Gnat1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Gnat1
Description: guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha transducing 1
Alias: Gnat-1, Ird1, Ird2, Tralpha, irdc, irdr, transducin, guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(t) subunit alpha-1, transducin alpha-1 chain
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. pmc Melanopsin and rod-cone photoreceptive systems account for all major accessory visual functions in mice
    S Hattar
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Nature 424:76-81. 2003
  2. pmc Rods-cones and melanopsin detect light and dark to modulate sleep independent of image formation
    C M Altimus
    Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:19998-20003. 2008
  3. pmc Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells detect light with a vitamin A-based photopigment, melanopsin
    Yingbin Fu
    Departments of Neuroscience and Ophthalmology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:10339-44. 2005
  4. pmc Melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion-cell photoreceptors: cellular diversity and role in pattern vision
    Jennifer L Ecker
    Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Neuron 67:49-60. 2010
  5. pmc Phosphorylation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 1 (GRK1) is regulated by light but independent of phototransduction in rod photoreceptors
    Shoji Osawa
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7090, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:20923-9. 2011
  6. pmc Visual Arrestin 1 contributes to cone photoreceptor survival and light adaptation
    Bruce M Brown
    Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 9224, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51:2372-80. 2010
  7. ncbi Arrestin translocation is induced at a critical threshold of visual signaling and is superstoichiometric to bleached rhodopsin
    Katherine J Strissel
    Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, The Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    J Neurosci 26:1146-53. 2006
  8. ncbi Light-dependent redistribution of visual arrestins and transducin subunits in mice with defective phototransduction
    Houbin Zhang
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA
    Mol Vis 9:231-7. 2003
  9. pmc Photon capture and signalling by melanopsin retinal ganglion cells
    Michael Tri H Do
    Solomon H Snyder Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Nature 457:281-7. 2009
  10. ncbi Stable rhodopsin/arrestin complex leads to retinal degeneration in a transgenic mouse model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa
    Jiayan Chen
    Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA
    J Neurosci 26:11929-37. 2006

Research Grants

Scientific Experts

  • Makoto Miyamoto
  • MICHAEL T DO
  • Frank Naarendorp
  • Ryan O Parker
  • Marijana Samardzija
  • Wen tao Deng
  • Jie Fan
  • Paul S H Park
  • Michelle Y Cheng
  • Janis Lem
  • Vadim Y Arshavsky
  • Tadao Maeda
  • Krzysztof Palczewski
  • Ekaterina S Lobanova
  • Akiko Maeda
  • Marie E Burns
  • Vasily Kerov
  • Maxim Sokolov
  • Michael L Woodruff
  • Rolf Herrmann
  • Ching Kang Chen
  • Ammaji Rajala
  • Elliott Brill
  • Wei He
  • Alexander V Kolesnikov
  • Katherine J Strissel
  • Vladimir J Kefalov
  • Nikolai O Artemyev
  • Annette E Allen
  • Morven A Cameron
  • Samer Hattar
  • Jiayan Chen
  • Wolfgang Baehr
  • J Lem
  • Mustapha Moussaif
  • Ning Zhang
  • Lucia Ziccardi
  • Emma L West
  • C A Kozak
  • S Hattar
  • Houbin Zhang
  • Shoji Osawa
  • Yanbin V Wang
  • Sami Damak
  • Robert F Margolskee
  • C K Chen
  • Jennifer E Westfall
  • Bruce M Brown
  • Grzegorz Bereta
  • Ji Jie Pang
  • Jennifer L Ecker
  • Nazia M Alam
  • Cara M Altimus
  • Glen T Prusky
  • Ma ayan Semo
  • Anthony A Vugler
  • Gordon L Fain
  • Robert J Lucas
  • Marcin Golczak
  • Séverine Hamann
  • Christopher Kessler
  • M A Cameron
  • Jin Shan Wang
  • Jayalakshmi Krishnan
  • Hugh Cahill
  • Raju V S Rajala
  • Yumiko Umino
  • C M Altimus
  • Stella Finkelstein
  • Laura J Frishman
  • Yen Ming Chen
  • Claudia M Krispel
  • Lauren L Daniele
  • Hongman Song
  • A L Lyubarsky
  • Lynn H Trieu
  • Cheryl M Craft
  • William W Rubin
  • Norman A Michaud
  • R J Lucas
  • Alexis Pierre Bemelmans
  • Michael Natochin
  • Zack A Nash
  • Desheng Chen
  • Yingbin Fu
  • Martin Obin
  • Zhongyan Wang
  • Minqing Rong
  • Hae Yun Chung
  • Vasiliy S Kerov

Detail Information

Publications91

  1. pmc Melanopsin and rod-cone photoreceptive systems account for all major accessory visual functions in mice
    S Hattar
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Nature 424:76-81. 2003
    ..Thus, the rod-cone and melanopsin systems together seem to provide all of the photic input for these accessory visual functions...
