Gene Symbol: Gnao1
Description: guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha O
Alias: AW050213, Galphao, Gnao, alphaO, guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(o) subunit alpha, GTP-binding protein alpha-o subunit, Go alpha
Species: mouse
Products:     Gnao1

Top Publications

  1. Chamero P, Marton T, Logan D, Flanagan K, Cruz J, Saghatelian A, et al. Identification of protein pheromones that promote aggressive behaviour. Nature. 2007;450:899-902 pubmed
    ..a sensory neuron subfamily characterized by the expression of the G-protein Galpha(o) subunit (also known as Gnao) and Vmn2r putative pheromone receptors (V2Rs)...
  2. Valenzuela D, Han X, Mende U, Fankhauser C, Mashimo H, Huang P, et al. G alpha(o) is necessary for muscarinic regulation of Ca2+ channels in mouse heart. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:1727-32 pubmed
    ..Other cardiac G alpha subunits cannot substitute. ..
  3. Winter S, Brunk I, Walther D, Höltje M, Jiang M, Peter J, et al. Galphao2 regulates vesicular glutamate transporter activity by changing its chloride dependence. J Neurosci. 2005;25:4672-80 pubmed
    ..Thus, Galpha(o2) acts on a putative regulatory chloride binding domain that appears to modulate transport activity of vesicular glutamate transporters. ..
  4. Strathmann M, Wilkie T, Simon M. Alternative splicing produces transcripts encoding two forms of the alpha subunit of GTP-binding protein Go. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:6477-81 pubmed
    ..cDNA clones encoding two forms of Go alpha subunit were isolated from a mouse brain library...
  5. Lamberts J, Smith C, Li M, Ingram S, Neubig R, Traynor J. Differential control of opioid antinociception to thermal stimuli in a knock-in mouse expressing regulator of G-protein signaling-insensitive G?o protein. J Neurosci. 2013;33:4369-77 pubmed publisher
  6. Chamero P, Katsoulidou V, Hendrix P, Bufe B, Roberts R, Matsunami H, et al. G protein G(alpha)o is essential for vomeronasal function and aggressive behavior in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:12898-903 pubmed publisher
    ..We have used gene targeting to examine the role of the G protein G?o, encoded by the gene Gnao1, in vomeronasal function...
  7. Goldenstein B, Nelson B, Xu K, Luger E, Pribula J, Wald J, et al. Regulator of G protein signaling protein suppression of Galphao protein-mediated alpha2A adrenergic receptor inhibition of mouse hippocampal CA3 epileptiform activity. Mol Pharmacol. 2009;75:1222-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests a possible role for RGS inhibitors or selective alpha(2A)AR agonists as a novel antiepileptic drug therapy. ..
  8. Elshatory Y, Deng M, Xie X, Gan L. Expression of the LIM-homeodomain protein Isl1 in the developing and mature mouse retina. J Comp Neurol. 2007;503:182-97 pubmed
    ..Taken together, Isl1 is expressed during the maturation of and is later maintained in retinal ganglion cells and subtypes of amacrine and bipolar cells where it may function in the maintenance of these cells into adulthood. ..
  9. Feng L, Xie X, Joshi P, Yang Z, Shibasaki K, Chow R, et al. Requirement for Bhlhb5 in the specification of amacrine and cone bipolar subtypes in mouse retina. Development. 2006;133:4815-25 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal that a bHLH transcription factor cascade is involved in regulating retinal cell differentiation and imply that Bhlhb5 functions downstream of retinogenic factors to specify bipolar and amacrine subtypes. ..

More Information


  1. Fu Y, Huang X, Zhong H, Mortensen R, D Alecy L, Neubig R. Endogenous RGS proteins and Galpha subtypes differentially control muscarinic and adenosine-mediated chronotropic effects. Circ Res. 2006;98:659-66 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, M2 and A1 receptors differentially use Galphai2 and Galphao and associated downstream effectors...
