Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Gnai2
Description: guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting 2
Alias: C76432, Galphai2, Gia, Gnai-2, guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha-2, adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G alpha protein, guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha inhibiting 2
- Gohla A, Klement K, Piekorz R, Pexa K, vom Dahl S, Spicher K, et al. An obligatory requirement for the heterotrimeric G protein Gi3 in the antiautophagic action of insulin in the liver. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3003-8 pubmed..These data indicate that Galpha(i3) is crucial for the antiautophagic action of insulin and suggest an as-yet-unrecognized function for Galpha(i3) on autophagosomal membranes. ..
- Ohman L, Franzen L, Rudolph U, Birnbaumer L, Hörnquist E. Regression of Peyer's patches in G alpha i2 deficient mice prior to colitis is associated with reduced expression of Bcl-2 and increased apoptosis. Gut. 2002;51:392-7 pubmed..We speculate that this Th1 dominated microenvironment in the inductive site for mucosal immune responses contributes to the development of colitis in G alpha i2 deficient mice. ..
- Yang J, Wu J, Jiang H, Mortensen R, Austin S, Manning D, et al. Signaling through Gi family members in platelets. Redundancy and specificity in the regulation of adenylyl cyclase and other effectors. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:46035-42 pubmed..Finally, the failure of ADP and epinephrine to inhibit basal, as opposed to PGI(2)-stimulated, cAMP formation highlights the need during platelet activation for G(i) signaling pathways that involve effectors other than adenylyl cyclase. ..
- Jin Y, Wu M. Requirement of Galphai in thymic homing and early T cell development. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:3401-10 pubmed publisher..Absence of either Galphai2 or Galphai3 significantly abrogated thymic homing, with an effect of Galphai3 being greater than that of Galphai2...
- Park C, Hwang I, Sinha R, Kamenyeva O, Davis M, Kehrl J. Lymph node B lymphocyte trafficking is constrained by anatomy and highly dependent upon chemoattractant desensitization. Blood. 2012;119:978-89 pubmed publisher..These results are summarized in a model of homeostatic trafficking of B cells through LNs. ..
- Talbot J, Jutkiewicz E, Graves S, Clemans C, Nicol M, Mortensen R, et al. RGS inhibition at G(alpha)i2 selectively potentiates 5-HT1A-mediated antidepressant effects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11086-91 pubmed publisher..By selectively enhancing the beneficial effects of serotonin, inhibition of RGS proteins represents a therapeutic approach for the treatment of mood disorders. ..
- Huang X, Charbeneau R, Fu Y, Kaur K, Gerin I, MacDougald O, et al. Resistance to diet-induced obesity and improved insulin sensitivity in mice with a regulator of G protein signaling-insensitive G184S Gnai2 allele. Diabetes. 2008;57:77-85 pubmed..Identification of the specific RGS proteins involved might permit their consideration as potential therapeutic targets for obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. ..
- Sullivan K, Liao Y, Alborzi A, Beiderman B, Chang F, Masters S, et al. Inhibitory and stimulatory G proteins of adenylate cyclase: cDNA and amino acid sequences of the alpha chains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:6687-91 pubmed..Further comparison of the alpha-chain sequences suggests additional regions that may contribute to interactions with beta gamma subunits and the receptor and effector components of different signal transduction systems. ..
- Waterson R, Thompson C, Mabe N, Kaur K, Talbot J, Neubig R, et al. G?(i2)-mediated protection from ischaemic injury is modulated by endogenous RGS proteins in the mouse heart. Cardiovasc Res. 2011;91:45-52 pubmed publisher..This is the first study to demonstrate that G?(i2)-mediated cardioprotection is suppressed by RGS proteins. These data suggest that RGS proteins may provide novel therapeutic targets to protect the heart from ischaemic injury. ..
- Fu Y, Huang X, Zhong H, Mortensen R, D Alecy L, Neubig R. Endogenous RGS proteins and Galpha subtypes differentially control muscarinic and adenosine-mediated chronotropic effects. Circ Res. 2006;98:659-66 pubmed..Furthermore, M2 and A1 receptors differentially use Galphai2 and Galphao and associated downstream effectors...
- Hwang I, Park C, Kehrl J. Impaired trafficking of Gnai2+/- and Gnai2-/- T lymphocytes: implications for T cell movement within lymph nodes. J Immunol. 2007;179:439-48 pubmed..For the imaging studies, we used CD4 T cells prepared from Gnai2(-/-) mice, which lack G(alphai2) expression...
