Gene Symbol: Glul
Description: glutamate-ammonia ligase (glutamine synthetase)
Alias: Glns, glutamine synthetase, glutamate decarboxylase, glutamate-ammonia ligase (glutamine synthase)
Species: mouse
Products:     Glul

Top Publications

  1. van Straaten H, He Y, van Duist M, Labruyere W, Vermeulen J, van Dijk P, et al. Cellular concentrations of glutamine synthetase in murine organs. Biochem Cell Biol. 2006;84:215-31 pubmed
    b>Glutamine synthetase (GS) is the only enzyme that can synthesize glutamine, but it also functions to detoxify glutamate and ammonia...
  2. He Y, Hakvoort T, Vermeulen J, Lamers W, Van Roon M. Glutamine synthetase is essential in early mouse embryogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:1865-75 pubmed
    b>Glutamine synthetase (GS) is expressed in a tissue-specific and developmentally controlled manner, and functions to remove ammonia or glutamate. Furthermore, it is the only enzyme that can synthesize glutamine de novo...
  3. Kanadia R, Clark V, Punzo C, Trimarchi J, Cepko C. Temporal requirement of the alternative-splicing factor Sfrs1 for the survival of retinal neurons. Development. 2008;135:3923-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight the requirement of Sfrs1-mediated alternative splicing for the survival of retinal neurons, with sensitivity defined by the window of time in which the neuron was generated. ..
  4. Zhang S, Xu X, Liu M, Zhao H, Soares M, Barnstable C, et al. A biphasic pattern of gene expression during mouse retina development. BMC Dev Biol. 2006;6:48 pubmed
    ..We propose that large-scale changes in gene regulation during development are necessary for the final maturation and function of the retina. ..
  5. Martins R, Zindy F, Donovan S, Zhang J, Pounds S, Wey A, et al. N-myc coordinates retinal growth with eye size during mouse development. Genes Dev. 2008;22:179-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that N-myc lies upstream of the cell cycle machinery in the developing mouse retina and thus coordinates the growth of both the retina and eye through extrinsic cues. ..
  6. Cho S, Kim J, Simons D, Song J, Le J, Swindell E, et al. Genetic ablation of Pals1 in retinal progenitor cells models the retinal pathology of Leber congenital amaurosis. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:2663-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data uncover the indispensible role of Pals1 in retinal development, likely involving the maintenance of retinal polarity and survival of retinal neurons, thus providing the basis for the pathologic mechanisms of LCA8. ..
  7. Poche R, Furuta Y, Chaboissier M, Schedl A, Behringer R. Sox9 is expressed in mouse multipotent retinal progenitor cells and functions in Müller glial cell development. J Comp Neurol. 2008;510:237-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, by employing a conditional knockout approach, we show that Sox9 is essential for the differentiation and/or survival of postnatal Müller glial cells. ..
  8. Diaz E, Yang Y, Ferreira T, Loh K, Okazaki Y, Hayashizaki Y, et al. Analysis of gene expression in the developing mouse retina. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:5491-6 pubmed
    ..A common theme for the identified genes is the differential expression in the dorsal-ventral axis. By analyzing gene expression patterns, we provide insight into the molecular organization of the developing retina. ..
  9. Stolt C, Lommes P, Sock E, Chaboissier M, Schedl A, Wegner M. The Sox9 transcription factor determines glial fate choice in the developing spinal cord. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1677-89 pubmed

More Information


  1. Karali M, Peluso I, Marigo V, Banfi S. Identification and characterization of microRNAs expressed in the mouse eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:509-15 pubmed
    ..Knowledge of the spatiotemporal distribution of miRNAs is an essential step toward the identification of their targets and eventually the elucidation of their biological role in eye development and function. ..
  2. Sugimori M, Nagao M, Bertrand N, Parras C, Guillemot F, Nakafuku M. Combinatorial actions of patterning and HLH transcription factors in the spatiotemporal control of neurogenesis and gliogenesis in the developing spinal cord. Development. 2007;134:1617-29 pubmed
    ..We propose a molecular code model whereby the combinatorial actions of two classes of transcription factors coordinately regulate the domain-specific temporal sequence of neurogenesis and gliogenesis in the developing spinal cord. ..
