Gene Symbol: Gnl3
Description: guanine nucleotide binding protein-like 3 (nucleolar)
Alias: guanine nucleotide-binding protein-like 3, nucleolar GTP-binding protein 3, nucleostemin
Species: mouse
Products:     Gnl3

Top Publications

  1. Nomura J, Maruyama M, Katano M, Kato H, Zhang J, Masui S, et al. Differential requirement for nucleostemin in embryonic stem cell and neural stem cell viability. Stem Cells. 2009;27:1066-76 pubmed publisher
    Stem cells have the remarkable ability to self-renew and to generate multiple cell types. Nucleostemin is one of proteins that are enriched in many types of stem cells...
  2. Tsai R, McKay R. A nucleolar mechanism controlling cell proliferation in stem cells and cancer cells. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2991-3003 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we identify a novel protein, nucleostemin, found in the nucleoli of CNS stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and several cancer cell lines and ..
  3. Beekman C, Nichane M, De Clercq S, Maetens M, Floss T, Wurst W, et al. Evolutionarily conserved role of nucleostemin: controlling proliferation of stem/progenitor cells during early vertebrate development. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:9291-301 pubmed
    b>Nucleostemin (NS) is a putative GTPase expressed preferentially in the nucleoli of neuronal and embryonic stem cells and several cancer cell lines...
  4. Zhu Q, Yasumoto H, Tsai R. Nucleostemin delays cellular senescence and negatively regulates TRF1 protein stability. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:9279-90 pubmed
    b>Nucleostemin (NS) encodes a nucleolar GTP-binding protein highly enriched in the stem cells and cancer cells. To determine its biological activity in vivo, we generated NS loss- and gain-of-function mouse models...
  5. Politz J, Polena I, Trask I, Bazett Jones D, Pederson T. A nonribosomal landscape in the nucleolus revealed by the stem cell protein nucleostemin. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:3401-10 pubmed
    b>Nucleostemin is a p53-interactive cell cycle progression factor that shuttles between the nucleolus and nucleoplasm, but it has no known involvement in ribosome synthesis...
  6. Katano M, Ema M, Nakachi Y, Mizuno Y, Hirasaki M, Suzuki A, et al. Forced expression of Nanog or Esrrb preserves the ESC status in the absence of nucleostemin expression. Stem Cells. 2015;33:1089-101 pubmed publisher
    b>Nucleostemin (NS) is a nucleolar GTP-binding protein that is involved in a plethora of functions including ribosomal biogenesis and maintenance of telomere integrity...
  7. Meng L, Lin T, Peng G, Hsu J, Lee S, Lin S, et al. Nucleostemin deletion reveals an essential mechanism that maintains the genomic stability of stem and progenitor cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:11415-20 pubmed publisher
    ..cells is safeguarded by mechanisms involving molecules beyond the core DNA repair machinery, we created a nucleostemin (a stem and cancer cell-enriched protein) conditional-null allele and showed that neural-specific knockout of ..
  8. Lin T, Meng L, Li Y, Tsai R. Tumor-initiating function of nucleostemin-enriched mammary tumor cells. Cancer Res. 2010;70:9444-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Nucleostemin (NS) is highly expressed in normal stem cells and tumors and is upregulated by estradiol in MCF7 breast cancer cells...
  9. Lin T, Yasumoto H, Tsai R. BAC transgenic expression efficiency: bicistronic versus ATG-fusion strategies. Genesis. 2007;45:647-52 pubmed
    ..these two methods, mice were created that expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the genomic locus of nucleostemin using the bicistronic (NSiGFP) or the ATG-fusion approach (NSmGFP)...