  2. Pennesi M, Cho J, Yang Z, Wu S, Zhang J, Wu S, et al. BETA2/NeuroD1 null mice: a new model for transcription factor-dependent photoreceptor degeneration. J Neurosci. 2003;23:453-61 pubmed
    ..Loss of BETA2/NeuroD1 results in an age-related degeneration of both rods and cones. ..
  3. Jiang M, Gold M, Boulay G, Spicher K, Peyton M, Brabet P, et al. Multiple neurological abnormalities in mice deficient in the G protein Go. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:3269-74 pubmed
    ..Mice with a disrupted alphao gene (alphao-/- mice) lived but had an average half-life of only about 7 weeks...
  4. Ang R, Abramowitz J, Birnbaumer L, Gourine A, Tinker A. The role of G?O-mediated signaling in the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata in cardiovascular reflexes and control of cardiac ventricular excitability. Physiol Rep. 2016;4: pubmed publisher
    ..G?O deficiency in the RVLM has a significant impact on cardiovascular responses to stress, cardiovascular reflexes and electrical properties of the heart. ..
  5. Dhingra A, Jiang M, Wang T, Lyubarsky A, Savchenko A, Bar Yehuda T, et al. Light response of retinal ON bipolar cells requires a specific splice variant of Galpha(o). J Neurosci. 2002;22:4878-84 pubmed
    ..Thus, the light response of the ON bipolar cell is probably carried by its strongly expressed splice variant, Galpha(o1). ..
  6. Jiang M, Spicher K, Boulay G, Martin Requero A, Dye C, Rudolph U, et al. Mouse gene knockout and knockin strategies in application to alpha subunits of Gi/Go family of G proteins. Methods Enzymol. 2002;344:277-98 pubmed
  7. Garcia Higuera I, Thomas T, Yi F, Neer E. Intersubunit surfaces in G protein alpha beta gamma heterotrimers. Analysis by cross-linking and mutagenesis of beta gamma. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:528-35 pubmed
    ..Our findings begin to define intersubunit surfaces, and they pose structural constraints upon any model of the beta gamma dimer. ..
  8. Simon K, Hennen S, Merten N, Blättermann S, Gillard M, Kostenis E, et al. The Orphan G Protein-coupled Receptor GPR17 Negatively Regulates Oligodendrocyte Differentiation via Gαi/o and Its Downstream Effector Molecules. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:705-18 pubmed publisher
    ..We envisage that treatments augmenting PKA and/or EPAC activity represent a beneficial approach for therapeutic enhancement of remyelination in those demyelinating diseases where GPR17 is highly expressed, such as multiple sclerosis. ..
  9. Greif G, Sodickson D, Bean B, Neer E, Mende U. Altered regulation of potassium and calcium channels by GABA(B) and adenosine receptors in hippocampal neurons from mice lacking Galpha(o). J Neurophysiol. 2000;83:1010-8 pubmed
    ..A likely possibility is that the very abundant Galpha(o) is normally used but, when absent, can readily be replaced by G proteins with different properties...
  10. Ju H, Lee S, Kang S, Kim S, Ghil S. The alpha subunit of Go modulates cell proliferation and differentiation through interactions with Necdin. Cell Commun Signal. 2014;12:39 pubmed publisher
    ..These results collectively suggest that Necdin is a candidate downstream effector for G?o. Our findings provide novel insights into the cellular roles of G?o and its coupled receptor. ..
  11. Brunk I, Blex C, Sanchis Segura C, Sternberg J, Perreau Lenz S, Bilbao A, et al. Deletion of Go2alpha abolishes cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization by disturbing the striatal dopamine system. FASEB J. 2008;22:3736-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Go2alpha optimizes vesicular filling which is instrumental for normal dopamine functioning and for the development of drug-induced behavioral sensitization. ..
  12. Dhingra A, Lyubarsky A, Jiang M, Pugh E, Birnbaumer L, Sterling P, et al. The light response of ON bipolar neurons requires G[alpha]o. J Neurosci. 2000;20:9053-8 pubmed
    ..This represents the first function to be defined in vivo for the alpha subunit of the most abundant G-protein of the brain. ..
