Gene Symbol: Gnas
Description: GNAS (guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha stimulating) complex locus
Alias: 5530400H20Rik, A930027G11Rik, C130027O20Rik, GPSA, GSP, Galphas, Gnas1, Gnasxl, Gs-alpha, Gsa, Nesp, Nesp55, Nespl, Oed-Sml, Oedsml, PHP1A, PHP1B, POH, SCG6, protein ALEX, protein GNAS, protein SCG6 (secretogranin VI), Gs alpha subunit, adenylate cyclase-stimulating G alpha protein, alternative gene product encoded by XL-exon, extra large alphas protein, guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(s) subunit alpha isoforms XLas, neuroendocrine secretory protein 55, secretogranin VI, stimulatory G-protein alpha subunit
Species: mouse
Products:     Gnas

Top Publications

  1. Liu Z, Turan S, Wehbi V, Vilardaga J, Bastepe M. Extra-long G?s variant XL?s protein escapes activation-induced subcellular redistribution and is able to provide sustained signaling. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:38558-69 pubmed publisher
    Murine models indicate that G?s and its extra-long variant XL?s, both of which are derived from GNAS, markedly differ regarding their cellular actions, but these differences are unknown...
  2. Plagge A, Gordon E, Dean W, Boiani R, Cinti S, Peters J, et al. The imprinted signaling protein XL alpha s is required for postnatal adaptation to feeding. Nat Genet. 2004;36:818-26 pubmed
    ..We disrupted a paternally expressed transcript at the Gnas locus, Gnasxl, which encodes the unusual Gs alpha isoform XL alpha s...
  3. Williamson C, Ball S, Nottingham W, Skinner J, Plagge A, Turner M, et al. A cis-acting control region is required exclusively for the tissue-specific imprinting of Gnas. Nat Genet. 2004;36:894-9 pubmed
    ..cluster on distal mouse chromosome 2, one at exon 1A upstream of Gnas itself and one covering the promoters for Gnasxl and the antisense Nespas (ref. 8)...
  4. Coombes C, Arnaud P, Gordon E, Dean W, Coar E, Williamson C, et al. Epigenetic properties and identification of an imprint mark in the Nesp-Gnasxl domain of the mouse Gnas imprinted locus. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:5475-88 pubmed subject to tissue-specific imprinted expression, Nesp is expressed only from the maternal allele, and Gnasxl is expressed only from the paternal allele. The mechanisms controlling these expression patterns are not known...
  5. Pignolo R, Xu M, Russell E, Richardson A, Kaplan J, Billings P, et al. Heterozygous inactivation of Gnas in adipose-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells enhances osteoblast differentiation and promotes heterotopic ossification. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26:2647-55 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, the GNAS proteins G(s)?, XL?s, and NESP55 are detected in adipocytes and in adipose stroma...
  6. Klemke M, Kehlenbach R, Huttner W. Two overlapping reading frames in a single exon encode interacting proteins--a novel way of gene usage. EMBO J. 2001;20:3849-60 pubmed
    The >1 kb XL-exon of the rat XLalphas/Galphas gene encodes the 37 kDa XL-domain, the N-terminal half of the 78 kDa neuroendocrine-specific G-protein alpha-subunit XLalphas...
  7. Sakamoto A, Chen M, Kobayashi T, Kronenberg H, Weinstein L. Chondrocyte-specific knockout of the G protein G(s)alpha leads to epiphyseal and growth plate abnormalities and ectopic chondrocyte formation. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20:663-71 pubmed
    ..These results show that G(s)alpha negatively regulates chondrocyte differentiation and is the critical signaling mediator of the PTH/PTHrP receptor in epiphyseal and growth plate chondrocytes. ..
  8. Klemke M, Pasolli H, Kehlenbach R, Offermanns S, Schultz G, Huttner W. Characterization of the extra-large G protein alpha-subunit XLalphas. II. Signal transduction properties. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:33633-40 pubmed
    ..protein consisting of a novel 37-kDa XL domain followed by a 41-kDa alphas domain encoded by exons 2-13 of the Galphas gene. Here, we have studied the signal transduction properties of XLalphas...