- Plummer N, Spicher K, Malphurs J, Akiyama H, Abramowitz J, Nurnberg B, et al. Development of the mammalian axial skeleton requires signaling through the G?(i) subfamily of heterotrimeric G proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:21366-71 pubmed publisher..Mice with mutations of Gnai1 or Gnai2 have neither defect, but loss of both Gnai3 and one of the other two genes increases the number and severity of ..
- Dalwadi H, Wei B, Schrage M, Spicher K, Su T, Birnbaumer L, et al. B cell developmental requirement for the G alpha i2 gene. J Immunol. 2003;170:1707-15 pubmedNull mutation of the Galphai2 trimeric G protein results in a discrete and profound mucosal disorder, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), attenuation of IL-10 expression, and immune function polarized to Th1 activity...
- DeGeorge B, Gao E, Boucher M, Vinge L, Martini J, Raake P, et al. Targeted inhibition of cardiomyocyte Gi signaling enhances susceptibility to apoptotic cell death in response to ischemic stress. Circulation. 2008;117:1378-87 pubmed publisher..Our results with GiCT indicate that upregulation of G alpha(i2) is an adaptive protective response after ischemia to shield myocytes from apoptosis. ..
- Skokowa J, Ali S, Felda O, Kumar V, Konrad S, Shushakova N, et al. Macrophages induce the inflammatory response in the pulmonary Arthus reaction through G alpha i2 activation that controls C5aR and Fc receptor cooperation. J Immunol. 2005;174:3041-50 pubmed
- Han S, Moratz C, Huang N, Kelsall B, Cho H, Shi C, et al. Rgs1 and Gnai2 regulate the entrance of B lymphocytes into lymph nodes and B cell motility within lymph node follicles. Immunity. 2005;22:343-54 pubmed..In contrast, B cells from Gnai2-/- mice enter lymph nodes poorly and move more slowly than do wild-type B cells...
- Chen F, Spicher K, Jiang M, Birnbaumer L, Wetzel G. Lack of muscarinic regulation of Ca(2+) channels in G(i2)alpha gene knockout mouse hearts. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;280:H1989-95 pubmed..Further studies are needed to delineate the possible interaction of G(i) and other cell signaling proteins and to clarify the level of interaction of G protein-coupled regulation of L-type Ca(2+) current in the heart...
- He J, Gurunathan S, Iwasaki A, Ash Shaheed B, Kelsall B. Primary role for Gi protein signaling in the regulation of interleukin 12 production and the induction of T helper cell type 1 responses. J Exp Med. 2000;191:1605-10 pubmed..Further, healing was prevented by coadministration of anti-IL-12 and PT. These data demonstrate that endogenous Gi protein signaling has a primary role in the regulation of IL-12 production and the induction of Th1 responses in vivo. ..
- Pero R, Borchers M, Spicher K, Ochkur S, Sikora L, Rao S, et al. Galphai2-mediated signaling events in the endothelium are involved in controlling leukocyte extravasation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:4371-6 pubmed..Collectively, these data suggest that specific Galpha(i2)-mediated signaling between endothelial cells and leukocytes is required for the extravasation of leukocytes and for tissue-specific accumulation. ..
- Hwang I, Park C, Harrision K, Huang N, Kehrl J. Variations in Gnai2 and Rgs1 expression affect chemokine receptor signaling and the organization of secondary lymphoid organs. Genes Immun. 2010;11:384-96 pubmed publisher..Examination of B cells from mice with varying numbers of intact alleles of Ccr7, Rgs1, Gnai2, and Gnai3 provided the basis for these results...
- Elgbratt K, Bjursten M, Willen R, Bland P, Hörnquist E. Aberrant T-cell ontogeny and defective thymocyte and colonic T-cell chemotactic migration in colitis-prone Galphai2-deficient mice. Immunology. 2007;122:199-209 pubmedb>Galphai2-deficient mice, which spontaneously develop colitis, have previously been reported to have an increased frequency of mature, single positive thymocytes compared to wild-type mice...
- Dizayee S, Kaestner S, Kuck F, Hein P, Klein C, Piekorz R, et al. G?i2- and G?i3-specific regulation of voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels in cardiomyocytes. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24979 pubmed publisher..In particular, loss of G?(i2) is reflected by alterations in channel kinetics and likely involves an impairment of the ERK1/2 signalling pathway. ..