  13. Strathmann M, Wilkie T, Simon M. Diversity of the G-protein family: sequences from five additional alpha subunits in the mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:7407-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, we found sequences corresponding to five newly discovered alpha subunits. Our results suggest that the complexity of the G protein family is much greater than previously suspected. ..
  14. Kehrl J, Sahaya K, Dalton H, Charbeneau R, Kohut K, Gilbert K, et al. Gain-of-function mutation in Gnao1: a murine model of epileptiform encephalopathy (EIEE17)?. Mamm Genome. 2014;25:202-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, four patients with epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE17) were found to have mutations in GNAO1, the most abundant G protein in brain, but the mechanism of this effect is not known...
  15. Baron J, Blex C, Rohrbeck A, Rachakonda S, Birnbaumer L, Ahnert Hilger G, et al. The α-subunit of the trimeric GTPase Go2 regulates axonal growth. J Neurochem. 2013;124:782-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we provide evidence that Go2α regulates axonal outgrowth and branching. ..
  16. Stein B, Alonso M, Zufall F, Leinders Zufall T, Chamero P. Functional Overexpression of Vomeronasal Receptors Using a Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1)-Derived Amplicon. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0156092 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional expression of vomeronasal receptors and their deorphanization provides an essential requirement for deciphering the neural mechanisms controlling behavior. ..
  17. Young A, Powelson E, Whitney I, Raven M, Nusinowitz S, Jiang M, et al. Involvement of OA1, an intracellular GPCR, and G alpha i3, its binding protein, in melanosomal biogenesis and optic pathway formation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:3245-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was undertaken to test whether one of the G alpha i proteins, G alpha i3, signals in the same pathway as OA1 to regulate melanosome biogenesis and axonal growth through the optic chiasm...
  18. Adams M, Dwyer T, Dowler L, White R, Froehner S. Mouse alpha 1- and beta 2-syntrophin gene structure, chromosome localization, and homology with a discs large domain. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:25859-65 pubmed
    ..The first pleckstrin homology domain is interrupted by a domain homologous to repeated sequences originally found in the Drosophila discs-large protein. ..
  19. Prince J, Cho J, Dumontier E, Andrews W, Cutforth T, Tessier Lavigne M, et al. Robo-2 controls the segregation of a portion of basal vomeronasal sensory neuron axons to the posterior region of the accessory olfactory bulb. J Neurosci. 2009;29:14211-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results identify Robo-2 as a receptor that controls the targeting of basal VSN axons to the posterior AOB. ..
  20. Lacomme M, Tarchini B, Boudreau Pinsonneault C, Monat C, Cayouette M. The LGN protein promotes planar proliferative divisions in the neocortex but apicobasal asymmetric terminal divisions in the retina. Development. 2016;143:575-81 pubmed publisher
  21. Slep K, Kercher M, Wieland T, Chen C, Simon M, Sigler P. Molecular architecture of Galphao and the structural basis for RGS16-mediated deactivation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6243-8 pubmed publisher
  22. Wang Y, Park S, Bajpayee N, Nagaoka Y, Boulay G, Birnbaumer L, et al. Augmented glucose-induced insulin release in mice lacking G(o2), but not G(o1) or G(i) proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:1693-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus provide unique genetic evidence that the G(o2) protein is a transducer in an inhibitory pathway that prevents damaging oversecretion of insulin. ..
  23. Kim B, Ghil S, Kim M, Yun Park S, Kim D, Hwan Kim S, et al. Modulation of the N-type calcium channel gene expression by the alpha subunit of Go. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003;112:95-102 pubmed
    ..2 in the brain. These results suggest that Go may regulate neuronal differentiation through modulation of gene expression of target genes such as N-type calcium channels. ..
  24. Matsuoka R, Chivatakarn O, Badea T, SAMUELS I, Cahill H, Katayama K, et al. Class 5 transmembrane semaphorins control selective Mammalian retinal lamination and function. Neuron. 2011;71:460-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings define a set of ligands and receptors required for the establishment of inner retinal lamination and function. ..