  9. Liu J, Chen M, Deng C, Bourc his D, Nealon J, Erlichman B, et al. Identification of the control region for tissue-specific imprinting of the stimulatory G protein alpha-subunit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:5513-8 pubmed
    Gnas is a complex gene with multiple imprinted promoters. The upstream Nesp and Nespas/Gnasxl promoters are paternally and maternally methylated, respectively...

More Information


  1. Kelly M, Moir L, Jones L, Whitehill E, Anstee Q, Goldin R, et al. A missense mutation in the non-neural G-protein alpha-subunit isoforms modulates susceptibility to obesity. Int J Obes (Lond). 2009;33:507-18 pubmed publisher
    The Gnas transcription unit located within an imprinting region encodes several proteins, including the G-protein alpha-subunit, Gsalpha, its isoform XLalphas and their variant truncated neural forms GsalphaN1 and XLN1...
  2. Xie T, Chen M, Gavrilova O, Lai E, Liu J, Weinstein L. Severe obesity and insulin resistance due to deletion of the maternal Gsalpha allele is reversed by paternal deletion of the Gsalpha imprint control region. Endocrinology. 2008;149:2443-50 pubmed publisher
  3. Liu Z, Segawa H, Aydin C, Reyes M, Erben R, Weinstein L, et al. Transgenic overexpression of the extra-large Gs? variant XL?s enhances Gs?-mediated responses in the mouse renal proximal tubule in vivo. Endocrinology. 2011;152:1222-33 pubmed publisher
    ..222 ± 41 pg/ml; P < 0.05). After crossing the rptXL?s mice to mice with ablation of maternal Gnas exon 1 (E1(m-/+)), male offspring carrying both the XL?s transgene and maternal Gnas exon 1 ablation (rptXL?s/E1(m-/..
  4. Ischia R, Lovisetti Scamihorn P, Hogue Angeletti R, Wolkersdorfer M, Winkler H, Fischer Colbrie R. Molecular cloning and characterization of NESP55, a novel chromogranin-like precursor of a peptide with 5-HT1B receptor antagonist activity. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:11657-62 pubmed
    ..We describe here the molecular characterization of NESP55 (neuroendocrine secretory protein of Mr 55,000), a novel member of the chromogranins...
  5. Liu J, Yu S, Litman D, Chen W, Weinstein L. Identification of a methylation imprint mark within the mouse Gnas locus. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:5808-17 pubmed maternally expressed in some tissues and biallelically expressed in most other tissues, while the gene products NESP55 and XLalphas are maternally and paternally expressed, respectively...
  6. Sakamoto A, Weinstein L, Plagge A, Eckhaus M, Kelsey G. GNAS haploinsufficiency leads to subcutaneous tumor formation with collagen and elastin deposition and calcification. Endocr Res. 2009;34:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We now describe the development of fibrous tumors in mice with heterozygous disruption of the Gnas gene, which encodes G(s)alpha and other gene products...
  7. Chen M, Chen H, Nguyen A, Gupta D, Wang J, Lai E, et al. G(s)alpha deficiency in adipose tissue leads to a lean phenotype with divergent effects on cold tolerance and diet-induced thermogenesis. Cell Metab. 2010;11:320-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In normal mice, high-fat diet raised sympathetic nerve activity in muscle, but not in BAT. Our results show that cold- and diet-induced thermogenesis may occur in separate tissues, especially when BAT function is impaired. ..
  8. Skinner J, Cattanach B, Peters J. The imprinted oedematous-small mutation on mouse chromosome 2 identifies new roles for Gnas and Gnasxl in development. Genomics. 2002;80:373-5 pubmed
    ..The maternally expressed mutant Gnas transcript is the candidate for Oed and the paternally expressed mutant Gnasxl transcript is the candidate for Sml...
  9. Bastepe M, Weinstein L, Ogata N, Kawaguchi H, Juppner H, Kronenberg H, et al. Stimulatory G protein directly regulates hypertrophic differentiation of growth plate cartilage in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:14794-9 pubmed
    ..The alpha subunit of Gs (Gsalpha) is encoded by GNAS (Gnas in mice), and heterozygous Gsalpha inactivating mutations lead to Albright hereditary osteodystrophy...
  10. Castrop H, Oppermann M, Mizel D, Huang Y, Faulhaber Walter R, Weiss Y, et al. Skeletal abnormalities and extra-skeletal ossification in mice with restricted Gsalpha deletion caused by a renin promoter-Cre transgene. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;330:487-501 pubmed
    ..Gnas encodes the alpha-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gs alpha)...
