Gene Symbol: Gnb5
Description: guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta 5
Alias: GBS, Gbeta5, flr, guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-5, flail, flailer, guanine nucleotide binding protein, beta 5, hug, transducin beta chain 5
Species: mouse
Products:     Gnb5

Top Publications

  1. Watson A, Aragay A, Slepak V, Simon M. A novel form of the G protein beta subunit Gbeta5 is specifically expressed in the vertebrate retina. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:28154-60 pubmed
    The G protein beta subunit, Gbeta5, is predominantly expressed in the central nervous system. In rodent brain, Gbeta5 is expressed as a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 39,000 daltons (39 kDa)...
  2. Watson A, Katz A, Simon M. A fifth member of the mammalian G-protein beta-subunit family. Expression in brain and activation of the beta 2 isotype of phospholipase C. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:22150-6 pubmed
    ..The rather low level of identity between G beta 5 and the other mammalian G beta-subunits may shed light on structural/sequence elements necessary for G beta protein function. ..
  3. Chen C, Eversole Cire P, Zhang H, Mancino V, Chen Y, He W, et al. Instability of GGL domain-containing RGS proteins in mice lacking the G protein beta-subunit Gbeta5. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:6604-9 pubmed
    ..GGL) domain (RGS6, RGS7, RGS9, and RGS11) interact with the fifth member of the G protein beta-subunit family, Gbeta5. This interaction is necessary for the stability of both the RGS protein and for Gbeta5...
  4. Krispel C, Chen C, Simon M, Burns M. Prolonged photoresponses and defective adaptation in rods of Gbeta5-/- mice. J Neurosci. 2003;23:6965-71 pubmed a protein complex that includes regulator of G-protein signaling RGS9-1 and the G-protein beta subunit Gbeta5-L...
  5. Keresztes G, Martemyanov K, Krispel C, Mutai H, Yoo P, Maison S, et al. Absence of the RGS9.Gbeta5 GTPase-activating complex in photoreceptors of the R9AP knockout mouse. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:1581-4 pubmed
    ..the ninth member of the regulator of G protein signaling protein family (RGS9) with type 5 G protein beta subunit (Gbeta5). RGS9.Gbeta5 is anchored to photoreceptor disc membranes by the transmembrane protein, R9AP...
  6. Saito H, Mimmack M, Kishimoto J, Keverne E, Emson P. Expression of olfactory receptors, G-proteins and AxCAMs during the development and maturation of olfactory sensory neurons in the mouse. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1998;110:69-81 pubmed
    ..Moreover the highest periods of expression occur at post-natal day 7 when a proliferation of bulbar glomeruli are observed, suggesting the role of Big-2 to be primarily concerned with synaptogenesis. ..
  7. Grabowska D, Jayaraman M, Kaltenbronn K, Sandiford S, Wang Q, Jenkins S, et al. Postnatal induction and localization of R7BP, a membrane-anchoring protein for regulator of G protein signaling 7 family-Gbeta5 complexes in brain. Neuroscience. 2008;151:969-82 pubmed publisher
    Members of the regulator of G protein signaling 7 (RGS7) (R7) family and Gbeta5 form obligate heterodimers that are expressed predominantly in the nervous system...
  8. Wang Q, Pronin A, Levay K, Almaca J, Fornoni A, Caicedo A, et al. Regulator of G-protein signaling Gβ5-R7 is a crucial activator of muscarinic M3 receptor-stimulated insulin secretion. FASEB J. 2017;31:4734-4744 pubmed publisher
    ..R7 subfamily RGS proteins are stabilized by the G-protein subunit Gβ5, such that the knockout of the Gnb5 gene results in degradation of all R7 subunits...
  9. Yoshii A, Zhao J, Pandian S, van Zundert B, Constantine Paton M. A Myosin Va mutant mouse with disruptions in glutamate synaptic development and mature plasticity in visual cortex. J Neurosci. 2013;33:8472-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, in studies using the dominant-negative MyoVa neurological mutant mouse Flailer, we find that MyoVa plays an essential role in activity-dependent delivery of PSD-95 and other critical PSD ..

