Gene Symbol: Gnat3
Description: guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha transducing 3
Alias: Ggust, Gtn, guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(t) subunit alpha-3, alpha-gustducin, gustducin alpha-3 chain
Species: mouse
Products:     Gnat3

Top Publications

  1. Margolskee R, Dyer J, Kokrashvili Z, Salmon K, Ilegems E, Daly K, et al. T1R3 and gustducin in gut sense sugars to regulate expression of Na+-glucose cotransporter 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:15075-80 pubmed
  2. Wong G, Gannon K, Margolskee R. Transduction of bitter and sweet taste by gustducin. Nature. 1996;381:796-800 pubmed
    ..Unexpectedly, mutant mice also exhibited reduced behavioural and electrophysiological responses to sweet compounds. Our results suggest that gustducin is a principal mediator of both bitter and sweet signal transduction. ..
  3. Sutherland K, Young R, Cooper N, Horowitz M, Blackshaw L. Phenotypic characterization of taste cells of the mouse small intestine. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007;292:G1420-8 pubmed
    ..Intestinal taste modalities may be signaled by these enteroendocrine cells via the release of 5-HT, GLP-1, or coexpressed mediators or by brush cells via a nonnitrergic mediator in distinct regions of the intestine. ..
  4. Wu S, Chen M, Rozengurt E. Genomic organization, expression, and function of bitter taste receptors (T2R) in mouse and rat. Physiol Genomics. 2005;22:139-49 pubmed
  5. Janssen S, Laermans J, Verhulst P, Thijs T, Tack J, Depoortere I. Bitter taste receptors and ?-gustducin regulate the secretion of ghrelin with functional effects on food intake and gastric emptying. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:2094-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Modulation of endogenous ghrelin levels by tastants may provide novel therapeutic applications for the treatment of weight -and gastrointestinal motility disorders. ..
  6. Huang L, Shanker Y, Dubauskaite J, Zheng J, Yan W, Rosenzweig S, et al. Ggamma13 colocalizes with gustducin in taste receptor cells and mediates IP3 responses to bitter denatonium. Nat Neurosci. 1999;2:1055-62 pubmed
    ..We conclude that gustducin heterotrimers transduce responses to bitter and sweet compounds via alpha-gustducin's regulation of phosphodiesterase (PDE) and Gbetagamma's activation of phospholipase C (PLC). ..
  7. He W, Yasumatsu K, Varadarajan V, Yamada A, Lem J, Ninomiya Y, et al. Umami taste responses are mediated by alpha-transducin and alpha-gustducin. J Neurosci. 2004;24:7674-80 pubmed
    ..Umami detection involving alpha-gustducin and alpha(t-rod) occurs in anteriorly placed taste buds, however taste cells at the back of the tongue respond to umami compounds independently of these two G-protein subunits. ..
  8. Tizzano M, Gulbransen B, Vandenbeuch A, Clapp T, Herman J, Sibhatu H, et al. Nasal chemosensory cells use bitter taste signaling to detect irritants and bacterial signals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:3210-5 pubmed publisher
  9. Ohkuri T, Yasumatsu K, Horio N, Jyotaki M, Margolskee R, Ninomiya Y. Multiple sweet receptors and transduction pathways revealed in knockout mice by temperature dependence and gurmarin sensitivity. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;296:R960-71 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Matsumura S, Eguchi A, Mizushige T, Kitabayashi N, Tsuzuki S, Inoue K, et al. Colocalization of GPR120 with phospholipase-Cbeta2 and alpha-gustducin in the taste bud cells in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2009;450:186-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that GPR120 is mainly expressed in the type II taste cells and might function as a sensor for dietary fat. ..
  2. Shigemura N, Nakao K, Yasuo T, Murata Y, Yasumatsu K, Nakashima A, et al. Gurmarin sensitivity of sweet taste responses is associated with co-expression patterns of T1r2, T1r3, and gustducin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;367:356-63 pubmed publisher
    ..This linkage between Gur-sensitivity and co-expression for T1r2/T1r3 receptors versus gustducin suggests that gustducin may be a key molecule involved in the pathway for Gur-sensitive sweet responses. ..
  3. Jang H, Kokrashvili Z, Theodorakis M, Carlson O, Kim B, Zhou J, et al. Gut-expressed gustducin and taste receptors regulate secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:15069-74 pubmed
    ..Modulating GLP-1 secretion in gut "taste cells" may provide an important treatment for obesity, diabetes and abnormal gut motility. ..
