Gene Symbol: Gnat1
Description: guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha transducing 1
Alias: Gnat-1, Ird1, Ird2, Tralpha, irdc, irdr, transducin, guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(t) subunit alpha-1, transducin alpha-1 chain
Species: mouse
Products:     Gnat1

Top Publications

  1. Hattar S, Lucas R, Mrosovsky N, Thompson S, Douglas R, Hankins M, et al. Melanopsin and rod-cone photoreceptive systems account for all major accessory visual functions in mice. Nature. 2003;424:76-81 pubmed
    ..Thus, the rod-cone and melanopsin systems together seem to provide all of the photic input for these accessory visual functions. ..
  2. Altimus C, Güler A, Villa K, McNeill D, Legates T, Hattar S. Rods-cones and melanopsin detect light and dark to modulate sleep independent of image formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:19998-20003 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in addition to their known role in aligning circadian physiology with day and night, ipRGCs also relay light and dark information from both rod-cone and melanopsin-based pathways to modulate sleep and wakefulness. ..
  3. Umino Y, Solessio E, Barlow R. Speed, spatial, and temporal tuning of rod and cone vision in mouse. J Neurosci. 2008;28:189-98 pubmed publisher
    ..for optomotor responses of C57BL/6J mice with normal vision, Gnat2(cpfl3) mice without functional cones, and Gnat1-/- mice without functional rods. Gnat2(cpfl3) mice (threshold, -6...
  4. Lobanova E, Finkelstein S, Song H, Tsang S, Chen C, Sokolov M, et al. Transducin translocation in rods is triggered by saturation of the GTPase-activating complex. J Neurosci. 2007;27:1151-60 pubmed
    Light causes massive translocation of G-protein transducin from the light-sensitive outer segment compartment of the rod photoreceptor cell...
  5. Chen J, Shi G, Concepcion F, Xie G, Oprian D, Chen J. Stable rhodopsin/arrestin complex leads to retinal degeneration in a transgenic mouse model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. J Neurosci. 2006;26:11929-37 pubmed eliminate arrestin unmasked the constitutive activity of K296E and caused photoreceptor cell death through a transducin-dependent mechanism that is similar to light damage...
  6. Strissel K, Sokolov M, Trieu L, Arshavsky V. Arrestin translocation is induced at a critical threshold of visual signaling and is superstoichiometric to bleached rhodopsin. J Neurosci. 2006;26:1146-53 pubmed
    ..Thus, arrestin movement to the outer segment leads to an increase in the free arrestin concentration and thereby may serve as a powerful mechanism of light adaptation. ..
  7. Kerov V, Chen D, Moussaif M, Chen Y, Chen C, Artemyev N. Transducin activation state controls its light-dependent translocation in rod photoreceptors. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:41069-76 pubmed
    Light-dependent redistribution of transducin between the rod outer segments (OS) and other photoreceptor compartments including the inner segments (IS) and synaptic terminals (ST) is recognized as a critical contributing factor to light ..
  8. Woodruff M, Lem J, Fain G. Early receptor current of wild-type and transducin knockout mice: photosensitivity and light-induced Ca2+ release. J Physiol. 2004;557:821-8 pubmed
    ..We have also measured the ERC from rods of transducin-knockout mice, for which previous illumination to close the cGMP-gated channels was not required...
  9. Sokolov M, Strissel K, Leskov I, Michaud N, Govardovskii V, Arshavsky V. Phosducin facilitates light-driven transducin translocation in rod photoreceptors. Evidence from the phosducin knockout mouse. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:19149-56 pubmed
    ..function of phosducin, we tested the hypothesis that it regulates the light-driven translocation of G protein transducin from the outer segments of rod photoreceptors to other compartments of the rod cell...

More Information


  1. Ecker J, Dumitrescu O, Wong K, Alam N, Chen S, LeGates T, et al. Melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion-cell photoreceptors: cellular diversity and role in pattern vision. Neuron. 2010;67:49-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, nonclassical retinal photoreception occurs within diverse cell types and influences circuits and functions encompassing luminance as well as spatial information. ..