  25. Jiang M, Spicher K, Boulay G, Wang Y, Birnbaumer L. Most central nervous system D2 dopamine receptors are coupled to their effectors by Go. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:3577-82 pubmed
    ..In agreement with this, the effect of GTP on dopamine binding to D2 receptors in double Gi1 plus Gi2- and Gi1 plus Gi3-deficient mice was essentially unaffected. ..
  26. Hörnberg M, Gussing F, Berghard A, Bohm S. Retinoic acid selectively inhibits death of basal vomeronasal neurons during late stage of neural circuit formation. J Neurochem. 2009;110:1263-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the results indicate a novel connection between pre-synaptic RA receptor signaling and neural activity-dependent events that together regulate neuronal survival and maintenance of synaptic contacts. ..
  27. Masuho I, Mototani Y, Sahara Y, Asami J, Nakamura S, Kozasa T, et al. Dynamic expression patterns of G protein-regulated inducer of neurite outgrowth 1 (GRIN1) and its colocalization with Galphao implicate significant roles of Galphao-GRIN1 signaling in nervous system. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:2415-29 pubmed publisher
    GRIN1 (Gprin 1) is a signaling molecule coexpression of which with constitutively active form of Galphao can stimulate neurite extensions in Neuro2a cells, yet its in vivo roles remain elusive...
  28. Takatoh J, Kudoh H, Kondo S, Hanaoka K. Loss of short dystrophin isoform Dp71 in olfactory ensheathing cells causes vomeronasal nerve defasciculation in mouse olfactory system. Exp Neurol. 2008;213:36-47 pubmed publisher
  29. Tanaka M, Treloar H, Kalb R, Greer C, Strittmatter S. G(o) protein-dependent survival of primary accessory olfactory neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:14106-11 pubmed
    ..Thus, in the accessory olfactory system, receptor-coupled G proteins are required for cell survival. ..
  30. Knoll B, Zarbalis K, Wurst W, Drescher U. A role for the EphA family in the topographic targeting of vomeronasal axons. Development. 2001;128:895-906 pubmed
    ..In summary, these data, which are derived from in vitro and in vivo experiments, indicate an important role of the EphA family in setting up the vomeronasal projection. ..
  31. Sulaiman P, Xu Y, Fina M, Tummala S, Ramakrishnan H, Dhingra A, et al. Kir2.4 surface expression and basal current are affected by heterotrimeric G-proteins. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:7420-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we show that in retinal ON bipolar cells lacking G?3, localization of Kir2.4 in the dendritic tips is reduced. We conclude that G?? targets Kir2.4 to the plasma membrane, and G?o slows this down by binding G??. ..
  32. Sleckman B, Khan W, Xu W, Bassing C, Malynn B, Copeland N, et al. Cloning and functional characterization of the early-lymphocyte-specific Pb99 gene. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:4405-10 pubmed
    ..To directly address the role of the Pb99 protein in lymphoid development, Pb99-deficient mice were generated by gene targeting, and lymphocyte development in these mice was analyzed. ..
  33. Balasubramanian R, Bui A, Ding Q, Gan L. Expression of LIM-homeodomain transcription factors in the developing and mature mouse retina. Gene Expr Patterns. 2014;14:1-8 pubmed publisher
  34. Traver S, Bidot C, Spassky N, Baltauss T, de Tand M, Thomas J, et al. RGS14 is a novel Rap effector that preferentially regulates the GTPase activity of galphao. Biochem J. 2000;350 Pt 1:19-29 pubmed
  35. Oboti L, Pérez Gómez A, Keller M, Jacobi E, Birnbaumer L, Leinders Zufall T, et al. A wide range of pheromone-stimulated sexual and reproductive behaviors in female mice depend on G protein G?o. BMC Biol. 2014;12:31 pubmed publisher
  36. Pan M, Xiong J, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Goeddel D. Sequence, genomic organization, and chromosome localization of the mouse TRADD gene. J Inflamm. 1995;46:168-75 pubmed
    ..The mTRADD gene contains four exons, with the fourth exon encoding all of the death domain. The mouse TRADD gene was localized to the distal region of chromosome 8. ..