  4. Li F, Zhou M. Depletion of bitter taste transduction leads to massive spermatid loss in transgenic mice. Mol Hum Reprod. 2012;18:289-97 pubmed publisher
    ..In short, our results indicate that the taste transduction cascade may be involved in spermatogenesis...
  5. Saunders C, Christensen M, Finger T, Tizzano M. Cholinergic neurotransmission links solitary chemosensory cells to nasal inflammation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:6075-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results show that SCCs use cholinergic neurotransmission to trigger peptidergic trigeminal nociceptors, which link SCCs to the neurogenic inflammatory pathway. ..
  6. Avau B, Bauters D, Steensels S, Vancleef L, Laermans J, Lesuisse J, et al. The Gustatory Signaling Pathway and Bitter Taste Receptors Affect the Development of Obesity and Adipocyte Metabolism in Mice. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0145538 pubmed publisher
    ..Intra-gastric bitter treatment inhibits weight gain, possibly by directly affecting adipocyte metabolism. ..
  7. Ortíz Alvarado R, Guzmán Quevedo O, Mercado Camargo R, Haertle T, Vignes C, Bolaños Jiménez F. Expression of tryptophan hydroxylase in developing mouse taste papillae. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:5371-6 pubmed
    ..These results point to the synthesis of 5-HT in gustatory papillae, and allow one to hypothesize that the development of taste buds might be modulated by serotonin. ..
  8. Stone L, Barrows J, Finger T, Kinnamon S. Expression of T1Rs and gustducin in palatal taste buds of mice. Chem Senses. 2007;32:255-62 pubmed
    ..T1R1-positive palate taste cells coexpress gustducin about half the time, suggesting that other G proteins may contribute to the transduction of umami stimuli in this taste field. ..
  9. Iwatsuki K, Nomura M, Shibata A, Ichikawa R, Enciso P, Wang L, et al. Generation and characterization of T1R2-LacZ knock-in mouse. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;402:495-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the T1R2 knock-in mouse is a powerful tool to analyze the putative targets for sweeteners as well as to study the physiological roles of T1R2 in detecting sugars. ..
  10. Ringstedt T, Ibanez C, Nosrat C. Role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in target invasion in the gustatory system. J Neurosci. 1999;19:3507-18 pubmed
  11. LopezJimenez N, Cavenagh M, Sainz E, Cruz Ithier M, Battey J, Sullivan S. Two members of the TRPP family of ion channels, Pkd1l3 and Pkd2l1, are co-expressed in a subset of taste receptor cells. J Neurochem. 2006;98:68-77 pubmed
    ..These results provide the first evidence for a role of TRPP channels in taste receptor cell function. ..
  12. Caicedo A, Pereira E, Margolskee R, Roper S. Role of the G-protein subunit alpha-gustducin in taste cell responses to bitter stimuli. J Neurosci. 2003;23:9947-52 pubmed
    ..The reduced behavioral sensitivity to bitter stimuli in alpha-gustducin knock-out mice thus appears to be the consequence of a reduced number of bitter-activated taste cells, as well as reduced sensitivity. ..
  13. Rong M, He W, Yasumatsu K, Kokrashvili Z, Perez C, Mosinger B, et al. Signal transduction of umami taste: insights from knockout mice. Chem Senses. 2005;30 Suppl 1:i33-4 pubmed
  14. Shin Y, Martin B, Golden E, Dotson C, Maudsley S, Kim W, et al. Modulation of taste sensitivity by GLP-1 signaling. J Neurochem. 2008;106:455-63 pubmed publisher
    ..A modest increase in citric acid taste sensitivity in these knockout mice suggests GLP-1 signaling may modulate sour taste, as well. Together, these findings suggest a novel paracrine mechanism for the regulation of taste function. ..
  15. Yamaguchi T, Yamashita J, Ohmoto M, Aoudé I, Ogura T, Luo W, et al. Skn-1a/Pou2f3 is required for the generation of Trpm5-expressing microvillous cells in the mouse main olfactory epithelium. BMC Neurosci. 2014;15:13 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Skn-1a is a critical regulator for the generation of Trpm5-expressing microvillous cells in the main olfactory epithelium in mice. ..
  16. Beites C, Hollenbeck P, Kim J, Lovell Badge R, Lander A, Calof A. Follistatin modulates a BMP autoregulatory loop to control the size and patterning of sensory domains in the developing tongue. Development. 2009;136:2187-97 pubmed publisher
  17. Danilova V, Damak S, Margolskee R, Hellekant G. Taste responses to sweet stimuli in alpha-gustducin knockout and wild-type mice. Chem Senses. 2006;31:573-80 pubmed
    ..The differences between the responses in WT and KO mice were more pronounced in the CT than in the NG. These data indicate that alpha-gustducin participates in the transduction of the sweet taste in general. ..