  2. pmc Rods-cones and melanopsin detect light and dark to modulate sleep independent of image formation
    C M Altimus
    Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:19998-20003. 2008
    ..Thus, in addition to their known role in aligning circadian physiology with day and night, ipRGCs also relay light and dark information from both rod-cone and melanopsin-based pathways to modulate sleep and wakefulness...
  3. pmc Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells detect light with a vitamin A-based photopigment, melanopsin
    Yingbin Fu
    Departments of Neuroscience and Ophthalmology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:10339-44. 2005
    ..Finally, we detected no melanopsin in the RPE and no changes in rod and cone sensitivities due to melanopsin ablation. Together, these results strongly suggest that melanopsin is the photopigment in the ipRGCs...
  4. pmc Melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion-cell photoreceptors: cellular diversity and role in pattern vision
    Jennifer L Ecker
    Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Neuron 67:49-60. 2010
    ..Thus, nonclassical retinal photoreception occurs within diverse cell types and influences circuits and functions encompassing luminance as well as spatial information...
  5. pmc Phosphorylation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 1 (GRK1) is regulated by light but independent of phototransduction in rod photoreceptors
    Shoji Osawa
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7090, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:20923-9. 2011
    ..Surprisingly, dephosphorylation was induced by light in mice missing the rod transducin α-subunit...
  6. pmc Visual Arrestin 1 contributes to cone photoreceptor survival and light adaptation
    Bruce M Brown
    Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 9224, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51:2372-80. 2010
    ....
  7. ncbi Arrestin translocation is induced at a critical threshold of visual signaling and is superstoichiometric to bleached rhodopsin
    Katherine J Strissel
    Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, The Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    J Neurosci 26:1146-53. 2006
    ..Thus, arrestin movement to the outer segment leads to an increase in the free arrestin concentration and thereby may serve as a powerful mechanism of light adaptation...
  8. ncbi Light-dependent redistribution of visual arrestins and transducin subunits in mice with defective phototransduction
    Houbin Zhang
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA
    Mol Vis 9:231-7. 2003
    ..Upon illumination, rod and cone arrestins (Arr and cArr) translocate from the inner to the outer segments while transducin subunits (Talpha, Tbetagamma) translocate in the opposite direction...
  9. pmc Photon capture and signalling by melanopsin retinal ganglion cells
    Michael Tri H Do
    Solomon H Snyder Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Nature 457:281-7. 2009
    ..Notably, like rods, these cells are capable of signalling single-photon absorption. A flash causing a few hundred isomerized melanopsin molecules in a retina is sufficient for reaching threshold for the pupillary light reflex...
  10. ncbi Stable rhodopsin/arrestin complex leads to retinal degeneration in a transgenic mouse model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa
    Jiayan Chen
    Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA
    J Neurosci 26:11929-37. 2006
    ..to eliminate arrestin unmasked the constitutive activity of K296E and caused photoreceptor cell death through a transducin-dependent mechanism that is similar to light damage...
  11. pmc The optokinetic reflex as a tool for quantitative analyses of nervous system function in mice: application to genetic and drug-induced variation
    Hugh Cahill
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 3:e2055. 2008
    ..These experiments show that the mouse OKR is well suited for neurologic testing in the context of drug discovery and large-scale phenotyping programs...
  12. ncbi Noncatalytic domains of RGS9-1.Gbeta 5L play a decisive role in establishing its substrate specificity
    Kirill A Martemyanov
    Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School and the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston Massachusetts 02114, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:32843-8. 2002
    ..regulates the duration of the cellular response to light by stimulating the GTPase activity of G protein, transducin. An important property of RGS9-1...
  13. ncbi Spontaneous activity of opsin apoprotein is a cause of Leber congenital amaurosis
    Michael L Woodruff
    Department of Physiological Science, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Nat Genet 35:158-64. 2003
    ..A genetic block of transducin signaling completely rescued degeneration irrespective of an elevated level of retinyl ester...
  14. ncbi Phosducin facilitates light-driven transducin translocation in rod photoreceptors. Evidence from the phosducin knockout mouse
    Maxim Sokolov
    Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School and the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:19149-56. 2004
    ..function of phosducin, we tested the hypothesis that it regulates the light-driven translocation of G protein transducin from the outer segments of rod photoreceptors to other compartments of the rod cell...