  2. Cameron M, Pozdeyev N, Vugler A, Cooper H, Iuvone P, Lucas R. Light regulation of retinal dopamine that is independent of melanopsin phototransduction. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;29:761-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Light-induced DA release was also retained in mice lacking rod phototransduction (Gnat1(-/-)), although the magnitude of this response was substantially reduced compared with wild-types, as was the ..
  3. Do M, Kang S, Xue T, Zhong H, Liao H, Bergles D, et al. Photon capture and signalling by melanopsin retinal ganglion cells. Nature. 2009;457:281-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, like rods, these cells are capable of signalling single-photon absorption. A flash causing a few hundred isomerized melanopsin molecules in a retina is sufficient for reaching threshold for the pupillary light reflex. ..
  4. Kolesnikov A, Rikimaru L, Hennig A, Lukasiewicz P, Fliesler S, Govardovskii V, et al. G-protein betagamma-complex is crucial for efficient signal amplification in vision. J Neurosci. 2011;31:8067-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Although much is now known about the role of the ?-subunit of the rod-specific G-protein transducin in phototransduction, the physiological function of the auxiliary ??-complex in this process remains a mystery...
  5. Zhang H, Huang W, Zhang H, Zhu X, Craft C, Baehr W, et al. Light-dependent redistribution of visual arrestins and transducin subunits in mice with defective phototransduction. Mol Vis. 2003;9:231-7 pubmed
    ..Upon illumination, rod and cone arrestins (Arr and cArr) translocate from the inner to the outer segments while transducin subunits (Talpha, Tbetagamma) translocate in the opposite direction...
  6. Hao W, Wenzel A, Obin M, Chen C, Brill E, Krasnoperova N, et al. Evidence for two apoptotic pathways in light-induced retinal degeneration. Nat Genet. 2002;32:254-60 pubmed
    ..Using knockout mice with defects in rhodopsin shut-off and transducin signaling, we show that two different pathways of photoreceptor-cell apoptosis are induced by light...
  7. Deng W, Sakurai K, Liu J, Dinculescu A, Li J, Pang J, et al. Functional interchangeability of rod and cone transducin alpha-subunits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:17681-6 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, rod and cone visual pigments couple to distinct variants of the heterotrimeric G protein transducin. However, the role of the structural differences between rod and cone transducin alpha subunits (Talpha) in ..
  8. Calvert P, Krasnoperova N, Lyubarsky A, Isayama T, Nicolo M, Kosaras B, et al. Phototransduction in transgenic mice after targeted deletion of the rod transducin alpha -subunit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:13913-8 pubmed
    Retinal photoreceptors use the heterotrimeric G protein transducin to couple rhodopsin to a biochemical cascade that underlies the electrical photoresponse. Several isoforms of each transducin subunit are present in the retina...
  9. Woodruff M, Wang Z, Chung H, Redmond T, Fain G, Lem J. Spontaneous activity of opsin apoprotein is a cause of Leber congenital amaurosis. Nat Genet. 2003;35:158-64 pubmed
    ..A genetic block of transducin signaling completely rescued degeneration irrespective of an elevated level of retinyl ester...
  10. Lobanova E, Finkelstein S, Herrmann R, Chen Y, Kessler C, Michaud N, et al. Transducin gamma-subunit sets expression levels of alpha- and beta-subunits and is crucial for rod viability. J Neurosci. 2008;28:3510-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Transducin is a prototypic heterotrimeric G-protein mediating visual signaling in vertebrate photoreceptor cells...
  11. Cahill H, Nathans J. The optokinetic reflex as a tool for quantitative analyses of nervous system function in mice: application to genetic and drug-induced variation. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2055 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments show that the mouse OKR is well suited for neurologic testing in the context of drug discovery and large-scale phenotyping programs. ..
  12. Fu Y, Zhong H, Wang M, Luo D, Liao H, Maeda H, et al. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells detect light with a vitamin A-based photopigment, melanopsin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:10339-44 pubmed
    ..Finally, we detected no melanopsin in the RPE and no changes in rod and cone sensitivities due to melanopsin ablation. Together, these results strongly suggest that melanopsin is the photopigment in the ipRGCs. ..
