Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Gna13
Description: guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha 13
Alias: AU024132, AU043124, Galpha13, guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit alpha-13, G-protein subunit alpha-13, g alpha-13
- Rieken S, Sassmann A, Herroeder S, Wallenwein B, Moers A, Offermanns S, et al. G12/G13 family G proteins regulate marginal zone B cell maturation, migration, and polarization. J Immunol. 2006;177:2985-93 pubmed..These data suggest that G12/G13 family G proteins contribute to the formation of the mature MZB cell compartment both by controlling MZB cell migration and by regulating MZB cell precursor maturation. ..
- Gu J, Muller S, Mancino V, Offermanns S, Simon M. Interaction of G alpha(12) with G alpha(13) and G alpha(q) signaling pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:9352-7 pubmed..These data indicate that the G alpha(12)-mediated signaling pathway functionally interacts not only with the G alpha(13)- but also with the G alpha(q/11)-mediated signaling systems. ..
- Klages B, Brandt U, Simon M, Schultz G, Offermanns S. Activation of G12/G13 results in shape change and Rho/Rho-kinase-mediated myosin light chain phosphorylation in mouse platelets. J Cell Biol. 1999;144:745-54 pubmed..We provide evidence that G12/G13-mediated Rho/Rho-kinase-dependent regulation of MLC phosphorylation participates in receptor-induced platelet shape change. ..
- Gong H, Shen B, Flevaris P, Chow C, Lam S, Voyno Yasenetskaya T, et al. G protein subunit Galpha13 binds to integrin alphaIIbbeta3 and mediates integrin "outside-in" signaling. Science. 2010;327:340-3 pubmed publisher..We found that the heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) Galpha13 directly bound to the integrin beta3 cytoplasmic domain and that Galpha13-integrin interaction was promoted by ..
- Ruppel K, Willison D, Kataoka H, Wang A, Zheng Y, Cornelissen I, et al. Essential role for Galpha13 in endothelial cells during embryonic development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:8281-6 pubmed..PAR1) and other G protein-coupled receptors important for vascular development, we investigated the role of Galpha13 in endothelial cells in the mouse embryo...
- Hajicek N, Kukimoto Niino M, Mishima Tsumagari C, Chow C, Shirouzu M, Terada T, et al. Identification of critical residues in G(alpha)13 for stimulation of p115RhoGEF activity and the structure of the G(alpha)13-p115RhoGEF regulator of G protein signaling homology (RH) domain complex. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:20625-36 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these data provide new insight into the mechanism by which p115RhoGEF is activated by G?(13). ..
- Jho E, Malbon C. Galpha12 and Galpha13 mediate differentiation of P19 mouse embryonal carcinoma cells in response to retinoic acid. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:24461-7 pubmed..The Galpha12 and Galpha13 subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins are expressed in the embryonal P19 cells and stimulated in response to ..
- Bodmann E, Krett A, Bünemann M. Potentiation of receptor responses induced by prolonged binding of G?13 and leukemia-associated RhoGEF. FASEB J. 2017;31:3663-3676 pubmed publisher..Bodmann, E.-L., Krett, A.-L., Bünemann, M. Potentiation of receptor responses induced by prolonged binding of G?13 and leukemia-associated RhoGEF. ..
- Kim Y, Lim S, Han C, Kay H, Cho I, Ki S, et al. G(alpha)12/13 induction of CYR61 in association with arteriosclerotic intimal hyperplasia: effect of sphingosine-1-phosphate. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:861-9 pubmed publisher..G?(12/13) regulate AP-1-dependent CYR61 induction in VSMCs and promote VSMC migration, and they are upregulated with CYR61 in arteriosclerotic lesions. ..
- Krawetz R, Kelly G. Coordinate Galpha13 and Wnt6-beta-catenin signaling in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells is required for primitive endoderm differentiation. Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;87:567-80 pubmed publisher..Expression of a constitutively active form of Galpha13(Q226L) is sufficient to induce F9 cells into parietal endoderm and a model is emerging that a signaling axis ..