  37. Rossi D, Hardiman G, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Zlotnik A, et al. Cloning and characterization of a new type of mouse chemokine. Genomics. 1998;47:163-70 pubmed
    ..The novel location of this gene from other chemokine gene clusters adds to the notion that CX3C is a fundamentally new class of chemokine. ..
  38. Fu Y, Zhong H, Nanamori M, Mortensen R, Huang X, Lan K, et al. RGS-insensitive G-protein mutations to study the role of endogenous RGS proteins. Methods Enzymol. 2004;389:229-43 pubmed
    ..This will reveal the full extent of RGS regulation and will not be confounded by redundancy in the function of multiple RGS proteins. ..
  39. Fleischer J, Schwarzenbacher K, Besser S, Hass N, Breer H. Olfactory receptors and signalling elements in the Grueneberg ganglion. J Neurochem. 2006;98:543-54 pubmed
    ..Moreover, expression of a vomeronasal receptor indicates that the GG might serve to detect pheromones. ..
  40. Ito T, Udaka N, Yazawa T, Okudela K, Hayashi H, Sudo T, et al. Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors regulate the neuroendocrine differentiation of fetal mouse pulmonary epithelium. Development. 2000;127:3913-21 pubmed
    ..Thus, the neuroendocrine differentiation depends on basic helix-loop-helix factors, and Notch/Notch-ligand pathways may be involved in determining the cell differentiation fate in fetal airway epithelium. ..
  41. Schuller U, Lamp E, Schilling K. Developmental expression of heterotrimeric G-proteins in the murine cerebellar cortex. Histochem Cell Biol. 2001;116:149-59 pubmed
    ..The mRNAs encoding subunits Galphaq, Galphao, Galphai-2, and Galphaz are expressed in the cerebellar anlage at least from embryonic day 14 onward, and ..
  42. Jones D, Reed R. Molecular cloning of five GTP-binding protein cDNA species from rat olfactory neuroepithelium. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:14241-9 pubmed
    ..In olfactory tissue, G alpha s was the most abundant of these messages and in combination with the biochemical studies suggests that G alpha s is the G-protein component of the olfactory signal transduction cascade. ..
  43. Garcia Marcos M, Ghosh P, Farquhar M. Molecular basis of a novel oncogenic mutation in GNAO1. Oncogene. 2011;30:2691-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently the first somatic mutation, arginine(243) ? histidine (R243H) in the GNAO1 (G?o) gene was identified in breast carcinomas and shown to promote oncogenic transformation when introduced into ..
  44. Bramblett D, Pennesi M, Wu S, Tsai M. The transcription factor Bhlhb4 is required for rod bipolar cell maturation. Neuron. 2004;43:779-93 pubmed
    ..Other retinal cell populations including photoreceptors were unaltered. The timing of RB cell depletion in the Bhlhb4(-/-) mouse suggests that Bhlhb4 is essential for RB cell maturation. ..
  45. Feng L, Xie Z, Ding Q, Xie X, Libby R, Gan L. MATH5 controls the acquisition of multiple retinal cell fates. Mol Brain. 2010;3:36 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that Math5 regulates the generation of multiple retinal cell types via different mechanisms during retinogenesis. ..
  46. Zhao A, Ohara Imaizumi M, Brissova M, Benninger R, Xu Y, Hao Y, et al. G?o represses insulin secretion by reducing vesicular docking in pancreatic beta-cells. Diabetes. 2010;59:2522-9 pubmed publisher
    ..G?o is not required for endocrine islet cell differentiation, but it regulates the number of insulin vesicles docked on the ?-cell membrane. ..
  47. Makris G, Samuelson L, Lomax M. The gene encoding subunit IV of cytochrome c oxidase maps to mouse chromosome 8. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:789-90 pubmed
  48. Choi C, Yoon S, Choi J, Kim S, Lee Y, Birnbaumer L, et al. Simultaneous deletion of floxed genes mediated by CaMKII?-Cre in the brain and in male germ cells: application to conditional and conventional disruption of Go?. Exp Mol Med. 2014;46:e93 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, when double transgenic Gnao(+/f)::CaMKII?-Cre(+/Cre) mice carrying a floxed Go-alpha gene (Gnao(f/f)) were backcrossed to wild-type females, ..