  15. pmc Early receptor current of wild-type and transducin knockout mice: photosensitivity and light-induced Ca2+ release
    Michael L Woodruff
    Department of Physiological Science, Room 3836, Life Sciences Building, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    J Physiol 557:821-8. 2004
    ..We have also measured the ERC from rods of transducin-knockout mice, for which previous illumination to close the cGMP-gated channels was not required...
  16. pmc Phototransduction in transgenic mice after targeted deletion of the rod transducin alpha -subunit
    P D Calvert
    Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School and the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:13913-8. 2000
    Retinal photoreceptors use the heterotrimeric G protein transducin to couple rhodopsin to a biochemical cascade that underlies the electrical photoresponse. Several isoforms of each transducin subunit are present in the retina...
  17. pmc Light regulation of retinal dopamine that is independent of melanopsin phototransduction
    M A Cameron
    Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
    Eur J Neurosci 29:761-7. 2009
    ..Light-induced DA release was also retained in mice lacking rod phototransduction (Gnat1(-/-)), although the magnitude of this response was substantially reduced compared with wild-types, as was the ..
  18. pmc A functional kinase homology domain is essential for the activity of photoreceptor guanylate cyclase 1
    Grzegorz Bereta
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:1899-908. 2010
    ..However, evidence is presented that autophosphorylation does not regulate GC1 activity, in contrast to phosphorylation of other members of this cyclase family...
  19. ncbi Transducin activation state controls its light-dependent translocation in rod photoreceptors
    Vasily Kerov
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:41069-76. 2005
    Light-dependent redistribution of transducin between the rod outer segments (OS) and other photoreceptor compartments including the inner segments (IS) and synaptic terminals (ST) is recognized as a critical contributing factor to light ..
  20. pmc Speed, spatial, and temporal tuning of rod and cone vision in mouse
    Yumiko Umino
    Center for Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology, State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York 13210, USA
    J Neurosci 28:189-98. 2008
    ..for optomotor responses of C57BL/6J mice with normal vision, Gnat2(cpfl3) mice without functional cones, and Gnat1-/- mice without functional rods. Gnat2(cpfl3) mice (threshold, -6...
  21. pmc Functional interchangeability of rod and cone transducin alpha-subunits
    Wen tao Deng
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:17681-6. 2009
    ..For example, rod and cone visual pigments couple to distinct variants of the heterotrimeric G protein transducin. However, the role of the structural differences between rod and cone transducin alpha subunits (Talpha) in ..
  22. ncbi Transducin translocation in rods is triggered by saturation of the GTPase-activating complex
    Ekaterina S Lobanova
    Albert Eye Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Neurosci 27:1151-60. 2007
    Light causes massive translocation of G-protein transducin from the light-sensitive outer segment compartment of the rod photoreceptor cell...
  23. ncbi Evidence for two apoptotic pathways in light-induced retinal degeneration
    Wenshan Hao
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
    Nat Genet 32:254-60. 2002
    ..Using knockout mice with defects in rhodopsin shut-off and transducin signaling, we show that two different pathways of photoreceptor-cell apoptosis are induced by light...
  24. pmc Loss of retinoschisin (RS1) cell surface protein in maturing mouse rod photoreceptors elevates the luminance threshold for light-driven translocation of transducin but not arrestin
    Lucia Ziccardi
    G B Bietti Foundation, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, 00198 Rome, Italy
    J Neurosci 32:13010-21. 2012
    ..We examined light-activated transducin and arrestin translocation in young Rs1-KO mice as a marker for functional abnormalities in maturing rod ..
  25. pmc Autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa E150K opsin mice exhibit photoreceptor disorganization
    Ning Zhang
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44160, USA
    J Clin Invest 123:121-37. 2013
    ..visual cycle protein LRAT slowed retinal degeneration, whereas blocking phototransduction by crossing KK mice with GNAT1-deficient mice slightly accelerated this process...
  26. pmc Defining the integration capacity of embryonic stem cell-derived photoreceptor precursors
    Emma L West
    Department of Genetics, UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, United Kingdom
    Stem Cells 30:1424-35. 2012
    ..Despite showing expression profiles characteristic of immature photoreceptors, the ESC-derived precursors generated using this protocol did not display transplantation competence equivalent to precursors from the postnatal retina...
  27. pmc Spectral and temporal sensitivity of cone-mediated responses in mouse retinal ganglion cells
    Yanbin V Wang
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, USA
    J Neurosci 31:7670-81. 2011
    ..From recordings in mice lacking rod function (Gnat1(-/-), Rho(-/-)), we estimate ∼ 70% M-opsin expression in far dorsal retina, dropping to <5% M-opsin ..
