences targeting tissue-specific gene expression of hypothalamic and ovarian gonadotropin-releasing hormone in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:5194-202 pubmed
    Molecular mechanisms directing tissue-specific expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) are difficult to study due to the paucity and scattered distribution of GnRH neurons...
  6. Schwarting G, Raitcheva D, Bless E, Ackerman S, Tobet S. Netrin 1-mediated chemoattraction regulates the migratory pathway of LHRH neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;19:11-20 pubmed
    Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons migrate from the vomeronasal organ (VNO) to the forebrain in all mammals studied...
  7. Cattanach B, Iddon C, Charlton H, Chiappa S, Fink G. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone deficiency in a mutant mouse with hypogonadism. Nature. 1977;269:338-40 pubmed
  8. Yoon H, Enquist L, Dulac C. Olfactory inputs to hypothalamic neurons controlling reproduction and fertility. Cell. 2005;123:669-82 pubmed
    ..we have aimed at identifying afferent pathways to neurons synthesizing luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH, also known as gonadotropin-releasing hormone [GnRH]), a key neurohormone of reproduction...
  9. Tissir F, Ravni A, Achouri Y, Riethmacher D, Meyer G, Goffinet A. DeltaNp73 regulates neuronal survival in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:16871-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In DeltaNp73(-/-) mice, cells in preoptic areas, vomeronasal neurons, GnRH-positive cells, and CRc were severely reduced in number, and choroid plexuses were atrophic...
  10. Singh J, Handelsman D. Neonatal administration of FSH increases Sertoli cell numbers and spermatogenesis in gonadotropin-deficient (hpg) mice. J Endocrinol. 1996;151:37-48 pubmed
    ..alone, in the complete absence of gonadotropins, initiated qualitatively complete spermatogenesis in hypogonadal (hpg) mice...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Kramer P, Wray S. Novel gene expressed in nasal region influences outgrowth of olfactory axons and migration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1824-34 pubmed
    ..Olfactory axon pathfinding is also necessary for establishment of the neuroendocrine LHRH system, cells critical for reproductive function...
  2. Messina A, Ferraris N, Wray S, Cagnoni G, Donohue D, Casoni F, et al. Dysregulation of Semaphorin7A/?1-integrin signaling leads to defective GnRH-1 cell migration, abnormal gonadal development and altered fertility. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:4759-74 pubmed publisher
    ..in mammals is dependent on the function of specific neurons that secrete gonadotropin-releasing hormone-1 (GnRH-1)...
  3. Cariboni A, Davidson K, Dozio E, Memi F, Schwarz Q, Stossi F, et al. VEGF signalling controls GnRH neuron survival via NRP1 independently of KDR and blood vessels. Development. 2011;138:3723-33 pubmed publisher
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are neuroendocrine cells that are born in the nasal placode during embryonic development and migrate through the nose and forebrain to the hypothalamus, where they regulate reproduction...
  4. Livne I, Silverman A, Gibson M. Reversal of reproductive deficiency in the hpg male mouse by neonatal androgenization. Biol Reprod. 1992;47:561-7 pubmed
    Some aspects of reproductive function in the GnRH-deficient hypogonadal (hpg) mutant mouse can be restored by transplanting normal fetal brain tissue containing GnRH cells into the central nervous system of adult hpg mice...
  5. Kim H, Wolfe A, Smith G, Tobet S, Radovick S. Promoter sequences targeting tissue-specific gene expression of hypothalamic and ovarian gonadotropin-releasing hormone in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:5194-202 pubmed
    Molecular mechanisms directing tissue-specific expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) are difficult to study due to the paucity and scattered distribution of GnRH neurons...
  6. Schwarting G, Raitcheva D, Bless E, Ackerman S, Tobet S. Netrin 1-mediated chemoattraction regulates the migratory pathway of LHRH neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;19:11-20 pubmed
    Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons migrate from the vomeronasal organ (VNO) to the forebrain in all mammals studied...