  49. Luo Y, Denker B. Interaction of heterotrimeric G protein Galphao with Purkinje cell protein-2. Evidence for a novel nucleotide exchange factor. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:10685-8 pubmed
    The heterotrimeric G protein Galphao is ubiquitously expressed throughout the central nervous system, but many of its functions remain to be defined...
  50. DIEHL S, McElvany B, Noubade R, Seeberger N, Harding B, Spach K, et al. G proteins G?i1/3 are critical targets for Bordetella pertussis toxin-induced vasoactive amine sensitization. Infect Immun. 2014;82:773-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, by using mice deficient in individual G?i/o G-protein subunits, we demonstrate that G?i1 and G?i3 are the critical in vivo targets of ADP-ribosylation underlying VAAS elicited by PTX exposure. ..
  51. Tummala S, Neinstein A, Fina M, Dhingra A, Vardi N. Localization of Cacna1s to ON bipolar dendritic tips requires mGluR6-related cascade elements. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;55:1483-92 pubmed publisher
    ..This staining severely decreased in mice missing various mGluR6 cascade elements (Grm6(-/-), Gnao1(-/-), Gnb3(-/-), Gng13(-/-), and Trpm1(-/-))...
  52. Prince J, Brignall A, Cutforth T, Shen K, Cloutier J. Kirrel3 is required for the coalescence of vomeronasal sensory neuron axons into glomeruli and for male-male aggression. Development. 2013;140:2398-408 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results indicate that differential expression of Kirrels on vomeronasal axons generates a molecular code that dictates their proper coalescence into glomeruli within the AOB. ..
  53. Chen L, Gilman A, Kozasa T. A candidate target for G protein action in brain. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:26931-8 pubmed
    ..Coexpression of GRIN1 or GRIN2 with activated G(o)alpha causes formation of a network of fine processes in Neuro2a cells, suggesting that these pathways may function downstream of G(o)alpha to control growth of neurites. ..
  54. Fletcher C, Jenkins N, Copeland N, Chaudhry A, Gronostajski R. Exon structure of the nuclear factor I DNA-binding domain from C. elegans to mammals. Mamm Genome. 1999;10:390-6 pubmed
    ..elegans-like ancestral gene, but that significant changes have occurred in the genomic organization of either the C. elegans or murine NFI genes during evolution. ..
  55. Li Y, Mortensen R, Neer E. Regulation of alpha o expression by the 5'-flanking region of the alpha o gene. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:27589-94 pubmed
    ..Transcriptional regulation probably is important for control of tissue-specific expression, while posttranscriptional mechanisms may be used to regulate the alpha o level in cells. ..
  56. Brunk I, Blex C, Speidel D, Brose N, Ahnert Hilger G. Ca2+-dependent activator proteins of secretion promote vesicular monoamine uptake. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:1050-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that CAPS proteins are involved in optimizing vesicular monoamine uptake and storage mediated by VMAT1 and VMAT2. ..
  57. Mu X, Fu X, Beremand P, Thomas T, Klein W. Gene regulation logic in retinal ganglion cell development: Isl1 defines a critical branch distinct from but overlapping with Pou4f2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6942-7 pubmed publisher
    ..They also reveal that identical RGC expression patterns are achieved by different combinations of divergent inputs from upstream transcription factors. ..
  58. Rambhatla L, Patel B, Dhanasekaran N, Latham K. Analysis of G protein alpha subunit mRNA abundance in preimplantation mouse embryos using a rapid, quantitative RT-PCR approach. Mol Reprod Dev. 1995;41:314-24 pubmed
    ..One alpha subunit mRNA increased in abundance at the early blastocyst stage. The possible significance of these alterations in G protein mRNA abundance to embryonic development is discussed. ..
  59. Duan S, Christe M, Milstone D, Mortensen R. Go but not Gi2 or Gi3 is required for muscarinic regulation of heart rate and heart rate variability in mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;357:139-43 pubmed
    ..These differences in heart rate and HRV were not observed in alpha(i2)-null or alpha(i3)-null mice. Our findings establish an essential role for alpha(o) G protein in the anti-adrenergic effect of carbachol on heart rate regulation. ..