  13. Ziccardi L, Vijayasarathy C, Bush R, Sieving P. Photoreceptor pathology in the X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) mouse results in delayed rod maturation and impaired light driven transducin translocation. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014;801:559-66 pubmed publisher
    Light-activated movement of transducin-α (Gαt1) from rod photoreceptor outer segments (ROS) into inner segments (IS) enables rods to rapidly adapt to changes in light intensity...
  14. Miyamoto M, Aoki M, Hirai K, Sugimoto S, Kawasaki K, Imai R. A nonsense mutation in Gnat1, encoding the alpha subunit of rod transducin, in spontaneous mouse models of retinal dysfunction. Exp Eye Res. 2010;90:63-9 pubmed publisher
    ..mRNA levels of Gnat1, which encodes the alpha subunit of rod transducin (Tralpha), were severely reduced...
  15. Yao J, Jia L, Shelby S, Ganios A, Feathers K, Thompson D, et al. Circadian and noncircadian modulation of autophagy in photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;55:3237-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In photoreceptors, translocation of transducin and arrestin from the outer to inner segment appeared to contribute to the light-dependent upregulation of ..
  16. Lyubarsky A, Lem J, Chen J, Falsini B, Iannaccone A, Pugh E. Functionally rodless mice: transgenic models for the investigation of cone function in retinal disease and therapy. Vision Res. 2002;42:401-15 pubmed
    ..without interference of rod-driven responses: (1) mice with a deletion of the gene for the rod transducin alpha-subunit (transducin alpha-/-), and (2) mice with rod arrestin deleted (arrestin -/-)...
  17. Maeda A, Okano K, Park P, Lem J, Crouch R, Maeda T, et al. Palmitoylation stabilizes unliganded rod opsin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:8428-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, elimination of signaling to G protein in Palm(-/-)Gnat1(-/-) mice had no effect, indicating that instability of unpalmitoylated opsin lacking chromophore rather than ..
  18. Ronquillo C, Hanke Gogokhia C, Revelo M, Frederick J, Jiang L, Baehr W. Ciliopathy-associated IQCB1/NPHP5 protein is required for mouse photoreceptor outer segment formation. FASEB J. 2016;30:3400-3412 pubmed
    ..Ronquillo, C. C., Hanke-Gogokhia, C., Revelo, M. P., Frederick, J. M., Jiang, L., Baehr, W. Ciliopathy-associated IQCB1/NPHP5 protein is required for mouse photoreceptor outer segment formation. ..
  19. Vinberg F, Wang T, Molday R, Chen J, Kefalov V. A new mouse model for stationary night blindness with mutant Slc24a1 explains the pathophysiology of the associated human disease. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:5915-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, the lack of NCKX1 did not compromise rod background light adaptation, suggesting additional Ca(2+)-extruding mechanisms exist in these cells. ..
  20. Krispel C, Sokolov M, Chen Y, Song H, Herrmann R, Arshavsky V, et al. Phosducin regulates the expression of transducin betagamma subunits in rod photoreceptors and does not contribute to phototransduction adaptation. J Gen Physiol. 2007;130:303-12 pubmed
    For over a decade, phosducin's interaction with the betagamma subunits of the G protein, transducin, has been thought to contribute to light adaptation by dynamically controlling the amount of transducin heterotrimer available for ..
  21. Nathan J, Reh R, Ankoudinova I, Ankoudinova G, Chang B, Heckenlively J, et al. Scotopic and photopic visual thresholds and spatial and temporal discrimination evaluated by behavior of mice in a water maze. Photochem Photobiol. 2006;82:1489-94 pubmed
    ..In this report we describe the sensitivities of rod-mediated and cone-mediated vision using GNAT1-/-and GNAT2-/- mice...
  22. Martemyanov K, Arshavsky V. Noncatalytic domains of RGS9-1.Gbeta 5L play a decisive role in establishing its substrate specificity. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:32843-8 pubmed
    ..regulates the duration of the cellular response to light by stimulating the GTPase activity of G protein, transducin. An important property of RGS9-1...