  7. Cattanach B, Iddon C, Charlton H, Chiappa S, Fink G. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone deficiency in a mutant mouse with hypogonadism. Nature. 1977;269:338-40 pubmed
  8. Yoon H, Enquist L, Dulac C. Olfactory inputs to hypothalamic neurons controlling reproduction and fertility. Cell. 2005;123:669-82 pubmed
    ..we have aimed at identifying afferent pathways to neurons synthesizing luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH, also known as gonadotropin-releasing hormone [GnRH]), a key neurohormone of reproduction...
  9. Tissir F, Ravni A, Achouri Y, Riethmacher D, Meyer G, Goffinet A. DeltaNp73 regulates neuronal survival in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:16871-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In DeltaNp73(-/-) mice, cells in preoptic areas, vomeronasal neurons, GnRH-positive cells, and CRc were severely reduced in number, and choroid plexuses were atrophic...
  10. Singh J, Handelsman D. Neonatal administration of FSH increases Sertoli cell numbers and spermatogenesis in gonadotropin-deficient (hpg) mice. J Endocrinol. 1996;151:37-48 pubmed
    ..alone, in the complete absence of gonadotropins, initiated qualitatively complete spermatogenesis in hypogonadal (hpg) mice...
  11. Wray S, Key S, Qualls R, Fueshko S. A subset of peripherin positive olfactory axons delineates the luteinizing hormone releasing hormone neuronal migratory pathway in developing mouse. Dev Biol. 1994;166:349-54 pubmed
    Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons in the CNS are derived from cells of the olfactory placode and thereafter migrate from the olfactory pit into the diencephalon...
  12. Metz H, Wray S. Use of mutant mouse lines to investigate origin of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-1 neurons: lineage independent of the adenohypophysis. Endocrinology. 2010;151:766-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, single- and double-mutant mice were used to examine the lineage of GnRH-1 cells...
  13. Giacobini P, Messina A, Morello F, Ferraris N, Corso S, Penachioni J, et al. Semaphorin 4D regulates gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone-1 neuronal migration through PlexinB1-Met complex. J Cell Biol. 2008;183:555-66 pubmed publisher
    ..reproduction is dependent on specific neurons secreting the neuropeptide gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone-1 (GnRH-1)...
  14. Myers M, Ebling F, Nwagwu M, Boulton R, Wadhwa K, Stewart J, et al. Atypical development of Sertoli cells and impairment of spermatogenesis in the hypogonadal (hpg) mouse. J Anat. 2005;207:797-811 pubmed
    ..hpg) mice show arrested postnatal development due to congenital deficiencies of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotrophin synthesis and secretion...
  15. Forni P, Taylor Burds C, Melvin V, Williams T, Williams T, Wray S. Neural crest and ectodermal cells intermix in the nasal placode to give rise to GnRH-1 neurons, sensory neurons, and olfactory ensheathing cells. J Neurosci. 2011;31:6915-27 pubmed publisher
    The origin of GnRH-1 cells and olfactory ensheathing cells has been controversial...
  16. Berghard A, Hägglund A, Bohm S, Carlsson L. Lhx2-dependent specification of olfactory sensory neurons is required for successful integration of olfactory, vomeronasal, and GnRH neurons. FASEB J. 2012;26:3464-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Third, the lack of a proper vomeronasal nerve prevents migration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) cells the whole distance to their final positions in the hypothalamus during embryo development...
  17. Gill J, Tsai P. Expression of a dominant negative FGF receptor in developing GNRH1 neurons disrupts axon outgrowth and targeting to the median eminence. Biol Reprod. 2006;74:463-72 pubmed
    During development, neurons that synthesize and release gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH1) extend their axons to the median eminence (ME) to establish neurosecretory contacts necessary for hormone secretion...
  18. Mallamaci A, Di Blas E, Briata P, Boncinelli E, Corte G. OTX2 homeoprotein in the developing central nervous system and migratory cells of the olfactory area. Mech Dev. 1996;58:165-78 pubmed
    ..olfactory nerve along its path from the olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavities to the olfactory bulb in rostral telencephalon and include both ensheathing glial cells and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH)-positive cells.