- Strathmann M, Wilkie T, Simon M. Diversity of the G-protein family: sequences from five additional alpha subunits in the mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:7407-9 pubmed..In addition, we found sequences corresponding to five newly discovered alpha subunits. Our results suggest that the complexity of the G protein family is much greater than previously suspected. ..
- Jiang M, Spicher K, Boulay G, Wang Y, Birnbaumer L. Most central nervous system D2 dopamine receptors are coupled to their effectors by Go. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:3577-82 pubmed..In agreement with this, the effect of GTP on dopamine binding to D2 receptors in double Gi1 plus Gi2- and Gi1 plus Gi3-deficient mice was essentially unaffected. ..
- Nagata K, Ye C, Jain M, Milstone D, Liao R, Mortensen R. Galpha(i2) but not Galpha(i3) is required for muscarinic inhibition of contractility and calcium currents in adult cardiomyocytes. Circ Res. 2000;87:903-9 pubmed..This study demonstrates that Galpha(i2), but not Galpha(i3), is required for muscarinic inhibition of the beta-adrenergic response in adult murine ventricular myocytes. ..
- Foerster K, Groner F, Matthes J, Koch W, Birnbaumer L, Herzig S. Cardioprotection specific for the G protein Gi2 in chronic adrenergic signaling through beta 2-adrenoceptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:14475-80 pubmed..This result indicates that subtype-specific signaling of beta 2-adrenoreceptor functionally bifurcates at the level of Gi, leading to different effects depending on the G alpha isoform. ..
- Zhang Y, Finegold M, Jin Y, Wu M. Accelerated transition from the double-positive to single-positive thymocytes in G alpha i2-deficient mice. Int Immunol. 2005;17:233-43 pubmed..These findings reveal a previously unappreciated role for G alpha i2 protein in clonal selection and functionality of thymocytes. ..
- Ustyugova I, Zhi L, Abramowitz J, Birnbaumer L, Wu M. IEX-1 deficiency protects against colonic cancer. Mol Cancer Res. 2012;10:760-7 pubmed publisher..These observations provide a linkage of IEX-1 and G?i2 expression in the regulation of T(H)17 cell differentiation and suggest a previously unappreciated role for IEX-1 in the control of colon epithelial homeostasis. ..
- Fu Y, Huang X, Piao L, Lopatin A, Neubig R. Endogenous RGS proteins modulate SA and AV nodal functions in isolated heart: implications for sick sinus syndrome and AV block. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;292:H2532-9 pubmed..The severe carbachol-induced sinus bradycardia in Galpha(i2)G184S mice suggests a possible role for alterations of Galpha(i2) or RGS proteins in sick sinus syndrome and pathological AV block. ..
- Huang X, Fu Y, Charbeneau R, Saunders T, Taylor D, Hankenson K, et al. Pleiotropic phenotype of a genomic knock-in of an RGS-insensitive G184S Gnai2 allele. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:6870-9 pubmed..of RGS regulation at the Galpha(i2) subunit, we prepared a genomic knock-in of the RGS-insensitive G184S Gnai2 allele...
- Fleischer J, Schwarzenbacher K, Besser S, Hass N, Breer H. Olfactory receptors and signalling elements in the Grueneberg ganglion. J Neurochem. 2006;98:543-54 pubmed..Moreover, expression of a vomeronasal receptor indicates that the GG might serve to detect pheromones. ..
- Boularan C, Hwang I, Kamenyeva O, Park C, Harrison K, Huang Z, et al. B Lymphocyte-Specific Loss of Ric-8A Results in a GÎ± Protein Deficit and Severe Humoral Immunodeficiency. J Immunol. 2015;195:2090-102 pubmed publisher..In B lymphocytes, Ric-8A is essential for normal GÎ± protein levels and is required for B cell differentiation, trafficking, and Ab responses. ..
- Berghard A, Hägglund A, Bohm S, Carlsson L. Lhx2-dependent specification of olfactory sensory neurons is required for successful integration of olfactory, vomeronasal, and GnRH neurons. FASEB J. 2012;26:3464-72 pubmed publisher..As adults, the conditional mutants do not pass puberty, and these findings support the view of an exclusive nasal origin of GnRH neurons in the mouse. Thus, Lhx2 in OSNs is required for functional development of three separate systems. ..