  18. Fehr J, Meyer D, Widmayer P, Borth H, Ackermann F, Wilhelm B, et al. Expression of the G-protein alpha-subunit gustducin in mammalian spermatozoa. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2007;193:21-34 pubmed
  19. Zhang G, Deng S, Li L, Li H. Developmental change of alpha-gustducin expression in the mouse fungiform papilla. Anat Embryol (Berl). 2006;211:625-30 pubmed
    ..3 +/- 0.9 and 8.3 +/- 0.3, respectively). These results indicated that taste buds within fungiform papilla play an important role in the detection of nutrients in the postnatal mouse. ..
  20. Blednov Y, Walker D, Martinez M, Levine M, Damak S, Margolskee R. Perception of sweet taste is important for voluntary alcohol consumption in mice. Genes Brain Behav. 2008;7:1-13 pubmed
    ..mutant mice, each lacking a gene expressed in taste buds and critical to taste transduction: alpha-gustducin (Gnat3), Tas1r3 or Trpm5...
  21. Qin Y, Sukumaran S, Jyotaki M, Redding K, Jiang P, Margolskee R. Gli3 is a negative regulator of Tas1r3-expressing taste cells. PLoS Genet. 2018;14:e1007058 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings shed light on the role of the Shh pathway in adult taste cell regeneration and may help devise strategies for treating taste distortions from chemotherapy and aging. ..
  22. Mokadem M, Zechner J, Margolskee R, Drucker D, Aguirre V. Effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on energy and glucose homeostasis are preserved in two mouse models of functional glucagon-like peptide-1 deficiency. Mol Metab. 2014;3:191-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, GLP-1, acting through its classical GLP-1R or its bioactive metabolites, does not seem to be involved in the effects of RYGB on body weight and glucose homeostasis. ..
  23. Li Y, Kokrashvili Z, Mosinger B, Margolskee R. Gustducin couples fatty acid receptors to GLP-1 release in colon. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013;304:E651-60 pubmed publisher
    ..However, GLP-1 release in response to these fatty acids was impaired in colonic tissue from ?-gustducin knockout mice...
  24. Saqui Salces M, Keeley T, Grosse A, Qiao X, El Zaatari M, Gumucio D, et al. Gastric tuft cells express DCLK1 and are expanded in hyperplasia. Histochem Cell Biol. 2011;136:191-204 pubmed publisher
    ..TRPM5. In summary, tuft cells appear in the gastric antrum and intestine at E18.5, but their maximal numbers in the corpus are not achieved until after weaning. Tuft cell numbers increase with inflammation, hyperplasia, and metaplasia. ..
  25. Seta Y, Oda M, Kataoka S, Toyono T, Toyoshima K. Mash1 is required for the differentiation of AADC-positive type III cells in mouse taste buds. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:775-84 pubmed publisher
  26. Ota M, Kaneko Y, Kondo K, Ogishima S, Tanaka H, Eto K, et al. Combined in silico and in vivo analyses reveal role of Hes1 in taste cell differentiation. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000443 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, according to our composite analyses, Hes1 is likely to play a role in orchestrating taste cell differentiation in developing taste buds. ..
  27. Yasumatsu K, Ohkuri T, Sanematsu K, Shigemura N, Katsukawa H, Sako N, et al. Genetically-increased taste cell population with G(alpha)-gustducin-coupled sweet receptors is associated with increase of gurmarin-sensitive taste nerve fibers in mice. BMC Neurosci. 2009;10:152 pubmed publisher
    ..G(alpha)--gustducin may be involved in the GS sweet reception pathway and may be a key molecule for links between sweet taste receptors and cell type-specific-innervation by their matched fiber class. ..
  28. Howitt M, Lavoie S, Michaud M, Blum A, Tran S, Weinstock J, et al. Tuft cells, taste-chemosensory cells, orchestrate parasite type 2 immunity in the gut. Science. 2016;351:1329-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify intestinal tuft cells as critical sentinels in the gut epithelium that promote type 2 immunity in response to intestinal parasites. ..
  29. Ruiz Avila L, Wong G, Damak S, Margolskee R. Dominant loss of responsiveness to sweet and bitter compounds caused by a single mutation in alpha -gustducin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:8868-73 pubmed
  30. Prandi S, Bromke M, Hübner S, Voigt A, Boehm U, Meyerhof W, et al. A subset of mouse colonic goblet cells expresses the bitter taste receptor Tas2r131. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e82820 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression in colonic goblet cells is consistent with a role of Tas2rs in defense mechanisms against potentially harmful xenobiotics. ..