  19. Deiner M, Sretavan D. Altered midline axon pathways and ectopic neurons in the developing hypothalamus of netrin-1- and DCC-deficient mice. J Neurosci. 1999;19:9900-12 pubmed
    ..Netrin protein localization also indicates that unlike in more caudal CNS, guidance about the hypothalamic ventral midline does not require midline expression of netrin. ..
  20. O Shaughnessy P, Baker P, Sohnius U, Haavisto A, Charlton H, Huhtaniemi I. Fetal development of Leydig cell activity in the mouse is independent of pituitary gonadotroph function. Endocrinology. 1998;139:1141-6 pubmed
    ..of fetal pituitary LH levels and Leydig cell function in normal mice and in hypogonadal (hpg) mice that lack GnRH and, thus, circulating gonadotropins...
  21. Ebling F, Brooks A, Cronin A, Ford H, Kerr J. Estrogenic induction of spermatogenesis in the hypogonadal mouse. Endocrinology. 2000;141:2861-9 pubmed
    ..in male reproductive function, by determining the effect of estradiol on testicular function in hypogonadal (hpg) mice congenitally lacking gonadotropin; and thus, sex steroid production...
  22. Schwarting G, Henion T, Nugent J, Caplan B, Tobet S. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 12) and chemokine C-X-C motif receptor 4 are required for migration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons to the forebrain. J Neurosci. 2006;26:6834-40 pubmed
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons migrate from the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in the nasal compartment to the basal forebrain in mice, beginning on embryonic day 11 (E11)...
  23. Herbison A, Porteous R, Pape J, Mora J, Hurst P. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuron requirements for puberty, ovulation, and fertility. Endocrinology. 2008;149:597-604 pubmed
    ..The GnRH neurons of the hypothalamus represent the key cell type within the body dictating fertility...
  24. Kramer P, Krishnamurthy R, Mitchell P, Wray S. Transcription factor activator protein-2 is required for continued luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone expression in the forebrain of developing mice. Endocrinology. 2000;141:1823-38 pubmed
    b>LHRH is the neuropeptide responsible for reproductive function. Prenatally, LHRH expression begins when neurons are in the olfactory pit and continues as these cells migrate into the brain...
  25. Pierce A, Bliesner B, Xu M, Nielsen Preiss S, Lemke G, Tobet S, et al. Axl and Tyro3 modulate female reproduction by influencing gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuron survival and migration. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:2481-95 pubmed publisher
    b>GnRH neurons must undergo a complex and precise pattern of neuronal migration to appropriately target their projections to the median eminence to trigger gonadotropin secretion and thereby control reproduction...
  26. Jasoni C, Porteous R, Herbison A. Anatomical location of mature GnRH neurons corresponds with their birthdate in the developing mouse. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:524-31 pubmed publisher
    The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons exhibit substantial functional, anatomical, and molecular heterogeneity, which has hampered their thorough examination...
  27. O Shaughnessy P, Marsh P, Dudley K. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor mRNA in the mouse ovary during post-natal development in the normal mouse and in the adult hypogonadal (hpg) mouse: structure of alternate transcripts. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1994;101:197-201 pubmed
    ..follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor was studied during post-natal development and in the adult hypogonadal (hpg) mouse which lacks circulating gonadotrophins...
  28. Tucker E, Lehtinen M, Maynard T, Zirlinger M, Dulac C, RAWSON N, et al. Proliferative and transcriptional identity of distinct classes of neural precursors in the mammalian olfactory epithelium. Development. 2010;137:2471-81 pubmed publisher
    ..to three major neuronal classes - olfactory receptor (ORNs), vomeronasal (VRNs) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. Nevertheless, the molecular and proliferative identities of these precursors are largely unknown...
  29. Giacobini P, Giampietro C, Fioretto M, Maggi R, Cariboni A, Perroteau I, et al. Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor facilitates migration of GN-11 immortalized LHRH neurons. Endocrinology. 2002;143:3306-15 pubmed
    The molecular cues regulating the migratory process of LHRH neurons from the olfactory placode into the brain are not well known, but gradients of chemotropic and chemorepellent factors secreted by the targets are likely to play a key ..
