Gene Symbol: Gnb1
Description: guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta 1
Alias: AA409223, C77571, Gnb-1, guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-1, guanine nucleotide binding protein, beta 1, transducin beta chain 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Gnb1

Top Publications

  1. Dell E, Connor J, Chen S, Stebbins E, Skiba N, Mochly Rosen D, et al. The betagamma subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins interacts with RACK1 and two other WD repeat proteins. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:49888-95 pubmed
  2. Pradhan S, Khatlani T, Nairn A, Vijayan K. The heterotrimeric G protein G?1 interacts with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 and modulates G protein-coupled receptor signaling in platelets. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:13133-13142 pubmed publisher
    ..siRNA-mediated depletion of GNB1 (encoding G?1) in murine megakaryocytes reduced protease-activated receptor 4, activating peptide-..
  3. Prandi S, Bromke M, Hübner S, Voigt A, Boehm U, Meyerhof W, et al. A subset of mouse colonic goblet cells expresses the bitter taste receptor Tas2r131. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e82820 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression in colonic goblet cells is consistent with a role of Tas2rs in defense mechanisms against potentially harmful xenobiotics. ..
  4. Tsukada S, Simon M, Witte O, Katz A. Binding of beta gamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins to the PH domain of Bruton tyrosine kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:11256-60 pubmed
    ..The interaction of Btk with beta gamma suggests the existence of a unique connection between cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases and G proteins in cellular signal transduction. ..
  5. Garcia Higuera I, Thomas T, Yi F, Neer E. Intersubunit surfaces in G protein alpha beta gamma heterotrimers. Analysis by cross-linking and mutagenesis of beta gamma. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:528-35 pubmed
    ..Our findings begin to define intersubunit surfaces, and they pose structural constraints upon any model of the beta gamma dimer. ..
  6. Kitamura E, Danciger M, Yamashita C, Rao N, Nusinowitz S, Chang B, et al. Disruption of the gene encoding the beta1-subunit of transducin in the Rd4/+ mouse. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:1293-301 pubmed
    ..Northern and quantitative PCR procedures were used to evaluate Gnb1 mRNA expression. Protein expression was measured by Western blot...
  7. Lobanova E, Finkelstein S, Herrmann R, Chen Y, Kessler C, Michaud N, et al. Transducin gamma-subunit sets expression levels of alpha- and beta-subunits and is crucial for rod viability. J Neurosci. 2008;28:3510-20 pubmed publisher
    ..They further suggest that the production of transducin beta-subunit without its constitutive gamma-subunit partner sufficiently stresses the cellular biosynthetic and/or chaperone machinery to induce cell death. ..
  8. Kerr D, Von Dannecker L, Davalos M, Michaloski J, Malnic B. Ric-8B interacts with G alpha olf and G gamma 13 and co-localizes with G alpha olf, G beta 1 and G gamma 13 in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2008;38:341-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results constitute the first example of a GEF protein that interacts with two different olfactory G protein subunits and further implicate Ric-8B as a regulator of odorant signal transduction. ..
  9. Montmayeur J, Liberles S, Matsunami H, Buck L. A candidate taste receptor gene near a sweet taste locus. Nat Neurosci. 2001;4:492-8 pubmed

More Information


  1. Weiss N, Legrand C, Pouvreau S, Bichraoui H, Allard B, Zamponi G, et al. In vivo expression of G-protein beta1gamma2 dimer in adult mouse skeletal muscle alters L-type calcium current and excitation-contraction coupling. J Physiol. 2010;588:2945-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the G-protein beta(1)gamma(2) dimer may play an important regulatory role in skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling. ..
  2. Lobanova E, Finkelstein S, Skiba N, Arshavsky V. Proteasome overload is a common stress factor in multiple forms of inherited retinal degeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:9986-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish the prominence of proteasomal insufficiency across multiple degenerative diseases of the retina, thereby positioning proteasomes as a promising therapeutic target for treating these debilitating conditions...
  3. Mock B, Padlan C, Kozak C, Kidd V. The gene for mouse p58cdc2L1 (Cdc2l1) protein kinase maps to distal mouse chromosome 4. Mamm Genome. 1994;5:191-2 pubmed
  4. Danciger M, Chakraborti A, Farber D, Kozak C. Localization of the gene for a third G protein beta-subunit to mouse chromosome 6 near Raf-1. Genomics. 1992;12:688-92 pubmed
  5. Wang W, Touhara K, Weir K, Bean B, MacKinnon R. Cooperative regulation by G proteins and Na(+) of neuronal GIRK2 K(+) channels. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that GIRK2, through its dual responsiveness to G?? and Na(+), mediates a form of neuronal inhibition that is amplifiable in the setting of excess electrical activity. ..