  11. Wroe S, Kelsey G, Skinner J, Bodle D, Ball S, Beechey C, et al. An imprinted transcript, antisense to Nesp, adds complexity to the cluster of imprinted genes at the mouse Gnas locus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:3342-6 pubmed
    ..It contains three imprinted genes in the order Nesp-Gnasxl-Gnas...
  12. Sakamoto A, Chen M, Nakamura T, Xie T, Karsenty G, Weinstein L. Deficiency of the G-protein alpha-subunit G(s)alpha in osteoblasts leads to differential effects on trabecular and cortical bone. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:21369-75 pubmed
    ..Osteoblast-specific G(s)alpha deficiency leads to reduced bone turnover. ..
  13. Chen M, Gavrilova O, Liu J, Xie T, Deng C, Nguyen A, et al. Alternative Gnas gene products have opposite effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:7386-91 pubmed
    ..extralarge G(s)alpha (XLalphas), a paternally expressed G(s)alpha isoform; and neuroendocrine-specific protein (NESP55), a maternally expressed chromogranin-like protein...
  14. Hayward B, Moran V, Strain L, Bonthron D. Bidirectional imprinting of a single gene: GNAS1 encodes maternally, paternally, and biallelically derived proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:15475-80 pubmed
    ..The more 5' of these exons encodes the neuroendocrine secretory protein NESP55, which is expressed exclusively from the maternal allele...
  15. Williamson C, Ball S, Dawson C, Mehta S, Beechey C, Fray M, et al. Uncoupling antisense-mediated silencing and DNA methylation in the imprinted Gnas cluster. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001347 pubmed publisher
    ..Within the imprinted Gnas cluster on mouse chromosome 2, Nespas is a paternally expressed macroRNA that arises from an imprinting control ..
  16. Fröhlich L, Mrakovcic M, Steinborn R, Chung U, Bastepe M, Juppner H. Targeted deletion of the Nesp55 DMR defines another Gnas imprinting control region and provides a mouse model of autosomal dominant PHP-Ib. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:9275-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously identified two almost identical GNAS microdeletions extending from exon NESP55 to antisense (AS) exon 3 (delNESP55/delAS3-4)...
  17. Xie T, Plagge A, Gavrilova O, Pack S, Jou W, Lai E, et al. The alternative stimulatory G protein alpha-subunit XLalphas is a critical regulator of energy and glucose metabolism and sympathetic nerve activity in adult mice. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:18989-99 pubmed
    ..XLalphas knock-out mice (Gnasxl(m+/p-)) have poor suckling and perinatal lethality, implicating XLalphas as critical for postnatal feeding...
  18. Huso D, Edie S, Levine M, Schwindinger W, Wang Y, Juppner H, et al. Heterotopic ossifications in a mouse model of albright hereditary osteodystrophy. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21755 pubmed publisher
    ..mediate their actions through G protein-coupled receptors, a condition termed pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a (PHP1a)...
  19. Chen M, Wang J, Dickerson K, Kelleher J, Xie T, Gupta D, et al. Central nervous system imprinting of the G protein G(s)alpha and its role in metabolic regulation. Cell Metab. 2009;9:548-55 pubmed publisher
  20. Chen M, Gavrilova O, Zhao W, Nguyen A, Lorenzo J, Shen L, et al. Increased glucose tolerance and reduced adiposity in the absence of fasting hypoglycemia in mice with liver-specific Gs alpha deficiency. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:3217-27 pubmed
    ..Our results define novel roles for hepatic G(s)-signaling pathways in glucose and lipid regulation, which may prove useful in designing new therapeutic targets for diabetes and obesity. ..
  21. Williamson C, Turner M, Ball S, Nottingham W, Glenister P, Fray M, et al. Identification of an imprinting control region affecting the expression of all transcripts in the Gnas cluster. Nat Genet. 2006;38:350-5 pubmed
    ..The group of imprinted transcripts in the mouse Gnas cluster (Nesp, Nespas, Gnasxl, Exon 1A and Gnas) provides a model for analyzing the mechanisms of imprint regulation...