- Teplyuk N, Galindo M, Teplyuk V, Pratap J, Young D, Lapointe D, et al. Runx2 regulates G protein-coupled signaling pathways to control growth of osteoblast progenitors. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:27585-97 pubmed publisher..g. Rgs2, Rgs4, Rgs5, Rgs16, Gpr23, Gpr30, Gpr54, Gpr64, and Gna13)...
- Shen B, Zhao X, O Brien K, Stojanovic Terpo A, Delaney M, Kim K, et al. A directional switch of integrin signalling and a new anti-thrombotic strategy. Nature. 2013;503:131-5 pubmed publisher..Thus, we have discovered a new mechanism for the directional switch of integrin signalling and, on the basis of this mechanism, designed a potent new anti-thrombotic drug that does not cause bleeding. ..
- Sabbatini M, Bi Y, Ji B, Ernst S, Williams J. CCK activates RhoA and Rac1 differentially through Galpha13 and Galphaq in mouse pancreatic acini. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;298:C592-601 pubmed publisher..CCK-induced actin cytoskeletal reorganization is mainly mediated by Galpha(q). By contrast, Galpha(13) and Galpha(q) signaling are required for CCK-induced amylase secretion. ..
- Muppidi J, Schmitz R, Green J, Xiao W, Larsen A, Braun S, et al. Loss of signalling via GÎ±13 in germinal centre B-cell-derived lymphoma. Nature. 2014;516:254-8 pubmed publisher..Recent deep sequencing studies of GCB-DLBCL have revealed mutations in many genes in this cancer, including in GNA13 (encoding GÎ±13) and S1PR2 (refs 5,6, 7)...
- John A, Wilson M, Habgood A, Porte J, Tatler A, Stavrou A, et al. Loss of epithelial Gq and G11 signaling inhibits TGFÎ² production but promotes IL-33-mediated macrophage polarization and emphysema. Sci Signal. 2016;9:ra104 pubmed..Together, these findings suggest that disruption of Gq/11 signaling promotes inflammatory emphysema but protects against mechanically induced lung injury. ..
- Chen Z, Singer W, Danesh S, Sternweis P, Sprang S. Recognition of the activated states of Galpha13 by the rgRGS domain of PDZRhoGEF. Structure. 2008;16:1532-43 pubmed publisher..However, p115RhoGEF is a GTPase Activating Protein (GAP) toward Galpha13, whereas PDZRhoGEF is not...
- Kim M, Lee S, Kim W, Ki S, Moon A, Lee C, et al. G alpha 12/13 basally regulates p53 through Mdm4 expression. Mol Cancer Res. 2007;5:473-84 pubmed..Our results indicate that G alpha(12/13) regulate basal p53 levels via mdm4, which constitutes a cell signaling pathway distinct from p53 phosphorylations elicited by genotoxic stress. ..
- Rieken S, Herroeder S, Sassmann A, Wallenwein B, Moers A, Offermanns S, et al. Lysophospholipids control integrin-dependent adhesion in splenic B cells through G(i) and G(12)/G(13) family G-proteins but not through G(q)/G(11). J Biol Chem. 2006;281:36985-92 pubmed..Taken together, this study shows that lysophospholipids regulate integrin-mediated adhesion of splenic B cells to ICAM-1 through G(i) and G(12)/G(13) family G-proteins but not through G(q)/G(11). ..
- Liu G, Voyno Yasenetskaya T. Radixin stimulates Rac1 and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase, CaMKII: cross-talk with Galpha13 signaling. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:39042-9 pubmed..In addition, the radixin-CaMKII signaling pathway is involved in Galpha(13)-mediated SRE-dependent gene transcription, suggesting that radixin could be involved in novel signaling pathway regulated by G(13) protein. ..
- Wu M, Chen W, Lu Y, Zhu G, Hao L, Li Y. Gα13 negatively controls osteoclastogenesis through inhibition of the Akt-GSK3β-NFATc1 signalling pathway. Nat Commun. 2017;8:13700 pubmed publisher..Osteoclast-lineage-specific Gna13 conditional knockout mice have a severe osteoporosis phenotype...