  6. Blatt C, Eversole Cire P, Cohn V, Zollman S, Fournier R, Mohandas L, et al. Chromosomal localization of genes encoding guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunits in mouse and human. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:7642-6 pubmed
    ..The beta subunits were also assigned--GNB1 to chromosome 1 and GNB2 to chromosome 7...
  7. Ramaker J, Swanson T, Copenhaver P. Amyloid precursor proteins interact with the heterotrimeric G protein Go in the control of neuronal migration. J Neurosci. 2013;33:10165-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the model that APP and its orthologs regulate conserved aspects of neuronal migration and outgrowth in the nervous system by functioning as unconventional Go?-coupled receptors. ..
  8. Mahon M, Bonacci T, Divieti P, Smrcka A. A docking site for G protein ?? subunits on the parathyroid hormone 1 receptor supports signaling through multiple pathways. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:136-46 pubmed
    ..Herein, we define a domain on the PTH1R that is capable of binding G protein heterotrimeric complexes via direct Gbetagamma interactions. ..
  9. Waldo G, Harden T. Agonist binding and Gq-stimulating activities of the purified human P2Y1 receptor. Mol Pharmacol. 2004;65:426-36 pubmed
    ..These results illustrate that the binding and signaling properties of the human P2Y1-R can be studied with purified proteins under conditions that circumvent the complications that occur in vivo. ..
  10. Sato M, Jiao Q, Honda T, Kurotani R, Toyota E, Okumura S, et al. Activator of G protein signaling 8 (AGS8) is required for hypoxia-induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes: role of G betagamma and connexin 43 (CX43). J Biol Chem. 2009;284:31431-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Under hypoxic stress, this unrecognized response program plays a critical role in the fate of NCM. ..
  11. Okae H, Iwakura Y. Neural tube defects and impaired neural progenitor cell proliferation in Gbeta1-deficient mice. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:1089-101 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that Gbeta1 is required for normal embryonic neurogenesis. ..
  12. Saito H, Mimmack M, Kishimoto J, Keverne E, Emson P. Expression of olfactory receptors, G-proteins and AxCAMs during the development and maturation of olfactory sensory neurons in the mouse. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1998;110:69-81 pubmed
    ..Moreover the highest periods of expression occur at post-natal day 7 when a proliferation of bulbar glomeruli are observed, suggesting the role of Big-2 to be primarily concerned with synaptogenesis. ..
  13. Shen Y, Rampino M, Carroll R, Nawy S. G-protein-mediated inhibition of the Trp channel TRPM1 requires the G?? dimer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:8752-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a model in which the G?? dimer that is released as a result of the dissociation from G?(o) upon activation of mGluR6 closes the TRPM1 channel, perhaps via a direct interaction. ..
  14. Wong B, Chan J, Cazenave Gassiot A, Poh R, Foo J, Galam D, et al. Mfsd2a Is a Transporter for the Essential ω-3 Fatty Acid Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) in Eye and Is Important for Photoreceptor Cell Development. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:10501-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify LPC transport via Mfsd2a as an important pathway for DHA uptake in eye and for development of photoreceptor membrane discs. ..
  15. Zhang Y, Tang W, Jones M, Xu W, Halene S, Wu D. Different roles of G protein subunits beta1 and beta2 in neutrophil function revealed by gene expression silencing in primary mouse neutrophils. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:24805-14 pubmed publisher
  16. Yeh C, Li A, Chuang J, Saito M, Caceres A, Sung C. IGF-1 activates a cilium-localized noncanonical G?? signaling pathway that regulates cell-cycle progression. Dev Cell. 2013;26:358-68 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that during corticogenesis, a cilium-transduced, noncanonical IGF-1R-G??-phospho(T94)Tctex-1 signaling pathway promotes the proliferation of neural progenitors through modulation of ciliary resorption and G1 length. ..
  17. Mylvaganam G, McGee T, Berson E, Dryja T. A screen for mutations in the transducin gene GNB1 in patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Mol Vis. 2006;12:1496-8 pubmed
    To search for mutations in the GNB1 gene (coding for the transducin beta1-subunit protein) in patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa...
  18. Mao W, Miyagishima K, Yao Y, Soreghan B, Sampath A, Chen J. Functional comparison of rod and cone G?(t) on the regulation of light sensitivity. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:5257-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, reduced sensitivity in cones cannot be explained by reduced coupling efficiency between the GPCR and G protein or a lower concentration of G protein in cones versus rods. ..
  19. von Weizsäcker E, Strathmann M, Simon M. Diversity among the beta subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins: characterization of a novel beta-subunit cDNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992;183:350-6 pubmed
    ..The predicted amino acid sequence of G beta 4 is 79% to 89% identical to the three previously known beta subunits. The diversity of beta gene products may be an important corollary to the functional diversity of G proteins. ..