- Schuller U, Lamp E, Schilling K. Developmental expression of heterotrimeric G-proteins in the murine cerebellar cortex. Histochem Cell Biol. 2001;116:149-59 pubmed
- Li P, Neubig R, Zingarelli B, Borg K, Halushka P, Cook J, et al. Toll-like receptor-induced inflammatory cytokines are suppressed by gain of function or overexpression of G?(i2) protein. Inflammation. 2012;35:1611-7 pubmed publisher..Novel transgenic mice with genomic "knock-in" of a regulator of G protein signaling (RGS)-insensitive Gnai2 allele (G?(i2)(G184S/G184S) ; GS/GS) were employed...
- Dezaki K, Kakei M, Yada T. Ghrelin uses Galphai2 and activates voltage-dependent K+ channels to attenuate glucose-induced Ca2+ signaling and insulin release in islet beta-cells: novel signal transduction of ghrelin. Diabetes. 2007;56:2319-27 pubmed
- Wiege K, Le D, Syed S, Ali S, Novakovic A, Beer Hammer S, et al. Defective macrophage migration in G?i2- but not G?i3-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2012;189:980-7 pubmed publisher..These results indicate that G?(i2), albeit redundant to G?(i3) in some macrophage activation processes, clearly exhibits a G?(i) isoform-specific role in the regulation of macrophage migration...
- Takedatsu H, Michelsen K, Wei B, Landers C, Thomas L, Dhall D, et al. TL1A (TNFSF15) regulates the development of chronic colitis by modulating both T-helper 1 and T-helper 17 activation. Gastroenterology. 2008;135:552-67 pubmed publisher..The central role of TL1A represents an attractive, novel therapeutic target for the treatment of Crohn's disease patients. ..
- Young A, Jiang M, Wang Y, Ahmedli N, Ramirez J, Reese B, et al. Specific interaction of G?i3 with the Oa1 G-protein coupled receptor controls the size and density of melanosomes in retinal pigment epithelium. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24376 pubmed publisher..Our results identify the Oa1 transducer G?i3 as the first downstream component in the Oa1 signaling pathway. ..
- Borm M, He J, Kelsall B, Pena A, Strober W, Bouma G. A major quantitative trait locus on mouse chromosome 3 is involved in disease susceptibility in different colitis models. Gastroenterology. 2005;128:74-85 pubmedMice with a disrupted gene for the G-protein alpha inhibitory 2 chain ( Gnai2 -/- ) develop a spontaneous colitis resembling human inflammatory bowel disease...
- Woulfe D, Jiang H, Morgans A, Monks R, Birnbaum M, Brass L. Defects in secretion, aggregation, and thrombus formation in platelets from mice lacking Akt2. J Clin Invest. 2004;113:441-50 pubmed..The contribution of Akt1 is less evident except in the setting in which Akt2 is absent. ..
- Sowell M, Ye C, Ricupero D, Hansen S, Quinn S, Vassilev P, et al. Targeted inactivation of alphai2 or alphai3 disrupts activation of the cardiac muscarinic K+ channel, IK+Ach, in intact cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:7921-6 pubmed..Also the generation of negative chronotropic responses to muscarinic or adenosine receptor agonists do not require activation of IK+Ach or the expression of alphai2 or alphai3. ..
- Saare M, Lulla S, TÃµnissoo T, Meier R, Kask K, Ruisu K, et al. Expression Pattern and Localization Dynamics of Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor RIC8 during Mouse Oogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0129131 pubmed publisher..RIC8 is also expressed at high level in female reproductive organs e.g. oviduct. Therefore we suggest a regulatory function for RIC8 in mammalian gametogenesis and fertility. ..
- Strathmann M, Simon M. G protein diversity: a distinct class of alpha subunits is present in vertebrates and invertebrates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:9113-7 pubmed..We suggest that these alpha subunits may be involved in pertussis toxin-insensitive pathways coupled to phospholipase C. ..
- Degen S, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Copeland N. Assignment of the gene coding for hepatocyte growth factor-like protein to mouse chromosome 9. Genomics. 1992;13:1368-9 pubmed..The likely gene order in this region is centromere-Trf-Gnai-2-Hgfl-Cck. The region surrounding the Hgfl locus shows homology of syntenty to band p21 on human chromosome 3. ..