  22. Abramowitz J, Grenet D, Birnbaumer M, Torres H, Birnbaumer L. XLalphas, the extra-long form of the alpha-subunit of the Gs G protein, is significantly longer than suspected, and so is its companion Alex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:8366-71 pubmed
    ..XXLb proteins are likely to be found as stable dimers with AlexX. The N-terminally longer proteins may play regulatory roles. ..
  23. Chen M, Berger A, Kablan A, Zhang J, Gavrilova O, Weinstein L. Gs? deficiency in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus partially contributes to obesity associated with Gs? mutations. Endocrinology. 2012;153:4256-65 pubmed publisher
  24. Regard J, Cherman N, Palmer D, Kuznetsov S, Celi F, Guettier J, et al. Wnt/?-catenin signaling is differentially regulated by G? proteins and contributes to fibrous dysplasia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:20101-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that activated G? proteins are playing physiologically significant roles during both skeletal development and disease by modulating Wnt/?-catenin signaling strength. ..
  25. Schwindinger W, Reese K, Lawler A, Gearhart J, Levine M. Targeted disruption of Gnas in embryonic stem cells. Endocrinology. 1997;138:4058-63 pubmed
    ..As the first step in generating a model of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy, the gene encoding G alpha(s) (Gnas) was disrupted in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells by homologous recombination...
  26. Yu S, Yu D, Lee E, Eckhaus M, Lee R, Corria Z, et al. Variable and tissue-specific hormone resistance in heterotrimeric Gs protein alpha-subunit (Gsalpha) knockout mice is due to tissue-specific imprinting of the gsalpha gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:8715-20 pubmed short stature, obesity, and skeletal defects, is associated with heterozygous inactivating mutations of GNAS1, the gene encoding the heterotrimeric G protein alpha-subunit (Gsalpha) that couples multiple receptors to the ..
  27. Kelsey G, Bodle D, Miller H, Beechey C, Coombes C, Peters J, et al. Identification of imprinted loci by methylation-sensitive representational difference analysis: application to mouse distal chromosome 2. Genomics. 1999;62:129-38 pubmed
    ..of imprinted methylation: paternal-specific methylation at the Nesp locus and maternal-specific methylation at the Gnasxl locus...
  28. Cattanach B, Peters J, Ball S, Rasberry C. Two imprinted gene mutations: three phenotypes. Hum Mol Genet. 2000;9:2263-73 pubmed
    ..A hypothesis to explain the phenotypes associated with the three genotypes based on the NESP:/NESPAS: sense/antisense and GNASXL: transcripts in the GNAS: cluster is offered.
  29. WU J, Aarnisalo P, Bastepe M, Sinha P, Fulzele K, Selig M, et al. Gs? enhances commitment of mesenchymal progenitors to the osteoblast lineage but restrains osteoblast differentiation in mice. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:3492-504 pubmed publisher
  30. Yu S, Gavrilova O, Chen H, Lee R, Liu J, Pacak K, et al. Paternal versus maternal transmission of a stimulatory G-protein alpha subunit knockout produces opposite effects on energy metabolism. J Clin Invest. 2000;105:615-23 pubmed
    Heterozygous disruption of Gnas, the gene encoding the stimulatory G-protein alpha subunit (G(s)alpha), leads to distinct phenotypes depending on whether the maternal (m-/+) or paternal (+/p-) allele is disrupted...
  31. Peters J, Wroe S, Wells C, Miller H, Bodle D, Beechey C, et al. A cluster of oppositely imprinted transcripts at the Gnas locus in the distal imprinting region of mouse chromosome 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:3830-5 pubmed
    ..differences, to isolate candidate imprinted genes in distal Chr 2 and found two oppositely imprinted genes, Gnasxl and Nesp...
  32. Germain Lee E, Schwindinger W, Crane J, Zewdu R, Zweifel L, Wand G, et al. A mouse model of albright hereditary osteodystrophy generated by targeted disruption of exon 1 of the Gnas gene. Endocrinology. 2005;146:4697-709 pubmed caused by heterozygous inactivating mutations in GNAS, a gene that encodes not only the alpha-chain of Gs (Galphas), but also NESP55 and XLalphas through use of alternative first exons...
  33. Williamson C, Skinner J, Kelsey G, Peters J. Alternative non-coding splice variants of Nespas, an imprinted gene antisense to Nesp in the Gnas imprinting cluster. Mamm Genome. 2002;13:74-9 pubmed
    ..Three of these in the order Nesp--Gnasxl--Gnas are transcribed in the sense direction with Nesp having maternal-specific expression, Gnasxl having paternal ..