- Krawetz R, Mackenzie M, Sun Q, Walton P, Kelly G. Galpha13 activation rescues moesin-depletion induced apoptosis in F9 teratocarcinoma cells. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:3224-40 pubmed..In our study, we found that a constitutively active Galpha13 mutant induces F9 cells to differentiate into parietal endoderm in the absence of exogenous agents...
- Kim S, Kunapuli S. Negative regulation of Gq-mediated pathways in platelets by G(12/13) pathways through Fyn kinase. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:24170-9 pubmed publisher..We conclude that SFKs, especially Fyn, activated downstream of G(12/13) negatively regulate platelet responses by inhibiting intracellular calcium mobilization and PKC activation through G(q) pathways. ..
- Nakata A, Urano D, Fujii Kuriyama Y, Mizuno N, Tago K, Itoh H. G-protein signalling negatively regulates the stability of aryl hydrocarbon receptor. EMBO Rep. 2009;10:622-8 pubmed publisher..Here, we show that the Galpha13 signal destabilizes AhR by promoting the ubiquitination of AhR...
- Hu M, Sun X, Zhang Y, Kuang Y, Hu C, Wu W, et al. Histone H3 lysine 36 methyltransferase Hypb/Setd2 is required for embryonic vascular remodeling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:2956-61 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these results indicate that Hypb is required for embryonic vascular remodeling and provide a tool to study the function of H3K36 methylation in vasculogenesis/angiogenesis. ..
- Chagin A, Vuppalapati K, Kobayashi T, Guo J, Hirai T, Chen M, et al. G-protein stimulatory subunit alpha and Gq/11? G-proteins are both required to maintain quiescent stem-like chondrocytes. Nat Commun. 2014;5:3673 pubmed publisher..Thus, G(s)? is the major mediator of the anti-differentiation action of the PPR, while activation of both G(s)? and Gq/11? is required for quiescence of stem-like chondrocytes. ..
- Ackerman S, Garcia C, Piao X, Gutmann D, Monk K. The adhesion GPCR Gpr56 regulates oligodendrocyte development via interactions with GÎ±12/13 and RhoA. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6122 pubmed publisher..Finally, we show that these functions are mediated by GÎ±12/13 proteins and Rho activation. Together, our data establish Gpr56 as a regulator of oligodendrocyte development. ..
- Strathmann M, Wilkie T, Simon M. Diversity of the G-protein family: sequences from five additional alpha subunits in the mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:7407-9 pubmed..In addition, we found sequences corresponding to five newly discovered alpha subunits. Our results suggest that the complexity of the G protein family is much greater than previously suspected. ..
- Nürnberg A, Bräuer A, Wettschureck N, Offermanns S. Antagonistic regulation of neurite morphology through Gq/G11 and G12/G13. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:35526-31 pubmed publisher..Surprisingly, lack of Galpha(q)/Galpha(11) resulted in overshooting responses to both stimuli, indicating that G(q)/G(11)-mediated signaling most likely via activation of Rac antagonizes the effects of G(12)/G(13). ..
- Ohuchi H, Hamada A, Matsuda H, Takagi A, Tanaka M, Aoki J, et al. Expression patterns of the lysophospholipid receptor genes during mouse early development. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:3280-94 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that multiple receptor systems for LPA/S1P lysophospholipids may be functioning during organogenesis. ..
- Orth J, Fester I, Preuss I, Agnoletto L, Wilson B, Aktories K. Activation of Galpha (i) and subsequent uncoupling of receptor-Galpha(i) signaling by Pasteurella multocida toxin. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:23288-94 pubmed publisher..The data indicate that PMT is a novel activator of G(i), modulating its GTPase activity and converting it into a PTx-insensitive state...
- Strathmann M, Simon M. G alpha 12 and G alpha 13 subunits define a fourth class of G protein alpha subunits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:5582-6 pubmed..We have now obtained cDNA clones encoding two murine alpha subunits, G alpha 12 and G alpha 13, that define a fourth class...