- Knoll B, Zarbalis K, Wurst W, Drescher U. A role for the EphA family in the topographic targeting of vomeronasal axons. Development. 2001;128:895-906 pubmed..In summary, these data, which are derived from in vitro and in vivo experiments, indicate an important role of the EphA family in setting up the vomeronasal projection. ..
- Kohler D, Devanathan V, Bernardo de Oliveira Franz C, Eldh T, Novakovic A, Roth J, et al. G?i2- and G?i3-deficient mice display opposite severity of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e98325 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that the genetic ablation of G?i proteins has protective or deleterious effects on cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury depending on the isoform being absent. ..
- Rambhatla L, Patel B, Dhanasekaran N, Latham K. Analysis of G protein alpha subunit mRNA abundance in preimplantation mouse embryos using a rapid, quantitative RT-PCR approach. Mol Reprod Dev. 1995;41:314-24 pubmed..One alpha subunit mRNA increased in abundance at the early blastocyst stage. The possible significance of these alterations in G protein mRNA abundance to embryonic development is discussed. ..
- Elgbratt K, Jansson A, Hultgren Hörnquist E. A quantitative study of the mechanisms behind thymic atrophy in G?i2-deficient mice during colitis development. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36726 pubmed publisher..The quantitative measurements in this study suggest a number of dynamical changes in the thymocyte development during the progression of colitis. ..
- De Maeyer Guignard J, De Maeyer E. Linkage analysis of the Gi alpha 2 gene on mouse chromosome 9. Mamm Genome. 1992;3:601-3 pubmed
- Huang N, Becker S, Boularan C, Kamenyeva O, Vural A, Hwang I, et al. Canonical and noncanonical g-protein signaling helps coordinate actin dynamics to promote macrophage phagocytosis of zymosan. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:4186-99 pubmed publisher..Our studies demonstrate that targeting heterotrimeric G-protein signaling offers opportunities to enhance or retard macrophage engulfment of phagocytic targets such as zymosan. ..
- Bissinger R, Lang E, Ghashghaeinia M, Singh Y, Zelenak C, Fehrenbacher B, et al. Blunted apoptosis of erythrocytes in mice deficient in the heterotrimeric G-protein subunit GÎ±i2. Sci Rep. 2016;6:30925 pubmed publisher..Moreover, GÎ±i2(-/-) erythrocytes were more resistant to osmosensitive hemolysis as compared to GÎ±i2(+/+) erythrocytes. In conclusion, GÎ±i2 deficiency in erythrocytes confers partial protection against suicidal cell death. ..
- Zarbock A, Deem T, Burcin T, Ley K. Galphai2 is required for chemokine-induced neutrophil arrest. Blood. 2007;110:3773-9 pubmed..b>Gnai2(-/-) neutrophils showed significantly reduced CXCL1-induced arrest in vitro and in vivo...
- Li K, Christiano A, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Chu M, Jenkins N, et al. cDNA cloning and chromosomal mapping of the mouse type VII collagen gene (Col7a1): evidence for rapid evolutionary divergence of the gene. Genomics. 1993;16:733-9 pubmed..This assignment confirms and extends the relationship between the mouse and the human chromosomes in this region of the genome. ..
- Rudolph U, Spicher K, Birnbaumer L. Adenylyl cyclase inhibition and altered G protein subunit expression and ADP-ribosylation patterns in tissues and cells from Gi2 alpha-/-mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:3209-14 pubmed
- Cloutier J, Giger R, Koentges G, Dulac C, Kolodkin A, Ginty D. Neuropilin-2 mediates axonal fasciculation, zonal segregation, but not axonal convergence, of primary accessory olfactory neurons. Neuron. 2002;33:877-92 pubmed..Thus, Npn-2 and candidate pheromone receptors play distinct and complementary roles in promoting the wiring and patterning of sensory neurons in the accessory olfactory system. ..
- Hwang I, Park C, Harrison K, Kehrl J. Normal Thymocyte Egress, T Cell Trafficking, and CD4+ T Cell Homeostasis Require Interactions between RGS Proteins and GÎ±i2. J Immunol. 2017;198:2721-2734 pubmed publisher..This study reveals how RGS proteins modulate GÎ±i2 signaling to facilitate thymocyte egress and T cell trafficking. ..