  34. Bastepe M, Gunes Y, Perez Villamil B, Hunzelman J, Weinstein L, Juppner H. Receptor-mediated adenylyl cyclase activation through XLalpha(s), the extra-large variant of the stimulatory G protein alpha-subunit. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:1912-9 pubmed
    XLalpha(s), the large variant of the stimulatory G protein alpha subunit (Gsalpha), is derived from GNAS1 through the use of an alternative first exon and promoter...
  35. Eaton S, Williamson C, Ball S, Beechey C, Moir L, Edwards J, et al. New mutations at the imprinted Gnas cluster show gene dosage effects of Gs? in postnatal growth and implicate XL?s in bone and fat metabolism but not in suckling. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:1017-29 pubmed publisher
    ..because suckling is unimpaired, unlike mutants in which the expression of all the known paternally expressed Gnasxl proteins (XL?s, XLN1 and ALEX) is compromised...
  36. Plagge A, Isles A, Gordon E, Humby T, Dean W, Gritsch S, et al. Imprinted Nesp55 influences behavioral reactivity to novel environments. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:3019-26 pubmed
    ..Of these, the Nesp transcript, expressed exclusively from the maternal allele, codes for neuroendocrine secretory protein 55 (Nesp55), a chromogranin-like polypeptide associated with the constitutive secretory pathway but ..
  37. Krechowec S, Burton K, Newlaczyl A, Nunn N, Vlatkovic N, Plagge A. Postnatal changes in the expression pattern of the imprinted signalling protein XL?s underlie the changing phenotype of deficient mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29753 pubmed publisher
    The alternatively spliced trimeric G-protein subunit XL?s, which is involved in cAMP signalling, is encoded by the Gnasxl transcript of the imprinted Gnas locus...
  38. Chotalia M, Smallwood S, Ruf N, Dawson C, Lucifero D, Frontera M, et al. Transcription is required for establishment of germline methylation marks at imprinted genes. Genes Dev. 2009;23:105-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that at the Gnas locus, truncating transcripts from the furthest upstream Nesp promoter disrupts oocyte-derived methylation of the ..
  39. Pilz A, Le Tissier P, Moseley H, Peters J, Abbott C. Mapping of the structural gene for S-adenosyl homocysteine hydrolase to mouse chromosome 2, and related sequences to chromosomes 8 and X. Mamm Genome. 1992;3:633-6 pubmed
    ..One, Ahcy-rs1, was mapped to Chr 8 in the BXH recombinant inbred strains, and the other, Ahcy-rs2, shows a pattern of inheritance consistent with X-linkage. ..
  40. Bourtchouladze R, Patterson S, Kelly M, Kreibich A, Kandel E, Abel T. Chronically increased Gsalpha signaling disrupts associative and spatial learning. Learn Mem. 2006;13:745-52 pubmed
    ..The learning deficits observed in these transgenic mice suggest that associative and spatial learning requires regulated Gsalpha protein signaling, much as does olfactory learning in Drosophila. ..
  41. Demaurex N, Nunes P. The role of STIM and ORAI proteins in phagocytic immune cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2016;310:C496-508 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review evidence from cell lines and mouse models linking STIM and ORAI proteins to the control of specific innate immune functions of neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells. ..
  42. Spring J, Goldberger O, Jenkins N, Gilbert D, Copeland N, Bernfield M. Mapping of the syndecan genes in the mouse: linkage with members of the myc gene family. Genomics. 1994;21:597-601 pubmed
    ..The physical relationship between the members of these two gene families appears to be ancient and conserved after the two genome duplications thought to have occurred during vertebrate evolution. ..
  43. Muroi Y, Ishii T. Umami taste receptor functions as an amino acid sensor via G?s subunit in N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells. J Cell Biochem. 2012;113:1654-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that Tas1r1 + 3 functions as an amino acid sensor and activates the intracellular signaling pathway through the G?s subunit in N1E-115 cells. ..
  44. Shin D, Lin S, Fu Y, Ptacek L. Very large G protein-coupled receptor 1 regulates myelin-associated glycoprotein via G?s/G?q-mediated protein kinases A/C. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:19101-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Further work is required to determine whether MAG dysregulation is a cause or consequence of audiogenic epilepsy and whether there are other pathways regulated by MASS1. ..