  28. pmc Growth factor receptor-bound protein 14 undergoes light-dependent intracellular translocation in rod photoreceptors: functional role in retinal insulin receptor activation
    Ammaji Rajala
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma73104, USA
    Biochemistry 48:5563-72. 2009
    ..These results demonstrate that Grb14 can undergo subcellular redistribution upon illumination and suggest that rhodopsin photoexcitation may trigger signaling events alternative to the classical transducin activation.
  29. pmc Rod photoreceptors drive circadian photoentrainment across a wide range of light intensities
    Cara M Altimus
    Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Nat Neurosci 13:1107-12. 2010
    ..Thus, rods use two distinct retinal circuits to drive ipRGC function to support circadian photoentrainment across a wide range of light intensities...
  30. ncbi G-protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin regulates the phosphorylation of retinal insulin receptor
    Ammaji Rajala
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Oklahoma Health Science Center, Oklahoma 73104, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:9865-73. 2007
    ..We studied IR phosphorylation in mice lacking the rod-specific alpha-subunit of transducin to determine if phototransduction events are required for IR activation...
  31. pmc Phosducin regulates the expression of transducin betagamma subunits in rod photoreceptors and does not contribute to phototransduction adaptation
    Claudia M Krispel
    Center for Neuroscience and Department of Ophthamology and Vision Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95618, USA
    J Gen Physiol 130:303-12. 2007
    For over a decade, phosducin's interaction with the betagamma subunits of the G protein, transducin, has been thought to contribute to light adaptation by dynamically controlling the amount of transducin heterotrimer available for ..
  32. pmc Replacing the rod with the cone transducin subunit decreases sensitivity and accelerates response decay
    C K Chen
    Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California Los Angeles, 3836 Life Sciences Building, Los Angeles 90095 1606, USA
    J Physiol 588:3231-41. 2010
    ..They also indicate more generally that the molecular nature of G-protein alpha may play an important role in the kinetics of G-protein cascades for metabotropic receptors throughout the body...
  33. pmc The mammalian cone visual cycle promotes rapid M/L-cone pigment regeneration independently of the interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein
    Alexander V Kolesnikov
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Neurosci 31:7900-9. 2011
    ..Thus, IRBP does not accelerate cone pigment regeneration and is not critical for the function of mouse M/L-cones in bright light...
  34. pmc Retinal degeneration and failure of photoreceptor outer segment formation in mice with targeted deletion of the Joubert syndrome gene, Ahi1
    Jennifer E Westfall
    Department of Biology, Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180, USA
    J Neurosci 30:8759-68. 2010
    ..e., transducin and Rom1) in Ahi1(-/-) mice...
  35. doi A nonsense mutation in Gnat1, encoding the alpha subunit of rod transducin, in spontaneous mouse models of retinal dysfunction
    Makoto Miyamoto
    Development Research Center, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, 2 17 85 Jusohonmachi, Yodogawa ku, Osaka 532 8686, Japan
    Exp Eye Res 90:63-9. 2010
    ..mRNA levels of Gnat1, which encodes the alpha subunit of rod transducin (Tralpha), were severely reduced...
  36. pmc Phosducin regulates transmission at the photoreceptor-to-ON-bipolar cell synapse
    Rolf Herrmann
    Albert Eye Research Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Neurosci 30:3239-53. 2010
    ....
  37. doi IRD1 and IRD2 mice, naturally occurring models of hereditary retinal dysfunction, show late-onset and progressive retinal degeneration
    Makoto Miyamoto
    Development Research Center, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Jusohonmachi 2 chome, Osaka, Japan
    Curr Eye Res 35:137-45. 2010
    To elucidate whether Institute for Cancer Research (ICR) derived retinal dysfunction (IRD) 1 and IRD2 mice, spontaneous mouse models of rod-cone and rod dysfunction, respectively, develop age-related retinal degeneration.
  38. pmc Retinol dehydrogenases (RDHs) in the visual cycle
    Ryan O Parker
    Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of South Carolina, 167 Ashley Avenue Charleston, SC 29403, United States
    Exp Eye Res 91:788-92. 2010
    ..Here, we review the characteristics of each RDH in vitro and the findings from knockout models that suggest the roles for each in the visual cycle...
  39. pmc Visual responses in mice lacking critical components of all known retinal phototransduction cascades
    Annette E Allen
    Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 5:e15063. 2010
    ..critical elements of each of these photoreceptive mechanisms via targeted disruption of genes encoding rod α transducin (Gnat1); the cone-specific α3 cyclic nucleotide gated channel subunit (Cnga3); and melanopsin (Opn4)...