  3. Stolt C, Schlierf A, Lommes P, Hillgärtner S, Werner T, Kosian T, et al. SoxD proteins influence multiple stages of oligodendrocyte development and modulate SoxE protein function. Dev Cell. 2006;11:697-709 pubmed
    ..Our studies reveal a complex regulatory network between different groups of Sox proteins that is essential for proper progression of oligodendrocyte development. ..
  4. Li S, Mo Z, Yang X, Price S, Shen M, Xiang M. Foxn4 controls the genesis of amacrine and horizontal cells by retinal progenitors. Neuron. 2004;43:795-807 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest a model in which Foxn4 cooperates with other key retinogenic factors to mediate the multipotent differentiation of retinal progenitors. ..
  5. Pringle N, Yu W, Howell M, Colvin J, Ornitz D, Richardson W. Fgfr3 expression by astrocytes and their precursors: evidence that astrocytes and oligodendrocytes originate in distinct neuroepithelial domains. Development. 2003;130:93-102 pubmed
    ..Fgfr3(+) cells within and outside the VZ also express the astroglial marker glutamine synthetase (Glns)...
  6. Moennikes O, Stahl S, Bannasch P, Buchmann A, Schwarz M. WY-14,643-mediated promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis in connexin32-wild-type and connexin32-null mice. Carcinogenesis. 2003;24:1561-5 pubmed
    ..and (pre)-neoplastic lesions were identified by alterations in glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) and glutamine synthetase (GS) staining...
  7. Glasgow S, Zhu W, Stolt C, Huang T, Chen F, LoTurco J, et al. Mutual antagonism between Sox10 and NFIA regulates diversification of glial lineages and glioma subtypes. Nat Neurosci. 2014;17:1322-9 pubmed publisher
  8. Chaboub L, Manalo J, Lee H, Glasgow S, Chen F, Kawasaki Y, et al. Temporal Profiling of Astrocyte Precursors Reveals Parallel Roles for Asef during Development and after Injury. J Neurosci. 2016;36:11904-11917 pubmed
    ..These studies identify distinct stages of astrocyte lineage development and highlight the parallels between astrocyte development and their reactive counterparts associated with injury. ..
  9. Palmieri E, Menga A, Martín Pérez R, Quinto A, Riera Domingo C, De Tullio G, et al. Pharmacologic or Genetic Targeting of Glutamine Synthetase Skews Macrophages toward an M1-like Phenotype and Inhibits Tumor Metastasis. Cell Rep. 2017;20:1654-1666 pubmed publisher
    ..These data identify GS activity as mediator of the proangiogenic, immunosuppressive, and pro-metastatic function of M2-like macrophages and highlight the possibility of targeting this enzyme in the treatment of cancer metastasis. ..
  10. Iida I, Johkura K, Teng R, Kubota S, Cui L, Zhao X, et al. Immunohistochemical localization of hepatocyte growth factor activator (HGFA) in developing mouse liver tissues. Heterogeneous distribution of HGFA protein. J Histochem Cytochem. 2003;51:1139-49 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that HGFA proteins are produced in the hepatocytes surrounding the efferent hepatic veins in the mouse and that development of the unique distributing pattern takes place postnatally. ..
  11. Liu C, Lin C, Whitaker D, Bakeri H, Bulgakov O, Liu P, et al. Prickle1 is expressed in distinct cell populations of the central nervous system and contributes to neuronal morphogenesis. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:2234-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies implicate Pk1 function in axonal-dendritic development associated with the maturation of CNS neurons. ..
  12. Besser M, Jagatheaswaran M, Reinhard J, Schaffelke P, Faissner A. Tenascin C regulates proliferation and differentiation processes during embryonic retinogenesis and modulates the de-differentiation capacity of Müller glia by influencing growth factor responsiveness and the extracellular matrix compartment. Dev Biol. 2012;369:163-76 pubmed publisher
    ..It was possible to note a significant increase of this particular chondroitin sulfate in the Tnc-deficient ECM. ..
  13. Clements R, Turk R, Campbell K, Wright K. Dystroglycan Maintains Inner Limiting Membrane Integrity to Coordinate Retinal Development. J Neurosci. 2017;37:8559-8574 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that disorganization of retinal circuit development is a likely contributor to visual dysfunction in patients with dystroglycanopathy. ..