More Information


  1. Ohmura M, Naka K, Hoshii T, Muraguchi T, Shugo H, Tamase A, et al. Identification of stem cells during prepubertal spermatogenesis via monitoring of nucleostemin promoter activity. Stem Cells. 2008;26:3237-46 pubmed publisher
    The nucleostemin (NS) gene encodes a nucleolar protein found at high levels in several types of stem cells and tumor cell lines. The function of NS is unclear but it may play a critical role in S-phase entry by stem/progenitor cells...
  2. Siddiqi S, Gude N, Hosoda T, Muraski J, Rubio M, Emmanuel G, et al. Myocardial induction of nucleostemin in response to postnatal growth and pathological challenge. Circ Res. 2008;103:89-97 pubmed publisher
    ..One such regulatory protein, named nucleostemin, has been studied in the context of stem cells and several cancer cell lines, where expression is associated ..
  3. Tamase A, Muraguchi T, Naka K, Tanaka S, Kinoshita M, Hoshii T, et al. Identification of tumor-initiating cells in a highly aggressive brain tumor using promoter activity of nucleostemin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:17163-8 pubmed publisher
    ..aggressive solid tumor are stochastically or hierarchically organized, we combined a reporter system where the nucleostemin (NS) promoter drives GFP expression (termed NS-GFP) with a mouse brain tumor model induced by retroviral Ras ..
  4. Huang M, Whang P, Chodaparambil J, Pollyea D, Kusler B, Xu L, et al. Reactive oxygen species regulate nucleostemin oligomerization and protein degradation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:11035-46 pubmed publisher
    b>Nucleostemin (NS) is a nucleolar-nucleoplasmic shuttle protein that regulates cell proliferation, binds p53 and Mdm2, and is highly expressed in tumor cells...
  5. Zwolinska A, Heagle Whiting A, Beekman C, Sedivy J, Marine J. Suppression of Myc oncogenic activity by nucleostemin haploinsufficiency. Oncogene. 2012;31:3311-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Nucleostemin (NS), a nucleolar GTPase, is highly expressed in stem/progenitor cells and in most cancer cells. However, little is known about the regulation of its expression...
  6. Shugo H, Ooshio T, Naito M, Naka K, Hoshii T, Tadokoro Y, et al. Nucleostemin in injury-induced liver regeneration. Stem Cells Dev. 2012;21:3044-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we analyzed expression of nucleostemin (NS) during development and in injured liver by using transgenic green fluorescent protein reporter (NS-GFP Tg) ..
  7. Yamashita M, Nitta E, Nagamatsu G, Ikushima Y, Hosokawa K, Arai F, et al. Nucleostemin is indispensable for the maintenance and genetic stability of hematopoietic stem cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;441:196-201 pubmed publisher
    b>Nucleostemin is a nucleolar protein known to play a variety of roles in cell-cycle progression, apoptosis inhibition, and DNA damage protection in embryonic stem cells and tissue stem cells...
  8. Qu J, Bishop J. Nucleostemin maintains self-renewal of embryonic stem cells and promotes reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotency. J Cell Biol. 2012;197:731-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Nucleostemin (NS) is a nucleolar GTP-binding protein that was first identified in neural stem cells, the functions of which remain poorly understood...
  9. Hirai H, Romanova L, Kellner S, Verma M, Rayner S, Asakura A, et al. Post-mitotic role of nucleostemin as a promoter of skeletal muscle cell differentiation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;391:299-304 pubmed publisher
    b>Nucleostemin (NS) is a nucleolar protein abundantly expressed in a variety of proliferating cells and undifferentiated cells. Its known functions include cell cycle regulation and the control of pre-rRNA processing...
  10. Okamoto N, Yasukawa M, Nguyen C, Kasim V, Maida Y, Possemato R, et al. Maintenance of tumor initiating cells of defined genetic composition by nucleostemin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:20388-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that overexpression of either of the nucleolar GTP-binding proteins nucleostemin (NS) or GNL3L drives the fraction of genetically defined tumor cells that exhibit markers and tumorigenic ..
  11. Lo D, Dai M, Sun X, Zeng S, Lu H. Ubiquitin- and MDM2 E3 ligase-independent proteasomal turnover of nucleostemin in response to GTP depletion. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:10013-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Nucleostemin (NS) is a nucleolar GTP-binding protein essential for ribosomal biogenesis, proliferation, and animal embryogenesis. It remains largely unclear how this protein is regulated...
  12. Martindill D, Risebro C, Smart N, Franco Viseras M, Rosario C, Swallow C, et al. Nucleolar release of Hand1 acts as a molecular switch to determine cell fate. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:1131-41 pubmed
    ..This study defines a novel cellular mechanism for regulating Hand1 that is a crucial step in the stem-cell differentiation pathway. ..
  13. Meng L, Yasumoto H, Tsai R. Multiple controls regulate nucleostemin partitioning between nucleolus and nucleoplasm. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:5124-36 pubmed
    b>Nucleostemin plays an essential role in maintaining the continuous proliferation of stem cells and cancer cells...