  40. pmc Influence of the rod photoresponse on light adaptation and circadian rhythmicity in the cone ERG
    Morven A Cameron
    University of Manchester, Faculty of Life Sciences, Manchester, UK
    Mol Vis 15:2209-16. 2009
    ....
  41. pmc Involvement of all-trans-retinal in acute light-induced retinopathy of mice
    Akiko Maeda
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:15173-83. 2009
    ..These findings further understanding of the mechanisms involved in light-induced retinal degeneration...
  42. pmc An alternative pathway mediates the mouse and human cone visual cycle
    Jin Shan Wang
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Curr Biol 19:1665-9. 2009
    ..This pigment-regeneration mechanism is essential for our daytime vision and appears to be evolutionarily conserved...
  43. pmc Dissecting a role for melanopsin in behavioural light aversion reveals a response independent of conventional photoreception
    Ma ayan Semo
    Department of Ocular Biology and Therapeutics, University College London Institute of Ophthalmology, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 5:e15009. 2010
    ..in triple knockout (TKO) mice, lacking three elements deemed essential for conventional photoreception (Opn4(-/-) Gnat1(-/-) Cnga3(-/-))...
  44. pmc Modulation of molecular interactions and function by rhodopsin palmitylation
    Paul S H Park
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Biochemistry 48:4294-304. 2009
    ..looked at the effects of palmitylation on the chromophore-binding pocket, interactions of rhodopsin with transducin, and molecular interactions stabilizing the receptor structure...
  45. pmc Bax-induced apoptosis in Leber's congenital amaurosis: a dual role in rod and cone degeneration
    Séverine Hamann
    IRO, Institute for Research in Ophthalmology, Sion, Switzerland
    PLoS ONE 4:e6616. 2009
    ..level of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 were restored in Rpe65(-/-)/Gnat1(-/-) mice lacking the Gnat1 gene encoding rod transducin. Moreover, photoreceptor apoptosis was prevented as assessed by TUNEL assay...
  46. pmc A novel form of transducin-dependent retinal degeneration: accelerated retinal degeneration in the absence of rod transducin
    Elliott Brill
    Molecular Cardiology Research Institute, Tufts New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:5445-53. 2007
    ..This study examined whether three disease-associated rhodopsin substitutions Pro347Ser, Lys296Glu, and the triple mutant Val20Gly, Pro23His, Pro27Leu (VPP) caused degeneration by persistent transducin-mediated signaling activity.
  47. ncbi Canine rod transducin alpha-1: cloning of the cDNA and evaluation of the gene as a candidate for progressive retinal atrophy
    K Ray
    James A Baker Institute for Animal Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 6401, USA
    Curr Eye Res 16:71-7. 1997
    ..The present study was undertaken to evaluate the gene for the alpha-1 subunit of the rod specific G-protein transducin (GNAT1), a member of the phototransduction pathway, as a candidate for progressive rod cone degeneration (pred) ..
  48. ncbi Mouse tetranectin: cDNA sequence, tissue-specific expression, and chromosomal mapping
    K Ibaraki
    Bone Research Branch, National Institute of Dental Research National Institutes of Health NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Mamm Genome 6:693-6. 1995
    ..Finally, the genetic map location for this gene, Tna, was determined to be on distal mouse Chromosome (Chr) 9 by analysis of two sets of multilocus crosses...
  49. ncbi Umami taste responses are mediated by alpha-transducin and alpha-gustducin
    Wei He
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, The Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    J Neurosci 24:7674-80. 2004
    ..We set out to determine whether alpha-gustducin also mediates umami taste and whether rod alpha-transducin (alpha(t-rod)), which is also expressed in taste receptor cells, plays a role in any of the taste responses that ..
  50. ncbi Bright light induces retinal degeneration by a transducin-independent mechanism
    Elliott Brill
    Tufts New England Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Adv Exp Med Biol 533:213-9. 2003
  51. ncbi Identification of CRAMP, a cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide expressed in the embryonic and adult mouse
    R L Gallo
    Joint Program in Neonatology, Children s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Biol Chem 272:13088-93. 1997
    ..These data suggest that inflammatory cells in the mouse can use a nonoxidative mechanism for microbial killing and permit use of the mouse to study the role such peptides play in host defense and wound repair...
  52. ncbi G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated activation of rap GTPases: characterization of a novel Galphai regulated pathway
    Jacques T Weissman
    ACADIA Pharmaceuticals Inc, 3911 Sorrento Valley Blvd, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
    Oncogene 23:241-9. 2004
    ..A constitutively active mutant of Galphai2 also mediated Ras/rap-dependent responses. These data indicate that GPCRs coupled to pertussis-toxin-sensitive G-proteins activate Rap through a Galpha subunit, C3G, and Src-dependent pathway...