  20. McFarlane Anderson N, Bailly J, Bégin Heick N. Levels of G-proteins in liver and brain of lean and obese (ob/ob) mice. Biochem J. 1992;282 ( Pt 1):15-23 pubmed
    ..Different rates of release of the alpha-subunits from the membrane and/or different rates of degradation would also explain these results. ..
  21. Weissman J, Ma J, Essex A, Gao Y, Burstein E. G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated activation of rap GTPases: characterization of a novel Galphai regulated pathway. Oncogene. 2004;23:241-9 pubmed
    ..A constitutively active mutant of Galphai2 also mediated Ras/rap-dependent responses. These data indicate that GPCRs coupled to pertussis-toxin-sensitive G-proteins activate Rap through a Galpha subunit, C3G, and Src-dependent pathway. ..
  22. Zhang H, Huang W, Zhang H, Zhu X, Craft C, Baehr W, et al. Light-dependent redistribution of visual arrestins and transducin subunits in mice with defective phototransduction. Mol Vis. 2003;9:231-7 pubmed
    ..The light-dependent translocations of Arr and transducin subunits in opposite directions appear to be based on independent mechanisms. ..
  23. Birkeland M, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Barclay A. Gene structure and chromosomal localization of the mouse homologue of rat OX40 protein. Eur J Immunol. 1995;25:926-30 pubmed
  24. Kolesnikov A, Rikimaru L, Hennig A, Lukasiewicz P, Fliesler S, Govardovskii V, et al. G-protein betagamma-complex is crucial for efficient signal amplification in vision. J Neurosci. 2011;31:8067-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that transducin ??-complex controls signal amplification of the rod phototransduction cascade and is critical for the ability of rod photoreceptors to function in low light conditions. ..
  25. Guo Y, He X, Zhao L, Liu L, Song H, Wang X, et al. Gβ2 Regulates the Multipolar-Bipolar Transition of Newborn Neurons in the Developing Neocortex. Cereb Cortex. 2017;27:3414-3426 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our findings reveal that Gβ2 regulates proper neuronal migration during neocortex development by activating the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. ..
  26. Danciger M, Brady J, Adamson M, Farber D, Piatigorsky J, Kozak C. Chromosomal localization of the genes for five zinc finger proteins expressed in mouse lens. Genomics. 1995;28:39-43 pubmed
    ..Because the zinc finger proteins encoded by these genes may be involved in regulating other genes that are expressed in lens, they can be considered candidates for the large number of yet unmapped cataract loci. ..
  27. Papal S, Cortese M, Legendre K, Sorusch N, Dragavon J, Sahly I, et al. The giant spectrin ?V couples the molecular motors to phototransduction and Usher syndrome type I proteins along their trafficking route. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:3773-88 pubmed publisher
  28. Qiu R, Schimmer B. cDNA for the beta 1 subunit of guanyl nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins from mouse adrenal glands. Gene. 1996;175:275-7 pubmed
    ..In the 5' untranslated region, two sequence variants were isolated that differed by the presence or absence of a 49 base pair insert presumed to arise from alternative splicing. ..
  29. Spiegelberg B, Hamm H. G betagamma binds histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) and inhibits its transcriptional co-repression activity. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:41769-76 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data imply that HDAC5 and possibly other class II HDACs can be added to the growing list of G betagamma effectors. ..
  30. Saba L, Bhave S, Grahame N, Bice P, Lapadat R, Belknap J, et al. Candidate genes and their regulatory elements: alcohol preference and tolerance. Mamm Genome. 2006;17:669-88 pubmed
  31. Ueda H, Nagae R, Kozawa M, Morishita R, Kimura S, Nagase T, et al. Heterotrimeric G protein betagamma subunits stimulate FLJ00018, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac1 and Cdc42. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:1946-53 pubmed
    ..These results provide evidence for a signaling pathway by which G(i)-coupled receptor specifically induces Rac and Cdc42 activation through direct interaction of Gbetagamma with FLJ00018. ..
  32. Kitanaka J, Wang X, Kitanaka N, Hembree C, Uhl G. Genomic organization of the murine G protein beta subunit genes and related processed pseudogenes. DNA Seq. 2001;12:345-54 pubmed
    ..The mouse Gbeta1 gene (the mouse genetic symbol, GNB1) was mapped to chromosome 4, but little was known of its genetic features...
  33. Gao X, Sadana R, Dessauer C, Patel T. Conditional stimulation of type V and VI adenylyl cyclases by G protein betagamma subunits. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:294-302 pubmed
    ..Moreover, Gbetagamma subunits derived from a source(s) other than G(i) are necessary for the full activation of hACVI by isoproterenol in intact cells. ..