- Jiang L, Collins J, Davis R, Fraser I, Sternweis P. Regulation of cAMP responses by the G12/13 pathway converges on adenylyl cyclase VII. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:23429-39 pubmed publisher..Our results demonstrate that AC7 is a specific downstream effector of the G(12/13) pathway. ..
- Nieswandt B, Schulte V, Zywietz A, Gratacap M, Offermanns S. Costimulation of Gi- and G12/G13-mediated signaling pathways induces integrin alpha IIbbeta 3 activation in platelets. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:39493-8 pubmed
- Takefuji M, Wirth A, Lukasova M, Takefuji S, Boettger T, Braun T, et al. G(13)-mediated signaling pathway is required for pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Circulation. 2012;126:1972-82 pubmed publisher..Our data show that the G(12/13) family of heterotrimeric G proteins is centrally involved in pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling and plays a central role in the transition to heart failure. ..
- Koo J, Kim T, Park S, Joo M, Han C, Choi C, et al. G?13 ablation reprograms myofibers to oxidative phenotype and enhances whole-body metabolism. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:3845-3860 pubmed publisher..Our results define G?13 as a switch regulator of myofiber reprogramming, implying that modulations of G?13 and its downstream effectors in skeletal muscle are a potential therapeutic approach to treating metabolic diseases. ..
- Jiang L, Sternweis P, Wang J. Zymosan activates protein kinase A via adenylyl cyclase VII to modulate innate immune responses during inflammation. Mol Immunol. 2013;54:14-22 pubmed publisher..This would also help explain a well documented phenomenon, that the ability of zymosan to stimulate inflammatory cytokine responses via TLR2 appears to be weaker than other stimuli of TLR2. ..
- Radhika V, Onesime D, Ha J, Dhanasekaran N. Galpha13 stimulates cell migration through cortactin-interacting protein Hax-1. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:49406-13 pubmedb>Galpha13, the alpha-subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein G13, has been shown to stimulate cell migration in addition to inducing oncogenic transformation...
- Rusu L, Andreeva A, Visintine D, Kim K, Vogel S, Stojanovic Terpo A, et al. G protein-dependent basal and evoked endothelial cell vWF secretion. Blood. 2014;123:442-50 pubmed publisher..Discovery of obligatory and complementary roles of G?12 and G?q/11 in basal vs evoked EC vWF secretion may provide promising new therapeutic strategies for treatment of thrombotic disease. ..
- Moers A, Wettschureck N, Grüner S, Nieswandt B, Offermanns S. Unresponsiveness of platelets lacking both Galpha(q) and Galpha(13). Implications for collagen-induced platelet activation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:45354-9 pubmed
- Gong H, Gao X, Feng S, Siddiqui M, Garcia A, Bonini M, et al. Evidence of a common mechanism of disassembly of adherens junctions through G?13 targeting of VE-cadherin. J Exp Med. 2014;211:579-91 pubmed publisher..These studies identify a unique role of G?13 binding to VE-cadherin in mediating VE-cadherin internalization and endothelial barrier disruption and inflammation. ..
- Vogt S, Grosse R, Schultz G, Offermanns S. Receptor-dependent RhoA activation in G12/G13-deficient cells: genetic evidence for an involvement of Gq/G11. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:28743-9 pubmed..In pertussis toxin-treated Galpha12/Galpha13-deficient as well as in Galphaq/Galpha11-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), in which coupling of ..
- Kask K, Ruisu K, Tikker L, Karis K, Saare M, Meier R, et al. Deletion of RIC8A in neural precursor cells leads to altered neurogenesis and neonatal lethality of mouse. Dev Neurobiol. 2015;75:984-1002 pubmed publisher..Taken together, RIC8A has an essential role in the development of mammalian nervous system by maintaining the integrity of pial basement membrane and modulating cell division. ..