More Information


  1. Tian M, Zallocchi M, Wang W, Chen C, Palczewski K, Delimont D, et al. Light-induced translocation of RGS9-1 and G?5L in mouse rod photoreceptors. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58832 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a previously unappreciated mechanism by which prolonged dark adaptation leads to increased light sensitivity in rods by dissociating RGS9-1 from R9AP and redistributing it to rod inner segments. ..
  2. Xie K, Masuho I, Brand C, Dessauer C, Martemyanov K. The complex of G protein regulator RGS9-2 and G?(5) controls sensitization and signaling kinetics of type 5 adenylyl cyclase in the striatum. Sci Signal. 2012;5:ra63 pubmed publisher
  3. Nini L, Zhang J, Pandey M, Panicker L, Simonds W. Expression of the G?5/R7-RGS protein complex in pituitary and pancreatic islet cells. Endocrine. 2012;42:214-7 pubmed publisher
  4. Zhang J, Pandey M, Seigneur E, Panicker L, Koo L, Schwartz O, et al. Knockout of G protein β5 impairs brain development and causes multiple neurologic abnormalities in mice. J Neurochem. 2011;119:544-54 pubmed publisher
    Gβ5 is a divergent member of the signal-transducing G protein β subunit family encoded by GNB5 and expressed principally in brain and neuronal tissue...
  5. Wang Q, Levay K, Chanturiya T, Dvoriantchikova G, Anderson K, Bianco S, et al. Targeted deletion of one or two copies of the G protein ? subunit G?5 gene has distinct effects on body weight and behavior in mice. FASEB J. 2011;25:3949-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data on G?5 haploinsufficient mice may explain earlier observations of genetic linkage between R7 family mutations and obesity in humans. ..
  6. Xie K, Ge S, Collins V, Haynes C, Renner K, Meisel R, et al. G?5-RGS complexes are gatekeepers of hyperactivity involved in control of multiple neurotransmitter systems. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012;219:823-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings establish that G?5-RGS complexes are critical regulators of monoamine-NMDA receptor signaling cross-talk and link these complexes to disorders that manifest as hyperactivity, impaired learning, and motor dysfunctions. ..
  7. Xie K, Allen K, Kourrich S, Colón Saez J, Thomas M, Wickman K, et al. Gbeta5 recruits R7 RGS proteins to GIRK channels to regulate the timing of neuronal inhibitory signaling. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:661-3 pubmed publisher
    The type 5 G protein beta subunit (Gbeta5) can form complexes with members of the regulator of G protein signaling 7 (RGS7) family, but its relevance to neuronal G protein signaling is unclear...
  8. Panicker L, Zhang J, Posokhova E, Gastinger M, Martemyanov K, Simonds W. Nuclear localization of the G protein beta 5/R7-regulator of G protein signaling protein complex is dependent on R7 binding protein. J Neurochem. 2010;113:1101-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that R7BP contributes significantly to the nuclear localization of endogenous G beta(5)/R7-RGS complex in brain. ..
  9. Cao Y, Song H, Okawa H, Sampath A, Sokolov M, Martemyanov K. Targeting of RGS7/Gbeta5 to the dendritic tips of ON-bipolar cells is independent of its association with membrane anchor R7BP. J Neurosci. 2008;28:10443-9 pubmed publisher
    Complexes of regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins with G-protein beta5 (Gbeta5) subunits are essential components of signaling pathways that regulate the temporal characteristics of light-evoked responses in vertebrate retinal ..
  10. Morgans C, Wensel T, Brown R, Perez Leon J, Bearnot B, Duvoisin R. Gbeta5-RGS complexes co-localize with mGluR6 in retinal ON-bipolar cells. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:2899-905 pubmed
    ..identified complexes of the Galphao-selective RGS proteins RGS7 and RGS11, with their obligate binding partner, Gbeta5, that are localized to the dendritic tips of murine rod and cone ON-bipolar cells, along with mGluR6...