  34. Knezevic N, Tauseef M, Thennes T, Mehta D. The G protein betagamma subunit mediates reannealing of adherens junctions to reverse endothelial permeability increase by thrombin. J Exp Med. 2009;206:2761-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Rescuing FAK activation in fyn(-/-) mice attenuated the rise in lung vascular permeability. Our results demonstrate that Gbeta1-mediated Fyn activation integrates FAK with AJ, preventing persistent endothelial barrier leakiness. ..
  35. Danciger M, Farber D, Peyser M, Kozak C. The gene for the beta-subunit of retinal transducin (Gnb-1) maps to distal mouse chromosome 4, and related sequences map to mouse chromosomes 5 and 8. Genomics. 1990;6:428-35 pubmed
    ..The other sequence was on chromosome 8 and is either a pseudogene or an as yet undiscovered third G beta-subunit gene, here termed Gnb-3. ..
  36. Song K, Scherer P, Tang Z, Okamoto T, Li S, Chafel M, et al. Expression of caveolin-3 in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle cells. Caveolin-3 is a component of the sarcolemma and co-fractionates with dystrophin and dystrophin-associated glycoproteins. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:15160-5 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with previous immunoelectron microscopic studies demonstrating that dystrophin is localized to plasma membrane caveolae in smooth muscle cells. ..
  37. Bzdega T, Chin H, Kim H, Jung H, Kozak C, Klee W. Regional expression and chromosomal localization of the delta opiate receptor gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:9305-9 pubmed
    ..The gene, which is present as a single copy, has been mapped to the distal region of mouse Chromosome 4. ..
  38. Huang L, Shanker Y, Dubauskaite J, Zheng J, Yan W, Rosenzweig S, et al. Ggamma13 colocalizes with gustducin in taste receptor cells and mediates IP3 responses to bitter denatonium. Nat Neurosci. 1999;2:1055-62 pubmed
    ..We conclude that gustducin heterotrimers transduce responses to bitter and sweet compounds via alpha-gustducin's regulation of phosphodiesterase (PDE) and Gbetagamma's activation of phospholipase C (PLC). ..
  39. Kitanaka J, Kitanaka N, Takemura M, Wang X, Hembree C, Goodman N, et al. Isolation and sequencing of a putative promoter region of the murine G protein beta 1 subunit (GNB1) gene. DNA Seq. 2002;13:39-45 pubmed
    The expression of the heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein beta 1 subunit gene (GNB1) is regulated by psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamines...
  40. Aoyama C, Sugimoto H, Ando H, Yamashita S, Horibata Y, Sugimoto S, et al. The heterotrimeric G protein subunits G?(q) and G?(1) have lysophospholipase D activity. Biochem J. 2011;440:241-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Clarification of the physiological relevance of lysoPLD activity of these proteins will need further studies. ..
  41. Bachmanov A, Reed D, Ninomiya Y, Inoue M, Tordoff M, Price R, et al. Sucrose consumption in mice: major influence of two genetic loci affecting peripheral sensory responses. Mamm Genome. 1997;8:545-8 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the majority of difference in sucrose intake between male B6 and 129 mice is due to polymorphisms of two genes that influence receptor or peripheral nervous system activity. ..
  42. Autieri M, Kozak C, Cohen J, Prystowsky M. Genomic organization and genetic mapping of the neuroimmune gene I2rf5 to mouse chromosome 4. Genomics. 1995;25:282-4 pubmed
    ..The gene encoding F5, termed I2rf5, was mapped using interspecies mouse crosses in close proximity to a number of genes associated with neuronal defects on distal chromosome 4. ..
  43. Tabakoff B, Saba L, Kechris K, Hu W, Bhave S, Finn D, et al. The genomic determinants of alcohol preference in mice. Mamm Genome. 2008;19:352-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The importance of olfactory cues, learning and memory formation (Pavlovian conditioning), and cortical executive function, for regulating alcohol intake by animals (including humans), is discussed. ..
  44. Sun Z, Tang X, Lin F, Chen S. The WD40 repeat protein WDR26 binds G?? and promotes G??-dependent signal transduction and leukocyte migration. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:43902-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these experiments identify WDR26 as a novel G??-binding protein that is required for the efficacy of G?? signaling and leukocyte migration. ..
  45. Threadgill D, Threadgill D, Moll Y, Weiss J, Zhang N, Davey H, et al. Syntenic assignment of human chromosome 1 homologous loci in the bovine. Genomics. 1994;22:626-30 pubmed
    ..feline sarcoma viral (v-fgr) oncogene homolog (FGR), alpha fucosidase (FUCA1), G-protein beta 1 subunit (GNB1), alpha 1A amylase, (AMY1), the neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog (NRAS), and alpha skeletal actin (..
  46. Schuller U, Lamp E, Schilling K. Developmental expression of heterotrimeric G-proteins in the murine cerebellar cortex. Histochem Cell Biol. 2001;116:149-59 pubmed