  23. Wang Y, Weick M, Demb J. Spectral and temporal sensitivity of cone-mediated responses in mouse retinal ganglion cells. J Neurosci. 2011;31:7670-81 pubmed publisher
    ..From recordings in mice lacking rod function (Gnat1(-/-), Rho(-/-)), we estimate ? 70% M-opsin expression in far dorsal retina, dropping to <5% M-opsin expression ..
  24. Weissman J, Ma J, Essex A, Gao Y, Burstein E. G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated activation of rap GTPases: characterization of a novel Galphai regulated pathway. Oncogene. 2004;23:241-9 pubmed
    ..A constitutively active mutant of Galphai2 also mediated Ras/rap-dependent responses. These data indicate that GPCRs coupled to pertussis-toxin-sensitive G-proteins activate Rap through a Galpha subunit, C3G, and Src-dependent pathway. ..
  25. He W, Danilova V, Zou S, Hellekant G, Max M, Margolskee R, et al. Partial rescue of taste responses of alpha-gustducin null mice by transgenic expression of alpha-transducin. Chem Senses. 2002;27:719-27 pubmed
    ..Alpha-gustducin, a transducin-like G protein alpha-subunit, and rod alpha-transducin are expressed in taste receptor cells...
  26. Hamann S, Schorderet D, Cottet S. Bax-induced apoptosis in Leber's congenital amaurosis: a dual role in rod and cone degeneration. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6616 pubmed publisher
    ..level of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 were restored in Rpe65(-/-)/Gnat1(-/-) mice lacking the Gnat1 gene encoding rod transducin. Moreover, photoreceptor apoptosis was prevented as assessed by TUNEL assay...
  27. Brill E, Malanson K, Radu R, Boukharov N, Wang Z, Chung H, et al. A novel form of transducin-dependent retinal degeneration: accelerated retinal degeneration in the absence of rod transducin. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:5445-53 pubmed
    ..Pro347Ser, Lys296Glu, and the triple mutant Val20Gly, Pro23His, Pro27Leu (VPP) caused degeneration by persistent transducin-mediated signaling activity...
  28. Cheng H, Aleman T, Cideciyan A, Khanna R, Jacobson S, Swaroop A. In vivo function of the orphan nuclear receptor NR2E3 in establishing photoreceptor identity during mammalian retinal development. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:2588-602 pubmed
    ..Our studies reveal a critical role of NR2E3 in establishing functional specificity of NRL-expressing photoreceptor precursors during retinal neurogenesis. ..
  29. Samardzija M, Caprara C, Heynen S, Willcox DeParis S, Meneau I, Traber G, et al. A mouse model for studying cone photoreceptor pathologies. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;55:5304-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the R91W;Nrl(-/-) mouse allows study of the etiology of diseases related to cone degeneration in a "morphologically intact" and functional all-cone photoreceptor retina. ..
  30. Miyamoto M, Imai R, Sugimoto S, Aoki M, Nagai H, Ando T. Visual electrophysiological features of two naturally occurring mouse models with retinal dysfunction. Curr Eye Res. 2006;31:329-35 pubmed
    ..Scotopic and photopic electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded from IRD1 and IRD2 mice at 1 month of age to evaluate retinal function, and then the structures of the retinas in both mutant ..
  31. Wang J, Nymark S, Frederiksen R, Estevez M, Shen S, Corbo J, et al. Chromophore supply rate-limits mammalian photoreceptor dark adaptation. J Neurosci. 2014;34:11212-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Misexpression of cone genes in rods may represent a novel approach to treating visual disorders associated with mutations of visual cycle proteins or with reduced retinal pigment epithelium function due to aging. ..
  32. Park P, Sapra K, Jastrzebska B, Maeda T, Maeda A, Pulawski W, et al. Modulation of molecular interactions and function by rhodopsin palmitylation. Biochemistry. 2009;48:4294-304 pubmed publisher
    ..looked at the effects of palmitylation on the chromophore-binding pocket, interactions of rhodopsin with transducin, and molecular interactions stabilizing the receptor structure...
  33. Pang J, Gao F, Lem J, Bramblett D, Paul D, Wu S. Direct rod input to cone BCs and direct cone input to rod BCs challenge the traditional view of mammalian BC circuitry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:395-400 pubmed publisher
    ..identified depolarizing bipolar cells (DBCs) in the wild-type and three pathway-specific knockout mice (rod transducin knockout [Tralpha(-/-)], connexin36 knockout [Cx36(-/-)], and transcription factor beta4 knockout [Bhlhb4(-/-)]),..