- Grimm M, Tischner D, Troidl K, AlbarrÃ¡n JuÃ¡rez J, Sivaraj K, FerreirÃ³s Bouzas N, et al. S1P2/G12/13 Signaling Negatively Regulates Macrophage Activation and Indirectly Shapes the Atheroprotective B1-Cell Population. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2016;36:37-48 pubmed publisher..Together, these data show that selective inhibition of G12/13 signaling in macrophages can augment atheroprotective B-cell populations and ameliorate atherosclerosis. ..
- Rambhatla L, Patel B, Dhanasekaran N, Latham K. Analysis of G protein alpha subunit mRNA abundance in preimplantation mouse embryos using a rapid, quantitative RT-PCR approach. Mol Reprod Dev. 1995;41:314-24 pubmed..One alpha subunit mRNA increased in abundance at the early blastocyst stage. The possible significance of these alterations in G protein mRNA abundance to embryonic development is discussed. ..
- Chen L, Zhang J, Rafii S, Huang X. Suppression of tumor angiogenesis by Galpha(13) haploinsufficiency. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:27409-15 pubmed publisher..Hence, Galpha(13) is haploinsufficient for adult angiogenesis in both the female reproductive system and tumor angiogenesis. ..
- Goulimari P, Knieling H, Engel U, Grosse R. LARG and mDia1 link Galpha12/13 to cell polarity and microtubule dynamics. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:30-40 pubmed..We propose that Galpha(12/13) proteins exert essential functions linking extracellular signals to microtubule dynamics and cell polarity via RhoGEF and formin activity. ..
- Kanungo J, Wang H, Malbon C. Ku80 is required but not sufficient for Galpha13-mediated endodermal differentiation in P19 embryonic carcinoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;323:293-8 pubmedWe have shown that a constitutively active Galpha13 (Galpha13Q226L) induces differentiation in P19 embryonic carcinoma cells to an endodermal phenotype...
- Hu Y, Xing J, Chen L, Guo X, Du Y, Zhao C, et al. RGS22, a novel testis-specific regulator of G-protein signaling involved in human and mouse spermiogenesis along with GNA12/13 subunits. Biol Reprod. 2008;79:1021-9 pubmed publisher..cells and Leydig cells and could interact with guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha 12, 13, and 11 (GNA12, GNA13, and GNA11)...
- Vanni C, Mancini P, Ottaviano C, Ognibene M, Parodi A, Merello E, et al. Galpha13 regulation of proto-Dbl signaling. Cell Cycle. 2007;6:2058-70 pubmed..These results suggest a mechanism by which proto-Dbl and its effector pathways are regulated by Galpha(13)-mediated signals through association with ezrin. ..
- Muppidi J, Lu E, Cyster J. The G protein-coupled receptor P2RY8 and follicular dendritic cells promote germinal center confinement of B cells, whereas S1PR3 can contribute to their dissemination. J Exp Med. 2015;212:2213-22 pubmed publisher..Mutations in GNA13 and its downstream effector ARHGEF1 are associated with the development of disseminated GC-derived lymphomas...
- Carothers A, Javid S, Moran A, Hunt D, Redston M, Bertagnolli M. Deficient E-cadherin adhesion in C57BL/6J-Min/+ mice is associated with increased tyrosine kinase activity and RhoA-dependent actomyosin contractility. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:387-400 pubmed..Thus, the positive regulation of E-cadherin adhesion provided by Apc+ in vivo allows proper negative regulation of Egfr, Src, Pyk2, and MAPK, as well as RhoA activities. ..
- Kashef K, Radhakrishnan R, Lee C, Reddy E, Dhanasekaran D. Neoplastic transformation induced by the gep oncogenes involves the scaffold protein JNK-interacting leucine zipper protein. Neoplasia. 2011;13:358-64 pubmed..These studies demonstrate for the first time a functional role for JLP in the gep oncogene-regulated neoplastic signaling pathway. ..
- Gangadharan V, Selvaraj D, Kurejova M, Njoo C, Gritsch S, Skoricová D, et al. A novel biological role for the phospholipid lysophosphatidylinositol in nociceptive sensitization via activation of diverse G-protein signalling pathways in sensory nerves in vivo. Pain. 2013;154:2801-12 pubmed publisher..This study thus reports a novel pathophysiological function for LPI and elucidates underlying molecular mechanisms. ..