- Blatt C, Eversole Cire P, Cohn V, Zollman S, Fournier R, Mohandas L, et al. Chromosomal localization of genes encoding guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunits in mouse and human. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:7642-6 pubmed..The retinal-specific transducin subunit genes GNAT1 and GNAT2 were on chromosomes 3 and 1; GNAI1, GNAI2, and GNAI3 were assigned to chromosomes 7, 3, and 1, respectively; GNAZ and GNAS were found on chromosomes 22 and ..
- Kuwano Y, Adler M, Zhang H, Groisman A, Ley K. GÎ±i2 and GÎ±i3 Differentially Regulate Arrest from Flow and Chemotaxis in Mouse Neutrophils. J Immunol. 2016;196:3828-33 pubmed publisher..We conclude that GÎ±i2 controls arrest and GÎ±i3 controls transmigration and chemotaxis in response to chemokine stimulation of neutrophils. ..
- Nomura M, Takihara Y, Shimada K. Isolation and characterization of retinoic acid-inducible cDNA clones in F9 cells: one of the early inducible clones encodes a novel protein sharing several highly homologous regions with a Drosophila polyhomeotic protein. Differentiation. 1994;57:39-50 pubmed..As the Drosophila polyhomeotic gene is involved in regulating morphogenesis, the rae-28 gene may participate in regulating early mammalian development...
- Hwang I, Park C, Harrison K, Boularan C, GalÃ©s C, Kehrl J. An essential role for RGS protein/GÎ±i2 interactions in B lymphocyte-directed cell migration and trafficking. J Immunol. 2015;194:2128-39 pubmed publisher..These findings establish an essential role for RGS proteins in B cell chemoattractant signaling and for the proper position of B lymphocytes in lymphoid organs. ..
- Shinohara H, Udagawa J, Morishita R, Ueda H, Otani H, Semba R, et al. Gi2 signaling enhances proliferation of neural progenitor cells in the developing brain. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:41141-8 pubmed..These findings indicate that Gi2 mediates signaling from receptors such as the endothelin-B receptor to maintain mitogenic activity in the neural progenitor cells of developing brain. ..
- Wei B, Velazquez P, Turovskaya O, Spricher K, Aranda R, Kronenberg M, et al. Mesenteric B cells centrally inhibit CD4+ T cell colitis through interaction with regulatory T cell subsets. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:2010-5 pubmed..Here we report that mesenteric lymph node (MLN) B cells protect mice from colitis induced by Galphai2-/- CD4+ T cells...
- Wu J, Jin Y, Edwards R, Zhang Y, Finegold M, Wu M. Impaired TGF-beta responses in peripheral T cells of G alpha i2-/- mice. J Immunol. 2005;174:6122-8 pubmedNull mutation of heterotrimeric G protein alpha2 inhibitory subunit (Galphai2) induces Th1-skewed hyperimmune responses in the colon, leading to chronic colitis and the development of colonic adenocarcinoma...
- Hörnberg M, Gussing F, Berghard A, Bohm S. Retinoic acid selectively inhibits death of basal vomeronasal neurons during late stage of neural circuit formation. J Neurochem. 2009;110:1263-75 pubmed publisher..Collectively, the results indicate a novel connection between pre-synaptic RA receptor signaling and neural activity-dependent events that together regulate neuronal survival and maintenance of synaptic contacts. ..
- Norlin E, Gussing F, Berghard A. Vomeronasal phenotype and behavioral alterations in G alpha i2 mutant mice. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1214-9 pubmed..However, male mice show unaltered sexual-partner preference. This suggests that the two types of VN neurons may have separate functions in mediating behavioral changes in response to chemosensory information. ..
- Ashley P, Ellison J, Sullivan K, Bourne H, Cox D. Chromosomal assignment of the murine Gi alpha and Gs alpha genes. Implications for the obese mouse. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:15299-301 pubmed..Furthermore, our findings indicate that certain members of the murine G protein alpha gene family have dispersed to different chromosomes since diverging from a common ancestral gene. ..
- Fan H, Williams D, Zingarelli B, Breuel K, Teti G, Tempel G, et al. Differential regulation of lipopolysaccharide and Gram-positive bacteria induced cytokine and chemokine production in macrophages by Galpha(i) proteins. Immunology. 2007;122:116-23 pubmed..These data suggest that G(i2) and G(i1/3) proteins are both involved and differentially regulate murine inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in response to both LPS and Gram-positive microbial stimuli. ..