  34. Maeda T, Cideciyan A, Maeda A, Golczak M, Aleman T, Jacobson S, et al. Loss of cone photoreceptors caused by chromophore depletion is partially prevented by the artificial chromophore pro-drug, 9-cis-retinyl acetate. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:2277-87 pubmed publisher generating double knockout mice lacking Lrat or Rpe65 together with an inactivated rod-specific G protein transducin gene (Gnat1-/-)...
  35. He W, Yasumatsu K, Varadarajan V, Yamada A, Lem J, Ninomiya Y, et al. Umami taste responses are mediated by alpha-transducin and alpha-gustducin. J Neurosci. 2004;24:7674-80 pubmed
    ..We set out to determine whether alpha-gustducin also mediates umami taste and whether rod alpha-transducin (alpha(t-rod)), which is also expressed in taste receptor cells, plays a role in any of the taste responses that ..
  36. Sakurai K, Chen J, Khani S, Kefalov V. Regulation of mammalian cone phototransduction by recoverin and rhodopsin kinase. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:9239-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We also find that recoverin potentiates the sensitivity of cones in dim light conditions but does not contribute to their capacity to function in bright light. ..
  37. Wong B, Chan J, Cazenave Gassiot A, Poh R, Foo J, Galam D, et al. Mfsd2a Is a Transporter for the Essential ω-3 Fatty Acid Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) in Eye and Is Important for Photoreceptor Cell Development. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:10501-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify LPC transport via Mfsd2a as an important pathway for DHA uptake in eye and for development of photoreceptor membrane discs. ..
  38. Lock L, Wickramasinghe D, Ernst M, Gilbert D, Copeland N, Jenkins N, et al. The Cdc25 genes map to mouse chromosomes 2, 9, and 18. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:771-2 pubmed
  39. Cheng M, Bittman E, Hattar S, Zhou Q. Regulation of prokineticin 2 expression by light and the circadian clock. BMC Neurosci. 2005;6:17 pubmed
    ..The light inducibility of PK2 suggests that in addition to its role in clock-driven rhythms of locomotor behaviour, PK2 may also participate in the photic entrainment of circadian locomotor rhythms. ..
  40. Zhang N, Tsybovsky Y, Kolesnikov A, Rozanowska M, Swider M, Schwartz S, et al. Protein misfolding and the pathogenesis of ABCA4-associated retinal degenerations. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:3220-37 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest likely differences in the unfolded protein response between murine and human photoreceptors and support development of therapies directed at increasing this capability in patients. ..
  41. Zhang P, Zawadzki R, Goswami M, Nguyen P, Yarov Yarovoy V, Burns M, et al. In vivo optophysiology reveals that G-protein activation triggers osmotic swelling and increased light scattering of rod photoreceptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E2937-E2946 pubmed publisher
    ..and increased light scattering in wild-type mice, but not in mice lacking the rod G-protein alpha subunit, transducin (G?t), revealing these responses to be triggered by phototransduction...
  42. Herrmann R, Lobanova E, Hammond T, Kessler C, Burns M, Frishman L, et al. Phosducin regulates transmission at the photoreceptor-to-ON-bipolar cell synapse. J Neurosci. 2010;30:3239-53 pubmed publisher
  43. Kolesnikov A, Orban T, Jin H, Brooks C, Hofmann L, Dong Z, et al. Dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase 2A regulates visual pigment regeneration and the dark adaptation of mammalian photoreceptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E9675-E9684 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that visual pigment dephosphorylation regulates the dark adaptation of photoreceptors and provide insights into the role of this reaction in GPCR signaling. ..
  44. Bereta G, Wang B, Kiser P, Baehr W, Jang G, Palczewski K. A functional kinase homology domain is essential for the activity of photoreceptor guanylate cyclase 1. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:1899-908 pubmed publisher
    ..However, evidence is presented that autophosphorylation does not regulate GC1 activity, in contrast to phosphorylation of other members of this cyclase family. ..