  45. Levine M, Modi W, O Brien S. Mapping of the gene encoding the alpha subunit of the stimulatory G protein of adenylyl cyclase (GNAS1) to 20q13.2----q13.3 in human by in situ hybridization. Genomics. 1991;11:478-9 pubmed
  46. Nemer G, Qureshi S, Malo D, Nemer M. Functional analysis and chromosomal mapping of Gata5, a gene encoding a zinc finger DNA-binding protein. Mamm Genome. 1999;10:993-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, Gata5 probably plays a specialized evolutionary conserved role in cardiac development. ..
  47. Feng H, Chen M, Weinstein L, Jin J. Removal of the N-terminal extension of cardiac troponin I as a functional compensation for impaired myocardial beta-adrenergic signaling. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:33384-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that the up-regulation of cTnI-ND may partially compensate for the cardiac inefficiency in impaired beta-adrenergic signaling. ..
  48. Pavan W, Liddell R, Wright A, Thibaudeau G, Matteson P, McHugh K, et al. A high-resolution linkage map of the lethal spotting locus: a mouse model for Hirschsprung disease. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:1-7 pubmed
    ..Three genes, endothelin-3 (Edn3), guanine nucleotide-binding protein alpha-stimulating polypeptide 1 (Gnas), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck1) were assessed as candidates for the ls mutation...
  49. Linglart A, Mahon M, Kerachian M, Berlach D, Hendy G, Juppner H, et al. Coding GNAS mutations leading to hormone resistance impair in vitro agonist- and cholera toxin-induced adenosine cyclic 3',5'-monophosphate formation mediated by human XLalphas. Endocrinology. 2006;147:2253-62 pubmed
    Most loss of function mutations of GNAS identified in different forms of pseudohypoparathyroidism disrupt not only the stimulatory G protein alpha-subunit (Gsalpha), but also its paternally expressed variant, XLalphas...
  50. Fukata M, Fukata Y, Adesnik H, Nicoll R, Bredt D. Identification of PSD-95 palmitoylating enzymes. Neuron. 2004;44:987-96 pubmed
    ..This study suggests that P-PATs regulate synaptic function through PSD-95 palmitoylation. ..
  51. Abbott C, Malas S, Pilz A, Pate L, Ali R, Peters J. Linkage mapping around the ragged (Ra) and wasted (wst) loci on distal mouse chromosome 2. Genomics. 1994;20:94-8 pubmed
    ..The results show that Ra maps very close to D2Mit74 and Acra-4, with no recombinants in 165 mice, whereas wst maps 3 cM distal to the most telomeric molecular marker on mouse chromosome 2, Acra-4. ..
  52. Rashid A, So C, Kong M, Furtak T, El Ghundi M, Cheng R, et al. D1-D2 dopamine receptor heterooligomers with unique pharmacology are coupled to rapid activation of Gq/11 in the striatum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:654-9 pubmed
  53. Mburu P, Kikkawa Y, Townsend S, Romero R, Yonekawa H, Brown S. Whirlin complexes with p55 at the stereocilia tip during hair cell development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:10973-8 pubmed
    ..p55 and protein 4.1R form complexes critical for actin cytoskeletal assembly in erythrocytes, and the interaction of whirlin with p55 indicates it plays a similar role in hair cell stereocilia. ..
  54. Semack A, Sandhu M, Malik R, Vaidehi N, Sivaramakrishnan S. Structural Elements in the G?s and G?q C Termini That Mediate Selective G Protein-coupled Receptor (GPCR) Signaling. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:17929-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our study highlights the synergy in molecular dynamics and FRET-based approaches to dissect the structural basis of selective G protein interactions. ..
  55. Huang X, Song X, Wang H, Malbon C. Targeted expression of activated Q227L G(alpha)(s) in vivo. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2002;283:C386-95 pubmed
  56. Durkin M, Loechel F, Mattei M, Gilpin B, Albrechtsen R, Wewer U. Tissue-specific expression of the human laminin alpha5-chain, and mapping of the gene to human chromosome 20q13.2-13.3 and to distal mouse chromosome 2 near the locus for the ragged (Ra) mutation. FEBS Lett. 1997;411:296-300 pubmed
    ..2-q13.3 by in situ hybridization, and the mouse gene (Lama5) was mapped by linkage analysis to a syntonic region of distal chromosome 2, close to the locus for the ragged (Ra) mutation. ..