- Dettlaff Swiercz D, Wettschureck N, Moers A, Huber K, Offermanns S. Characteristic defects in neural crest cell-specific Galphaq/Galpha11- and Galpha12/Galpha13-deficient mice. Dev Biol. 2005;282:174-82 pubmed..In contrast, ET-3/ET(B)-mediated development of neural crest-derived melanocytes and enteric neurons appears to involve G-proteins different from G(q)/G(11)/G(12)/G(13). ..
- Kim S, Cipolla L, Guidetti G, Okigaki M, Jin J, Torti M, et al. Distinct role of Pyk2 in mediating thromboxane generation downstream of both G12/13 and integrin ?IIb?3 in platelets. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:18194-203 pubmed publisher..We conclude that Pyk2 is a common signaling effector downstream of both G12/13 and integrin ?IIb?3 signaling, which contributes to thromboxane generation. ..
- Green J, Suzuki K, Cho B, Willison L, Palmer D, Allen C, et al. The sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor S1P? maintains the homeostasis of germinal center B cells and promotes niche confinement. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:672-80 pubmed publisher..We suggest that by inhibiting Akt activation and migration, S1P(2) helps restrict GC B cell survival and localization to an S1P-low niche at the follicle center. ..
- Pleines I, Hagedorn I, Gupta S, May F, Chakarova L, van Hengel J, et al. Megakaryocyte-specific RhoA deficiency causes macrothrombocytopenia and defective platelet activation in hemostasis and thrombosis. Blood. 2012;119:1054-63 pubmed publisher..Together, these results establish RhoA as an important regulator of platelet function in thrombosis and hemostasis...
- Goulimari P, Kitzing T, Knieling H, Brandt D, Offermanns S, Grosse R. Galpha12/13 is essential for directed cell migration and localized Rho-Dia1 function. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:42242-51 pubmed..Thus, we identified Galpha12/13-proteins as essential components linking extracellular signals to localized Rho-Dia1 function during directed cell movement. ..
- Olivera A, Rosenfeldt H, Bektas M, Wang F, Ishii I, Chun J, et al. Sphingosine kinase type 1 induces G12/13-mediated stress fiber formation, yet promotes growth and survival independent of G protein-coupled receptors. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:46452-60 pubmed..Our results demonstrate a receptor-independent intracellular function of S1P, reminiscent of its action in yeast cells that lack S1PRs. ..
- Ki S, Choi M, Lee C, Kim S. Galpha12 specifically regulates COX-2 induction by sphingosine 1-phosphate. Role for JNK-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of IkappaBalpha. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:1938-47 pubmed
- Liu B, Wu D. The first inner loop of endothelin receptor type B is necessary for specific coupling to Galpha 13. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:2384-7 pubmed
- Camerer E, Barker A, Duong D, Ganesan R, Kataoka H, Cornelissen I, et al. Local protease signaling contributes to neural tube closure in the mouse embryo. Dev Cell. 2010;18:25-38 pubmed publisher..Together, our results suggest a role for protease-activated receptor signaling in neural tube closure and identify a local protease network that may trigger Par2 signaling and monitor and regulate epithelial integrity in this context. ..
- Cho M, Kim W, Ki S, Hwang J, Choi S, Lee C, et al. Role of Galpha12 and Galpha13 as novel switches for the activity of Nrf2, a key antioxidative transcription factor. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:6195-208 pubmedGalpha12 and Galpha13 function as molecular regulators responding to extracellular stimuli. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is involved in a protective adaptive response to oxidative stress...
- Xiang X, Li S, Zhuang X, Shi L. Arhgef1 negatively regulates neurite outgrowth through activation of RhoA signaling pathways. FEBS Lett. 2016;590:2940-55 pubmed publisher..Collectively, these findings reveal that Arhgef1 functions as a negative regulator of neurite outgrowth through regulating RhoA-cofilin pathway and actin dynamics. ..