  45. Tanabe T, Nukada T, Nishikawa Y, Sugimoto K, Suzuki H, Takahashi H, et al. Primary structure of the alpha-subunit of transducin and its relationship to ras proteins. Nature. 1985;315:242-5 pubmed
    ..b>Transducin, a member of this protein family, mediates visual transduction by coupling the signal of photolysed rhodopsin ..
  46. Kozak C, Sangameswaran L. Genetic mapping of the peripheral sodium channel genes, Scn9a and Scn10a, in the mouse. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:787-8 pubmed
  47. Bemelmans A, Kostic C, Crippa S, Hauswirth W, Lem J, Munier F, et al. Lentiviral gene transfer of RPE65 rescues survival and function of cones in a mouse model of Leber congenital amaurosis. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e347 pubmed
    ..Finally, in mice deficient for both RPE65 and rod transducin, Rpe65 gene transfer restored cone function when applied at an early stage of the disease...
  48. Miyamoto M, Aoki M, Sugimoto S, Kawasaki K, Imai R. IRD1 and IRD2 mice, naturally occurring models of hereditary retinal dysfunction, show late-onset and progressive retinal degeneration. Curr Eye Res. 2010;35:137-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Electroretinography was performed on the IRD2 mice at various ages. Age-matched ICR mice were used as controls. IRD1 and IRD2 mice showed a decrease in the thickness of the outer nuclear layer and a higher frequency of TUNEL-..
  49. Strathmann M, Wilkie T, Simon M. Alternative splicing produces transcripts encoding two forms of the alpha subunit of GTP-binding protein Go. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:6477-81 pubmed
    ..GoA alpha transcripts are present in a variety of tissues but are most abundant in brain. The GoB alpha transcript is expressed at highest levels in brain and testis. It is possible that GoA alpha and GoB alpha have different functions. ..
  50. Smiley S, Nickerson P, Comanita L, Daftarian N, El Sehemy A, Tsai E, et al. Establishment of a cone photoreceptor transplantation platform based on a novel cone-GFP reporter mouse line. Sci Rep. 2016;6:22867 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the amenability of the adult retina to cone transplantation using a novel transgenic resource that can advance therapeutic cone transplantation in models of age-related macular degeneration. ..
  51. Du J, Rountree A, Cleghorn W, Contreras L, Lindsay K, Sadilek M, et al. Phototransduction Influences Metabolic Flux and Nucleotide Metabolism in Mouse Retina. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:4698-710 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, a comprehensive analysis of the retinal metabolome showed that phototransduction also influences steady-state concentrations of 5'-GMP, ribose-5-phosphate, ketone bodies, and purines. ..
  52. Moussaif M, Rubin W, Kerov V, Reh R, Chen D, Lem J, et al. Phototransduction in a transgenic mouse model of Nougaret night blindness. J Neurosci. 2006;26:6863-72 pubmed
    The Nougaret form of dominant stationary night blindness is linked to a G38D mutation in the rod transducin-alpha subunit (Talpha)...
  53. Ziccardi L, Vijayasarathy C, Bush R, Sieving P. Loss of retinoschisin (RS1) cell surface protein in maturing mouse rod photoreceptors elevates the luminance threshold for light-driven translocation of transducin but not arrestin. J Neurosci. 2012;32:13010-21 pubmed
    ..We examined light-activated transducin and arrestin translocation in young Rs1-KO mice as a marker for functional abnormalities in maturing rod ..
  54. Maeda A, Maeda T, Sun W, Zhang H, Baehr W, Palczewski K. Redundant and unique roles of retinol dehydrogenases in the mouse retina. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:19565-70 pubmed
    ..knockout (Rdh5(-/-)Rdh8(-/-)Rdh12(-/-)) mice generated on various genetic backgrounds including a rod alpha-transducin knockout to test cone function...
  55. Allen A, Cameron M, Brown T, Vugler A, Lucas R. Visual responses in mice lacking critical components of all known retinal phototransduction cascades. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15063 pubmed publisher
    ..critical elements of each of these photoreceptive mechanisms via targeted disruption of genes encoding rod α transducin (Gnat1); the cone-specific α3 cyclic nucleotide gated channel subunit (Cnga3); and melanopsin (Opn4)...