  11. Okae H, Iwakura Y. Neural tube defects and impaired neural progenitor cell proliferation in Gbeta1-deficient mice. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:1089-101 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that Gbeta1 is required for normal embryonic neurogenesis. ..
  12. Cao Y, Masuho I, Okawa H, Xie K, Asami J, Kammermeier P, et al. Retina-specific GTPase accelerator RGS11/G beta 5S/R9AP is a constitutive heterotrimer selectively targeted to mGluR6 in ON-bipolar neurons. J Neurosci. 2009;29:9301-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the deactivation of mGluR6 cascade during the light response may require the contribution of multiple GTPase activating proteins. ..
  13. Posokhova E, Wydeven N, Allen K, Wickman K, Martemyanov K. RGS6/G?5 complex accelerates IKACh gating kinetics in atrial myocytes and modulates parasympathetic regulation of heart rate. Circ Res. 2010;107:1350-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular mechanisms regulating this critical signal transduction pathway are not fully understood...
  14. Anderson G, Lujan R, Martemyanov K. Changes in striatal signaling induce remodeling of RGS complexes containing Gbeta5 and R7BP subunits. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:3033-44 pubmed publisher
    ..established that R7 RGS proteins function as macromolecular complexes with two subunits: type 5 G protein beta (Gbeta5) and R7 binding protein (R7BP)...
  15. Rao A, Dallman R, Henderson S, Chen C. Gbeta5 is required for normal light responses and morphology of retinal ON-bipolar cells. J Neurosci. 2007;27:14199-204 pubmed
    b>Gbeta5 exists as two splice variants, Gbeta5-S and Gbeta5-L, which interact with and stabilize the R7 members of the regulators of G-protein signaling (RGSs): RGS6, RGS7, RGS9, and RGS11...
  16. Anderson G, Lujan R, Semenov A, Pravetoni M, Posokhova E, Song J, et al. Expression and localization of RGS9-2/G 5/R7BP complex in vivo is set by dynamic control of its constitutive degradation by cellular cysteine proteases. J Neurosci. 2007;27:14117-27 pubmed
    ..Implementation of this mechanism throughout ontogenetic development ensures expression of RGS9-2/type 5 G-protein beta subunit/R7BP complexes at postsynaptic sites in unison with increased signaling demands at mature synapses. ..
  17. Drenan R, Doupnik C, Boyle M, Muglia L, Huettner J, Linder M, et al. Palmitoylation regulates plasma membrane-nuclear shuttling of R7BP, a novel membrane anchor for the RGS7 family. J Cell Biol. 2005;169:623-33 pubmed
    The RGS7 (R7) family of RGS proteins bound to the divergent Gbeta subunit Gbeta5 is a crucial regulator of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling in the visual and nervous systems...
  18. Jones J, Huang J, Mermall V, Hamilton B, Mooseker M, Escayg A, et al. The mouse neurological mutant flailer expresses a novel hybrid gene derived by exon shuffling between Gnb5 and Myo5a. Hum Mol Genet. 2000;9:821-8 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the mouse neurological mutation flailer (flr) expresses a novel gene that combines the promoter and first two exons of guanine nucleotide binding protein ..
  19. Leo D, Gainetdinov R. Transgenic mouse models for ADHD. Cell Tissue Res. 2013;354:259-71 pubmed publisher
    ..New transgenic models mouse models targeting other genes have recently been proposed for ADHD. Here, we discuss the recent advances and pitfalls in modeling ADHD endophenotypes in genetically altered animals. ..
  20. Guo Y, He X, Zhao L, Liu L, Song H, Wang X, et al. Gβ2 Regulates the Multipolar-Bipolar Transition of Newborn Neurons in the Developing Neocortex. Cereb Cortex. 2017;27:3414-3426 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our findings reveal that Gβ2 regulates proper neuronal migration during neocortex development by activating the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. ..
  21. Zhang S, Coso O, Lee C, Gutkind J, Simonds W. Selective activation of effector pathways by brain-specific G protein beta5. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:33575-9 pubmed