  30. Kramer P, Wray S. Midline nasal tissue influences nestin expression in nasal-placode-derived luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons during development. Dev Biol. 2000;227:343-57 pubmed
    Neurons differentiating into the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neuroendocrine phenotype are derived from the nasal placode...
  31. O Shaughnessy P, Monteiro A, Verhoeven G, De Gendt K, Abel M. Occurrence of testicular microlithiasis in androgen insensitive hypogonadal mice. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2009;7:88 pubmed publisher
    ..receptors (ARs) on the Sertoli cells (SCARKO), mice with a ubiquitous loss of androgen ARs (ARKO), hypogonadal (hpg) mice which lack circulating gonadotrophins, and hpg mice crossed with SCARKO (hpg.SCARKO) and ARKO (hpg.ARKO) mice...
  32. Zhen S, Dunn I, Wray S, Liu Y, Chappell P, Levine J, et al. An alternative gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) RNA splicing product found in cultured GnRH neurons and mouse hypothalamus. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:12620-5 pubmed
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is encoded by the proGnRH gene which contains four exons and three introns. In this study, two immortalized GnRH-expressing cell lines (Gn11 and NLT) were characterized...
  33. Bergman J, Bosman E, van Ravenswaaij Arts C, Steel K. Study of smell and reproductive organs in a mouse model for CHARGE syndrome. Eur J Hum Genet. 2010;18:171-7 pubmed publisher
    ..ability to smell and aspects of the reproductive system (reproductive performance, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and anatomy of testes and uteri) in a mouse model for CHARGE syndrome, the whirligig mouse (Chd7(Whi/+))...
  34. Constantin S, Caligioni C, Stojilkovic S, Wray S. Kisspeptin-10 facilitates a plasma membrane-driven calcium oscillator in gonadotropin-releasing hormone-1 neurons. Endocrinology. 2009;150:1400-12 pubmed publisher
    Kisspeptins, the natural ligands of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR)-54, are the most potent stimulators of GnRH-1 secretion and as such are critical to reproductive function...
  35. Bouligand J, Ghervan C, Guiochon Mantel A, Young J. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and GNRH1 mutations in mice and humans. Front Horm Res. 2010;39:111-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The discovery in 1977 of a hypogonadal mouse lacking GnRH (hpg mice) and, in 1986, that the gnrh1 gene was deleted in this mouse, suggested that GNRH1 mutations might also cause human congenital idiopathic (or ..
  36. Cariboni A, Davidson K, Rakic S, Maggi R, Parnavelas J, Ruhrberg C. Defective gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuron migration in mice lacking SEMA3A signalling through NRP1 and NRP2: implications for the aetiology of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:336-44 pubmed publisher
    ..unknown, but are thought to be due to a developmental defect in the migration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. Understanding the causes of the disease is hampered by lack of appropriate mouse models...
  37. Bless E, Raitcheva D, Henion T, Tobet S, Schwarting G. Lactosamine modulates the rate of migration of GnRH neurons during mouse development. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;24:654-60 pubmed
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are derived from progenitor cells in the olfactory placodes and migrate from the vomeronasal organ (VNO) across the cribriform plate into the forebrain...
  38. O Shaughnessy P, Bennett M, Scott I, Charlton H. Effects of FSH on Leydig cell morphology and function in the hypogonadal mouse. J Endocrinol. 1992;135:517-25 pubmed
    The hypogonadal (hpg) mouse has a congenital deficiency in gonadotrophin-releasing hormone and the gonads consequently lack exposure to endogenous gonadotrophins during development...
  39. Abel M, Wootton A, Wilkins V, Huhtaniemi I, Knight P, Charlton H. The effect of a null mutation in the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor gene on mouse reproduction. Endocrinology. 2000;141:1795-803 pubmed
    ..In the male, however, inability to respond to FSH does not impair fertility, although testicular weight is reduced, and feedback regulation of pituitary gonadotropins and intratesticular paracrine interactions may be disturbed. ..