  56. Brown B, Ramirez T, Rife L, Craft C. Visual Arrestin 1 contributes to cone photoreceptor survival and light adaptation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:2372-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Arr1 expression is essential for cone photoreceptor survival and light adaptation, whereas either Arr1 or Arr4 is necessary for maintaining normal flicker responses. ..
  57. Wang J, Kefalov V. An alternative pathway mediates the mouse and human cone visual cycle. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1665-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This pigment-regeneration mechanism is essential for our daytime vision and appears to be evolutionarily conserved. ..
  58. Altimus C, Guler A, Alam N, Arman A, Prusky G, Sampath A, et al. Rod photoreceptors drive circadian photoentrainment across a wide range of light intensities. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:1107-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, rods use two distinct retinal circuits to drive ipRGC function to support circadian photoentrainment across a wide range of light intensities. ..
  59. Parker R, Crouch R. Retinol dehydrogenases (RDHs) in the visual cycle. Exp Eye Res. 2010;91:788-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the characteristics of each RDH in vitro and the findings from knockout models that suggest the roles for each in the visual cycle. ..
  60. Barber A, Hippert C, Duran Y, West E, Bainbridge J, Warre Cornish K, et al. Repair of the degenerate retina by photoreceptor transplantation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:354-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Integration can increase (Prph2(+/?307)), decrease (Crb1(rd8/rd8), Gnat1(-/-), Rho(-/-)), or remain constant (PDE6?(rd1/rd1), Prph2(rd2/rd2)) with disease progression, depending upon the ..
  61. Olivares A, Han Y, Soto D, Flattery K, Marini J, Mollema N, et al. The nuclear hormone receptor gene Nr2c1 (Tr2) is a critical regulator of early retina cell patterning. Dev Biol. 2017;429:343-355 pubmed publisher
    ..This study supports a role for Nr2c1 in defining the biphasic period of retinal development and specifically influencing the early phase of retinal cell fate. ..
  62. Eng C, Kozak C, Beaudet A, Zoghbi H. Mapping of multiple subunits of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor to chromosome 15 in man and chromosome 9 in mouse. Genomics. 1991;9:278-82 pubmed
    ..The mapping of these members of a neurotransmitter receptor gene family may facilitate the identification of relationships between the neurotransmitter receptors and murine or human phenotypes. ..
  63. West E, Gonzalez Cordero A, Hippert C, Osakada F, Martinez Barbera J, Pearson R, et al. Defining the integration capacity of embryonic stem cell-derived photoreceptor precursors. Stem Cells. 2012;30:1424-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite showing expression profiles characteristic of immature photoreceptors, the ESC-derived precursors generated using this protocol did not display transplantation competence equivalent to precursors from the postnatal retina. ..
  64. Rosa J, Morrie R, Baertsch H, Feller M. Contributions of Rod and Cone Pathways to Retinal Direction Selectivity Through Development. J Neurosci. 2016;36:9683-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide evidence that the retina uses multiple strategies for computing DS responses across different stimulus conditions. ..
  65. Westfall J, Hoyt C, Liu Q, Hsiao Y, Pierce E, Page McCaw P, et al. Retinal degeneration and failure of photoreceptor outer segment formation in mice with targeted deletion of the Joubert syndrome gene, Ahi1. J Neurosci. 2010;30:8759-68 pubmed publisher
    ..e., transducin and Rom1) in Ahi1(-/-) mice...
  66. Kolesnikov A, Tang P, Parker R, Crouch R, Kefalov V. The mammalian cone visual cycle promotes rapid M/L-cone pigment regeneration independently of the interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein. J Neurosci. 2011;31:7900-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, IRBP does not accelerate cone pigment regeneration and is not critical for the function of mouse M/L-cones in bright light. ..
  67. Gallo R, Kim K, Bernfield M, Kozak C, Zanetti M, Merluzzi L, et al. Identification of CRAMP, a cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide expressed in the embryonic and adult mouse. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:13088-93 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that inflammatory cells in the mouse can use a nonoxidative mechanism for microbial killing and permit use of the mouse to study the role such peptides play in host defense and wound repair. ..
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