  60. Hayashi M, Ishibashi T, Tanaka K, Kasahara M. The mouse genes encoding the third pair of beta-type proteasome subunits regulated reciprocally by IFN-gamma: structural comparison, chromosomal localization, and analysis of the promoter. J Immunol. 1997;159:2760-70 pubmed
    ..Besides the Psmb7 gene previously mapped to chromosome 2, a truncated processed pseudogene, designated Psmb7-ps, was identified and mapped to chromosome X. ..
  61. Nakata H, Kozasa T. Functional characterization of Galphao signaling through G protein-regulated inducer of neurite outgrowth 1. Mol Pharmacol. 2005;67:695-702 pubmed
    ..GRIN1 colocalizes with Galphao at the growth cone of neuronal cells and promotes neurite extension in Neuro2a cells when coexpressed with ..
  62. Liu M, Parker R, Darby K, Eyre H, Copeland N, Crawford J, et al. GPR56, a novel secretin-like human G-protein-coupled receptor gene. Genomics. 1999;55:296-305 pubmed
    ..Fluorescence in situ hybridization, PCR analysis of somatic cell hybrids, and interspecific mouse backcross mapping have localized the genes to human chromosome 16q13 and mouse chromosome 8. ..
  63. Luo A, Cannon E, Wekesa K, Lyman R, Vandenbergh J, Anholt R. Impaired olfactory behavior in mice deficient in the alpha subunit of G(o). Brain Res. 2002;941:62-71 pubmed
    ..Thus, Galpha(o) is necessary for the expression of olfactory behavior under normal conditions and dependent on genetic background, but is not essential for the formation and maintenance of glomeruli. ..
  64. Liapis E, Sandiford S, Wang Q, Gaidosh G, Motti D, Levay K, et al. Subcellular localization of regulator of G protein signaling RGS7 complex in neurons and transfected cells. J Neurochem. 2012;122:568-81 pubmed publisher
    ..RGS7 also localized in centrosomes. Structure-function analysis showed that the punctate localization was mediated by the DEP/DHEX domains, and centrosomal localization was dependent on the DHEX domain. ..
  65. Schneider N, Fletcher T, Shaw G, Renfree M. Go? expression in the vomeronasal organ and olfactory bulb of the tammar wallaby. Chem Senses. 2012;37:567-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed Go? staining pattern suggests that the tammar may have a third accessory olfactory type that could be intermediate to the segregated and uniform types already described. ..
  66. Ramaker J, Swanson T, Copenhaver P. Amyloid precursor proteins interact with the heterotrimeric G protein Go in the control of neuronal migration. J Neurosci. 2013;33:10165-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the model that APP and its orthologs regulate conserved aspects of neuronal migration and outgrowth in the nervous system by functioning as unconventional Go?-coupled receptors. ..
  67. Ezan J, Lasvaux L, Gezer A, Novakovic A, May Simera H, Belotti E, et al. Primary cilium migration depends on G-protein signalling control of subapical cytoskeleton. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:1107-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus G-protein-dependent signalling controls the migration of the cilium cell autonomously, whereas core PCP signalling controls long-range tissue PCP. ..
  68. Büch T, Heling D, Damm E, Gudermann T, Breit A. Pertussis toxin-sensitive signaling of melanocortin-4 receptors in hypothalamic GT1-7 cells defines agouti-related protein as a biased agonist. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:26411-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the agouti-related protein antagonizes melanocortin-dependent G(s) activation not only by competitive antagonism but additionally by initiating G(i/o) protein-induced signaling as a biased agonist. ..
  69. Bikkavilli R, Feigin M, Malbon C. G alpha o mediates WNT-JNK signaling through dishevelled 1 and 3, RhoA family members, and MEKK 1 and 4 in mammalian cells. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:234-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal both common and unique signaling elements in WNT3a-sensitive pathways, highlighting crosstalk from WNT3a-JNK to WNT3a-beta-catenin signaling. ..