  40. Haywood M, Spaliviero J, Jimemez M, King N, Handelsman D, Allan C. Sertoli and germ cell development in hypogonadal (hpg) mice expressing transgenic follicle-stimulating hormone alone or in combination with testosterone. Endocrinology. 2003;144:509-17 pubmed
    ..gonadal actions of FSH, distinct from LH effects, by expressing tg-FSH in gonadotropin-deficient hypogonadal (hpg) mice...
  41. Schwarting G, Kostek C, Bless E, Ahmad N, Tobet S. Deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) regulates the migration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons to the basal forebrain. J Neurosci. 2001;21:911-9 pubmed
    Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons migrate from the vomeronasal organ (VNO) to the forebrain in all mammals studied...
  42. Matsumoto S, Yamazaki C, Masumoto K, Nagano M, Naito M, Soga T, et al. Abnormal development of the olfactory bulb and reproductive system in mice lacking prokineticin receptor PKR2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:4140-5 pubmed
    ..Our current findings demonstrated that physiological activation of PKR2 is essential for normal development of the OB and sexual maturation...
  43. Larder R, Mellon P. Otx2 induction of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone promoter is modulated by direct interactions with Grg co-repressors. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:16966-78 pubmed publisher
    ..In mice, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expression is limited to approximately 1000 neurons that originate in the olfactory placode then migrate to ..
  44. Herbison A, Pape J, Simonian S, Skynner M, Sim J. Molecular and cellular properties of GnRH neurons revealed through transgenics in the mouse. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001;185:185-94 pubmed
    Recent advances in the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) promoter-driven transgenics in the mouse are beginning to open up the once elusive GnRH neuronal phenotype to detailed molecular and cellular investigation...
  45. Johnston J, Messager S, Ebling F, Williams L, Barrett P, Hazlerigg D. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone drives melatonin receptor down-regulation in the developing pituitary gland. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:2831-5 pubmed
    ..the transcription factor, early growth response factor-1, which is induced by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and trans-activates LH beta expression, attenuated Pitx-1-induced MT(1)-luciferase activity...
  46. Turi G, Liposits Z, Moenter S, Fekete C, Hrabovszky E. Origin of neuropeptide Y-containing afferents to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in male mice. Endocrinology. 2003;144:4967-74 pubmed
    The origin of neuropeptide Y (NPY) afferents to GnRH neurons was investigated in male mice...
  47. Yamada Y, Yamamoto H, Yonehara T, Kanasaki H, Nakanishi H, Miyamoto E, et al. Differential activation of the luteinizing hormone beta-subunit promoter by activin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone: a role for the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in LbetaT2 gonadotrophs. Biol Reprod. 2004;70:236-43 pubmed
    ..We next examined the effects of activin A and GnRH on LHbeta promoter activity by reporter gene assay and compared the signal transduction pathways...
  48. Miraoui H, Dwyer A, Sykiotis G, Plummer L, CHUNG W, Feng B, et al. Mutations in FGF17, IL17RD, DUSP6, SPRY4, and FLRT3 are identified in individuals with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Am J Hum Genet. 2013;92:725-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in genes encoding components of the FGF pathway are associated with complex modes of CHH inheritance and act primarily as contributors to an oligogenic genetic architecture underlying CHH. ..
  49. Gamble J, Karunadasa D, Pape J, Skynner M, Todman M, Bicknell R, et al. Disruption of ephrin signaling associates with disordered axophilic migration of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons. J Neurosci. 2005;25:3142-50 pubmed
    ..we have identified here a potential role for EphA5 in the axophilic migration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons from the nasal placode into the brain along ephrin-expressing vomeronasal axons...
  50. Miller N, Wevrick R, Mellon P. Necdin, a Prader-Willi syndrome candidate gene, regulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons during development. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:248-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Adult mice lacking necdin have reduced numbers of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, but the mechanism for this reduction is unknown...