  53. ncbi Light-dependent translocation of arrestin in the absence of rhodopsin phosphorylation and transducin signaling
    Ana Mendez
    Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, The Mary D Allen Laboratory for Vision Research, Beckman Macular Research Center, Doheny Eye Institute, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 2821, USA
    J Neurosci 23:3124-9. 2003
    ..We further show that arrestin movement is initiated by rhodopsin but does not require transducin signaling...
  54. pmc Measurement of cytoplasmic calcium concentration in the rods of wild-type and transducin knock-out mice
    Michael L Woodruff
    Department of Physiological Science, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    J Physiol 542:843-54. 2002
    ..Rods from transducin alpha-subunit knock-out (Tralpha-/-) animals showed no light-dependent decline in fluorescence but exhibited an ..
  55. ncbi Genetic mapping of the peripheral sodium channel genes, Scn9a and Scn10a, in the mouse
    C A Kozak
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 4, Room 329, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 0460, USA
    Mamm Genome 7:787-8. 1996
  56. ncbi Functionally rodless mice: transgenic models for the investigation of cone function in retinal disease and therapy
    A L Lyubarsky
    Department of Ophthalmology, F M Kirby Center for Molecular Ophthalmology, Stellar Chance Building, Room 309B, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6069, USA
    Vision Res 42:401-15. 2002
    ..without interference of rod-driven responses: (1) mice with a deletion of the gene for the rod transducin alpha-subunit (transducin alpha-/-), and (2) mice with rod arrestin deleted (arrestin -/-)...
  57. ncbi Fv2 encodes a truncated form of the Stk receptor tyrosine kinase
    D A Persons
    Department of Experimental Hematology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA
    Nat Genet 23:159-65. 1999
    ..We conclude that the Fv2 locus encodes Ron, and that a naturally expressed, truncated form of Stk confers susceptibility to Friend virus-induced erythroleukaemia...
  58. ncbi Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA, CHEMR1, encoding a chemokine receptor with a homology to the human C-C chemokine receptor, CCR-4
    B S Youn
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and Walther Oncology Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis 46202 5120, USA
    Blood 89:4448-60. 1997
    ..Our result is different from the reported properties of human CCR-4. This suggests that CHEMR1 may be a receptor for unidentified C-C chemokine or a low-affinity receptor for MIP-1alpha...
  59. ncbi Differential expression and interaction with the visual G-protein transducin of centrin isoforms in mammalian photoreceptor cells
    Andreas Giessl
    Institut fur Zoologie, Johannes Gutenberg Universitat Mainz, 55099 Mainz, Germany
    J Biol Chem 279:51472-81. 2004
    ..Massive translocation of the visual G-protein transducin, Gt, between subcellular compartments contributes to long term adaptation of photoreceptor cells...
  60. ncbi Visual electrophysiological features of two naturally occurring mouse models with retinal dysfunction
    Makoto Miyamoto
    Development Research Center, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Osaka, Japan
    Curr Eye Res 31:329-35. 2006
    We developed two strains of mouse with retinal dysfunction, named the ICR-derived retinal dysfunction (IRD)1 and IRD2, from one male ICR mouse with a retinal dysfunction but a normal fundus...
  61. ncbi Assignment to mouse chromosomes of candidate genes for the rd mutation
    D B Farber
    Jules Stein Eye Institute, UCLA School of Medicine 90024
    Prog Clin Biol Res 314:143-53. 1989
  62. pmc Chromosomal localization of genes encoding guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunits in mouse and human
    C Blatt
    Weizmann Institute, Rehovoth, Israel
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 85:7642-6. 1988
    ..The retinal-specific transducin subunit genes GNAT1 and GNAT2 were on chromosomes 3 and 1; GNAI1, GNAI2, and GNAI3 were assigned to chromosomes ..
  63. ncbi Golf: an olfactory neuron specific-G protein involved in odorant signal transduction
    D T Jones
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetic Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205
    Science 244:790-5. 1989
    ..The expression of Golf alpha in S49 cyc- kin- cells, a line deficient in endogenous stimulatory G proteins, demonstrates its capacity to stimulate adenylate cyclase in a heterologous system...
  64. ncbi Sequence of the alpha subunit of photoreceptor G protein: homologies between transducin, ras, and elongation factors
    M A Lochrie
    Science 228:96-9. 1985
    A bovine retinal complementary DNA clone encoding the alpha subunit of transducin (T alpha) was isolated with the use of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides as probes, and the complete nucleotide sequence of the insert was determined...