  31. Grillet N, Dubreuil V, Dufour H, Brunet J. Dynamic expression of RGS4 in the developing nervous system and regulation by the neural type-specific transcription factor Phox2b. J Neurosci. 2003;23:10613-21 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these data identify components of the heterotrimeric G-protein signaling pathway as part of the type-specific program of neuronal differentiation. ..
  32. Son M, Hu Y, Kim S, Chun M, Kim I, Kim M. Expression of ?-gustducin in mammalian retinas. Neuroreport. 2011;22:146-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The evidence suggests that G?-gust may selectively participate in signal transduction in the axon terminals of rod bipolar cells in the mammalian retina. ..
  33. Janssen S, Laermans J, Iwakura H, Tack J, Depoortere I. Sensing of fatty acids for octanoylation of ghrelin involves a gustatory G-protein. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40168 pubmed publisher
    ..GPR120 but not GPR40 may play a role in the lipid sensing cascade of the ghrelin cell. ..
  34. He W, Danilova V, Zou S, Hellekant G, Max M, Margolskee R, et al. Partial rescue of taste responses of alpha-gustducin null mice by transgenic expression of alpha-transducin. Chem Senses. 2002;27:719-27 pubmed
    ..Our results also suggest that alpha-transducin and alpha-gustducin may differ, at least in part, in their function in these cells, although this conclusion must be qualified because of the limited fidelity of the transgene expression. ..
  35. Clapp T, Trubey K, Vandenbeuch A, Stone L, Margolskee R, Chaudhari N, et al. Tonic activity of Galpha-gustducin regulates taste cell responsivity. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:3783-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that an important role of alpha-gus is to maintain cAMP levels tonically low to ensure adequate Ca2+ signaling. ..
  36. Sclafani A, Zukerman S, Glendinning J, Margolskee R. Fat and carbohydrate preferences in mice: the contribution of alpha-gustducin and Trpm5 taste-signaling proteins. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;293:R1504-13 pubmed
    ..The experience-induced rescue of fat and Polycose preferences in the KO mice likely reflects the action of a postoral-conditioning mechanism, which functions in the absence of alpha-gustducin and Trpm5. ..
  37. Gong T, Wei Q, Mao D, Shi F. Expression patterns of taste receptor type 1 subunit 3 and α-gustducin in the mouse testis during development. Acta Histochem. 2016;118:20-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel expression patterns suggest a role of T1R3 and Gα in the onset of spermatogenesis, pace of spermatogenic cycle, and aging of the testis. ..
  38. Zhang Y, Zhang Z, Liu Y, Zhou X, Shi X, Jiang Q, et al. Requirement of G?i1/3-Gab1 signaling complex for keratinocyte growth factor-induced PI3K-AKT-mTORC1 activation. J Invest Dermatol. 2015;135:181-191 pubmed publisher
  39. Deckmann K, Filipski K, Krasteva Christ G, Fronius M, Althaus M, Rafiq A, et al. Bitter triggers acetylcholine release from polymodal urethral chemosensory cells and bladder reflexes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:8287-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a concept of urinary bladder control involving a previously unidentified cholinergic chemosensory cell monitoring the chemical composition of the urethral luminal microenvironment for potential hazardous content. ..
  40. Voigt A, Hübner S, Lossow K, Hermans Borgmeyer I, Boehm U, Meyerhof W. Genetic labeling of Tas1r1 and Tas2r131 taste receptor cells in mice. Chem Senses. 2012;37:897-911 pubmed publisher
  41. Krasteva G, Canning B, Hartmann P, Veres T, Papadakis T, Mühlfeld C, et al. Cholinergic chemosensory cells in the trachea regulate breathing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:9478-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This identifies brush cells as cholinergic sensors of the chemical composition of the lower airway luminal microenvironment that are directly linked to the regulation of respiration...
  42. Mosinger B, Redding K, Parker M, Yevshayeva V, Yee K, Dyomina K, et al. Genetic loss or pharmacological blockade of testes-expressed taste genes causes male sterility. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:12319-24 pubmed publisher
    ..genetic absence of both TAS1R3, a component of sweet and amino acid taste receptors, and the gustducin ?-subunit GNAT3 leads to male-specific sterility...
  43. Nakayama A, Miura H, Shindo Y, Kusakabe Y, Tomonari H, Harada S. Expression of the basal cell markers of taste buds in the anterior tongue and soft palate of the mouse embryo. J Comp Neurol. 2008;509:211-24 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report describing the time courses of the embryonic expression of basal cell markers of taste buds...