  51. Rose A, Froment P, Perrot V, Quon M, LeRoith D, Dupont J. The luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone inhibits the anti-apoptotic activity of insulin-like growth factor-1 in pituitary alphaT3 cells by protein kinase Calpha-mediated negative regulation of Akt. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:52500-16 pubmed
    The luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor involved in the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins and in the proliferation and apoptosis of pituitary cells...
  52. Yoshida K, Rutishauser U, Crandall J, Schwarting G. Polysialic acid facilitates migration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons on vomeronasal axons. J Neurosci. 1999;19:794-801 pubmed
    Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons migrate from the olfactory placode to the forebrain in association with vomeronasal nerves (VNN) that express the polysialic acid-rich form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-..
  53. Kim H, DiVall S, Deneau R, Wolfe A. Insulin regulation of GnRH gene expression through MAP kinase signaling pathways. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2005;242:42-9 pubmed
    ..To determine whether insulin acts directly on the GnRH neuron, we performed studies in mouse-derived GnRH-expressing cell lines...
  54. Yeo T, Gore A, Jakubowski M, Dong K, Blum M, Roberts J. Characterization of gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene transcripts in a mouse hypothalamic neuronal GT1 cell line. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1996;42:255-62 pubmed
    We have characterized the nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA transcripts derived from the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) gene in a mouse hypothalamic neuronal GT1 cell line...
  55. McCabe M, Allan C, Foo C, Nicholls P, McTavish K, Stanton P. Androgen initiates Sertoli cell tight junction formation in the hypogonadal (hpg) mouse. Biol Reprod. 2012;87:38 pubmed publisher
    ..hormonal induction of functional Sertoli cell TJ formation in vivo using the gonadotropin-deficient hypogonadal (hpg) mouse that displays prepubertal spermatogenic arrest...
  56. Hoffmann H, Trang C, Gong P, Kimura I, Pandolfi E, Mellon P. Deletion of Vax1 from Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Neurons Abolishes GnRH Expression and Leads to Hypogonadism and Infertility. J Neurosci. 2016;36:3506-18 pubmed publisher
    ..This identified VAX1 as essential for maintaining expression of Gnrh1 The absence of GnRH staining in adult Vax1(flox/flox):GnRH(cre)mice led to delayed puberty, hypogonadism, and ..
  57. Moenter S. Identified GnRH neuron electrophysiology: a decade of study. Brain Res. 2010;1364:10-24 pubmed publisher
    ..mouse models in which reporter genes are expressed under the control of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) promoter has made possible the electrophysiological study of these cells...
  58. Tiong J, Locastro T, Wray S. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-1 (GnRH-1) is involved in tooth maturation and biomineralization. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:2980-92 pubmed
    Gonadotropin releasing-hormone-1 (GnRH-1) is expressed in mouse incisors during development...
  59. McNay D, Pelling M, Claxton S, Guillemot F, Ang S. Mash1 is required for generic and subtype differentiation of hypothalamic neuroendocrine cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:1623-32 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that Mash1 is both required for the generation of ventral neuroendocrine neurons as well as playing a central role in subtype specification of these neurons. ..
  60. Choi Y, Rajkovic A. Genetics of early mammalian folliculogenesis. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006;63:579-90 pubmed
    ..Genes critical in early folliculogenesis are important determinants of reproductive life span and represent candidate genes for human ovarian failure. ..
  61. Cremona M, Colombo E, Andreazzoli M, Cossu G, Broccoli V. Bsx, an evolutionary conserved Brain Specific homeoboX gene expressed in the septum, epiphysis, mammillary bodies and arcuate nucleus. Gene Expr Patterns. 2004;4:47-51 pubmed
    ..In particular, Bsx might be considered an important molecular marker for early embryonic stages of epiphysis development, being specifically expressed in this neural structure from E9.5 onwards. ..
  62. Coss D, Jacobs S, Bender C, Mellon P. A novel AP-1 site is critical for maximal induction of the follicle-stimulating hormone beta gene by gonadotropin-releasing hormone. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:152-62 pubmed
    ..The FSHbeta subunit is primarily regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), gonadal steroids, and activin...