  65. pmc A critical role of CaBP4 in the cone synapse
    Tadao Maeda
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Washington, Seattle, 98195, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:4320-7. 2005
    ..In this study, double CaBP4/rod alpha-transducin knockout (Cabp4(-/-)Gnat1(-/-)) mice lacking the rod-mediated component of electrophysiologic responses were ..
  66. pmc Regulation of prokineticin 2 expression by light and the circadian clock
    Michelle Y Cheng
    Department of Pharmacology, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA
    BMC Neurosci 6:17. 2005
    ....
  67. ncbi Primary structure of the alpha-subunit of transducin and its relationship to ras proteins
    T Tanabe
    Nature 315:242-5. 1985
    ..b>Transducin, a member of this protein family, mediates visual transduction by coupling the signal of photolysed rhodopsin ..
  68. pmc Lentiviral gene transfer of RPE65 rescues survival and function of cones in a mouse model of Leber congenital amaurosis
    Alexis Pierre Bemelmans
    Unit of Gene Therapy and Stem Cell Biology, Jules Gonin Eye Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland
    PLoS Med 3:e347. 2006
    ..In the present study, we address the question of whether application of a lentiviral vector expressing the Rpe65 mouse cDNA prevents cone degeneration and restores cone function in Rpe65 knockout mice...
  69. ncbi The gene for the alpha-subunit of retinal rod transducin is on mouse chromosome 9
    M Danciger
    Jules Stein Eye Institute, UCLA School of Medicine 90024 1771
    Genomics 4:215-7. 1989
    ..We have used a cDNA clone for the alpha-subunit of bovine rod transducin (T alpha 1) to map the corresponding gene, Gnat-1, to mouse chromosome 9 with a panel of Chinese hamster-mouse ..
  70. ncbi Ras-like genes and gene families in the mouse
    G Drivas
    Department of Biochemistry, New York University Medical Center, New York 10016
    Mamm Genome 1:112-7. 1991
    ..Two possible clusters of Ras-like and/or G protein genes were identified, on Chrs 9 and 17...
  71. ncbi The Cdc25 genes map to mouse chromosomes 2, 9, and 18
    L F Lock
    Mammalian Genetics Laboratory, ABL Basic Research Program, NCI Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, P O Box B, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA
    Mamm Genome 7:771-2. 1996
  72. ncbi New murine polymorphisms detected by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR and mapped by use of recombinant inbred strains
    Y C Cheah
    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030
    Mamm Genome 5:762-7. 1994
    ..The 10 primers were also used to survey 20 inbred mouse strains including the progenitors of other recombinant inbred sets and four mouse strains recently inbred from the wild (CAST/Ei, MOLF/Ei, PERA/Ei, and SPRET/Ei)...
  73. pmc Alternative splicing produces transcripts encoding two forms of the alpha subunit of GTP-binding protein Go
    M Strathmann
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena 91125
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87:6477-81. 1990
    ..GoA alpha transcripts are present in a variety of tissues but are most abundant in brain. The GoB alpha transcript is expressed at highest levels in brain and testis. It is possible that GoA alpha and GoB alpha have different functions...
  74. ncbi N-terminal fatty acylation of transducin profoundly influences its localization and the kinetics of photoresponse in rods
    Vasily Kerov
    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Neurosci 27:10270-7. 2007
    ..To examine the functional significance of N-acylation of a well understood G-protein alpha-subunit, transducin (G alpha(t)), we generated transgenic mice that expressed a mutant G alpha(t) lacking N-terminal acylation ..
  75. ncbi Phototransduction in a transgenic mouse model of Nougaret night blindness
    Mustapha Moussaif
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Neurosci 26:6863-72. 2006
    The Nougaret form of dominant stationary night blindness is linked to a G38D mutation in the rod transducin-alpha subunit (Talpha)...
  76. pmc Novel distribution of junctional adhesion molecule-C in the neural retina and retinal pigment epithelium
    Lauren L Daniele
    F M Kirby Center for Molecular Ophthalmology, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Comp Neurol 505:166-76. 2007
    ..The nonclassical distribution of Jam-C in the apical membranes of Müller cells and RPE suggests that Jam-C has a novel function in the retina...
  77. ncbi Mapping of the mouse macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha receptor gene Scya3r and two related mouse beta chemokine receptor-like genes to chromosome 9
    C A Kozak
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Genomics 29:294-6. 1995
    ..Thus, like chemokine genes and alpha chemokine receptor genes, this group of beta chemokine receptor genes arose by tandem duplication...
  78. pmc Redundant and unique roles of retinol dehydrogenases in the mouse retina
    Akiko Maeda
    Department of Pharmacology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 4965, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:19565-70. 2007
    ..knockout (Rdh5(-/-)Rdh8(-/-)Rdh12(-/-)) mice generated on various genetic backgrounds including a rod alpha-transducin knockout to test cone function...