  57. Rambhatla L, Patel B, Dhanasekaran N, Latham K. Analysis of G protein alpha subunit mRNA abundance in preimplantation mouse embryos using a rapid, quantitative RT-PCR approach. Mol Reprod Dev. 1995;41:314-24 pubmed
    ..One alpha subunit mRNA increased in abundance at the early blastocyst stage. The possible significance of these alterations in G protein mRNA abundance to embryonic development is discussed. ..
  58. Lassi G, Ball S, Maggi S, Colonna G, Nieus T, Cero C, et al. Loss of Gnas imprinting differentially affects REM/NREM sleep and cognition in mice. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002706 pubmed publisher we show that REM and NREM sleep states are differentially modulated by the maternally expressed imprinted gene Gnas. In particular, in mice with loss of imprinting of Gnas, NREM and complex cognitive processes are enhanced while ..
  59. Gaudin C, Ishikawa Y, Wight D, Mahdavi V, Nadal Ginard B, Wagner T, et al. Overexpression of Gs alpha protein in the hearts of transgenic mice. J Clin Invest. 1995;95:1676-83 pubmed
    ..To study the effect of altered expression of Gs alpha, we overexpressed the short isoform of Gs alpha in the hearts of transgenic mice, using a rat alpha-myosin heavy ..
  60. Williamson C, Schofield J, Dutton E, Seymour A, Beechey C, Edwards Y, et al. Glomerular-specific imprinting of the mouse gsalpha gene: how does this relate to hormone resistance in albright hereditary osteodystrophy?. Genomics. 1996;36:280-7 pubmed
    ..Its human homologue (GNAS1) appears, from clinical and biochemical studies of patients with Albright hereditary osteodystrophy, to be ..
  61. Rall T, Harris B. Identification of the lesion in the stimulatory GTP-binding protein of the uncoupled S49 lymphoma. FEBS Lett. 1987;224:365-71 pubmed
    ..A single nucleotide transversion was found that coded for a proline rather than an arginine at residue 389. The results indicate a domain of the alpha-subunit of Gs that specifically interacts with hormone receptors. ..
  62. Qin X, Liu S, Lu Q, Zhang M, Jiang X, Hu S, et al. Heterotrimeric G Stimulatory Protein α Subunit Is Required for Intestinal Smooth Muscle Contraction in Mice. Gastroenterology. 2017;152:1114-1125.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..G stimulatory protein (Gsa), encoded by the guanine nucleotide binding protein, α-stimulating gene (Gnas, in mice), is expressed ubiquitously and mediates receptor-stimulated production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate ..
  63. Nakashima A, Takeuchi H, Imai T, Saito H, Kiyonari H, Abe T, et al. Agonist-independent GPCR activity regulates anterior-posterior targeting of olfactory sensory neurons. Cell. 2013;154:1314-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the equilibrium of conformational transitions set by each OR is the major determinant of expression levels of A-P-targeting molecules. ..
  64. Ramaker J, Swanson T, Copenhaver P. Amyloid precursor proteins interact with the heterotrimeric G protein Go in the control of neuronal migration. J Neurosci. 2013;33:10165-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the model that APP and its orthologs regulate conserved aspects of neuronal migration and outgrowth in the nervous system by functioning as unconventional Go?-coupled receptors. ..
  65. Chen M, Haluzik M, Wolf N, Lorenzo J, Dietz K, Reitman M, et al. Increased insulin sensitivity in paternal Gnas knockout mice is associated with increased lipid clearance. Endocrinology. 2004;145:4094-102 pubmed
    The G protein alpha-subunit Gsalpha is required for hormone-stimulated cAMP generation. The Gsalpha gene Gnas is a complex gene with multiple imprinted gene products...
  66. Krechowec S, Plagge A. Physiological dysfunctions associated with mutations of the imprinted Gnas locus. Physiology (Bethesda). 2008;23:221-9 pubmed publisher
    The ubiquitous Galphas-subunit of the trimeric, stimulatory G-protein plays a central role in receptor-mediated signal transduction, coupling receptor activation with the production of cAMP...