  79. pmc Transducin gamma-subunit sets expression levels of alpha- and beta-subunits and is crucial for rod viability
    Ekaterina S Lobanova
    Albert Eye Research Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Neurosci 28:3510-20. 2008
    b>Transducin is a prototypic heterotrimeric G-protein mediating visual signaling in vertebrate photoreceptor cells...
  80. pmc Gene expression profiling of light-induced retinal degeneration in phototransduction gene knockout mice
    Jayalakshmi Krishnan
    Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443 749, Korea
    Exp Mol Med 40:495-504. 2008
    ..study, mice with genetic knockout of several genes, including rhodopsin kinase (Rhok-/-), arrestin (Sag-/-), transducin (Gnat1-/-), c-Fos (c-Fos-/-) and arrestin/transducin (Sag-/-/Gnat1-/-), were examined...
  81. pmc Direct rod input to cone BCs and direct cone input to rod BCs challenge the traditional view of mammalian BC circuitry
    Ji Jie Pang
    Cullen Eye Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:395-400. 2010
    ..identified depolarizing bipolar cells (DBCs) in the wild-type and three pathway-specific knockout mice (rod transducin knockout [Tralpha(-/-)], connexin36 knockout [Cx36(-/-)], and transcription factor beta4 knockout [Bhlhb4(-/-)]),..
  82. pmc Loss of cone photoreceptors caused by chromophore depletion is partially prevented by the artificial chromophore pro-drug, 9-cis-retinyl acetate
    Tadao Maeda
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 4965, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 18:2277-87. 2009
    ..by generating double knockout mice lacking Lrat or Rpe65 together with an inactivated rod-specific G protein transducin gene (Gnat1-/-)...
  83. ncbi Signal transduction of umami taste: insights from knockout mice
    Minqing Rong
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Chem Senses 30:i33-4. 2005
  84. ncbi Mapping of multiple subunits of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor to chromosome 15 in man and chromosome 9 in mouse
    C M Eng
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030
    Genomics 9:278-82. 1991
    ..The mapping of these members of a neurotransmitter receptor gene family may facilitate the identification of relationships between the neurotransmitter receptors and murine or human phenotypes...
  85. ncbi Characterization of the mouse rod transducin alpha subunit gene
    C J Raport
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle 98195
    J Biol Chem 264:7122-8. 1989
    A genomic clone spanning the mouse rod transducin alpha subunit (Tr alpha) gene has been isolated by screening a mouse genomic library with a bovine Tr alpha cDNA clone. The coding region of the mouse Tr alpha gene reveals an 88...
  86. pmc Light/dark translocation of alphatransducin in mouse photoreceptor cells expressing G90D mutant opsin
    Zack A Nash
    Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 940 Stanton L Young Blvd, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
    Adv Exp Med Biol 572:125-31. 2006
  87. ncbi Partial rescue of taste responses of alpha-gustducin null mice by transgenic expression of alpha-transducin
    Wei He
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1425 Madison Avenue, Box 1677, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Chem Senses 27:719-27. 2002
    ..Alpha-gustducin, a transducin-like G protein alpha-subunit, and rod alpha-transducin are expressed in taste receptor cells...
  88. doi In conditions of limited chromophore supply rods entrap 11-cis-retinal leading to loss of cone function and cell death
    Marijana Samardzija
    Laboratory for Retinal Cell Biology, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Hum Mol Genet 18:1266-75. 2009
    ..These findings reinforce the notion that in patients any effective gene therapy with RPE65 needs to target the cone-rich macula directly to locally restore the cones' chromophore supply outside the reach of rods...
  89. ncbi Interaction of transducin-alpha with LGN, a G-protein modulator expressed in photoreceptor cells
    Vasiliy S Kerov
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Iowa College of Medicine, BSB 5 532, Iowa City, IA 52242 1109, USA
    Mol Cell Neurosci 28:485-95. 2005
    ..that, following light-dependent translocation from the outer segments, the alpha-subunit of the visual G-protein transducin (Gtalpha) colocalizes with LGN in the basal part of the inner segments...
  90. ncbi Quantitative trait loci mapping of genes that influence the sensitivity and tolerance to ethanol-induced hypothermia in BXD recombinant inbred mice
    J C Crabbe
    Research Service, VA Medical Center, Portland, Oregon
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 269:184-92. 1994
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words)..

Research Grants1

  1. Intrinsic photosensitivity of retinal ganglion cells
    MICHAEL TRI DO; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Understanding the photosensitive ganglion cells will help in understanding basic, light-dependent physiology and its disturbance in illness. ..