  14. Chang K, Hertz J, Zhang X, Jin X, Shaw P, Derosa B, et al. Novel Regulatory Mechanisms for the SoxC Transcriptional Network Required for Visual Pathway Development. J Neurosci. 2017;37:4967-4981 pubmed publisher
  15. Brunne B, Zhao S, Derouiche A, Herz J, May P, Frotscher M, et al. Origin, maturation, and astroglial transformation of secondary radial glial cells in the developing dentate gyrus. Glia. 2010;58:1553-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Time-lapse imaging of acute hippocampal slices from hGFAP-eGFP transgenic mice provides direct evidence for such a migration mode of differentiating astroglial cells in the developing dentate gyrus. ..
  16. Marchong M, Yurkowski C, Ma C, Spencer C, Pajovic S, Gallie B. Cdh11 acts as a tumor suppressor in a murine retinoblastoma model by facilitating tumor cell death. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000923 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that Cdh11 displays tumor suppressor properties in vivo and in vitro in murine retinoblastoma through promotion of cell death. ..
  17. Ahmedli N, Gribanova Y, Njoku C, Naidu A, Young A, Mendoza E, et al. Dynamics of the rhomboid-like protein RHBDD2 expression in mouse retina and involvement of its human ortholog in retinitis pigmentosa. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:9742-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the RHBDD2 protein plays important roles in the development and normal function of the retina. ..
  18. Jiang H, Xiang M. Subtype specification of GABAergic amacrine cells by the orphan nuclear receptor Nr4a2/Nurr1. J Neurosci. 2009;29:10449-59 pubmed publisher
  19. Komai T, Iwanari H, Mochizuki Y, Hamakubo T, Shinkai Y. Expression of the mouse PR domain protein Prdm8 in the developing central nervous system. Gene Expr Patterns. 2009;9:503-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that Prdm8 expression is tightly regulated in a spatio-temporal manner during neural development and mainly restricted to postmitotic neurons, except in the spinal cord. ..
  20. Brunne B, FRANCO S, Bouché E, Herz J, Howell B, Pahle J, et al. Role of the postnatal radial glial scaffold for the development of the dentate gyrus as revealed by Reelin signaling mutant mice. Glia. 2013;61:1347-63 pubmed publisher
  21. Acosta M, Kalloniatis M, Christie D. Creatine transporter localization in developing and adult retina: importance of creatine to retinal function. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005;289:C1015-23 pubmed
    ..Comparison of the distribution patterns of the CRT in vascular and avascular vertebrate retinas and studies of the mouse retina during development indicate that creatine and phosphocreatine are important for ATP homeostasis. ..
  22. Dai M, Xia X, Xiong S. BDNF regulates GLAST and glutamine synthetase in mouse retinal Müller cells. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:596-603 pubmed publisher
    ..brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates the L-glutamate/L-aspartate transporter (GLAST) and glutamine synthetase (GS) in mouse retinal Müller cells (RMCs) under normal and hypoxic conditions...
  23. Wang Y, Watford M. Glutamine, insulin and glucocorticoids regulate glutamine synthetase expression in C2C12 myotubes, Hep G2 hepatoma cells and 3T3 L1 adipocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1770:594-600 pubmed
    The cell-specific regulation of glutamine synthetase expression was studied in three cell lines. In C2C12 myotubes, glucocorticoids increased the abundance of both glutamine synthetase protein and mRNA...
  24. Menuchin Lasowski Y, Oren Giladi P, Xie Q, Ezra Elia R, Ofri R, Peled Hajaj S, et al. Sip1 regulates the generation of the inner nuclear layer retinal cell lineages in mammals. Development. 2016;143:2829-41 pubmed publisher
  25. Kurihara T, Kubota Y, Ozawa Y, Takubo K, Noda K, Simon M, et al. von Hippel-Lindau protein regulates transition from the fetal to the adult circulatory system in retina. Development. 2010;137:1563-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that not only macrophages but also tissue oxygen-sensing mechanisms regulate the transition from the fetal to the adult circulatory system in the retina. ..
  26. Verlander J, CHU D, Lee H, Handlogten M, Weiner I. Expression of glutamine synthetase in the mouse kidney: localization in multiple epithelial cell types and differential regulation by hypokalemia. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013;305:F701-13 pubmed publisher
    Renal glutamine synthetase catalyzes the reaction of NH4+ with glutamate, forming glutamine and decreasing the ammonia available for net acid excretion...
  27. van Gassen K, van der Hel W, Hakvoort T, Lamers W, de Graan P. Haploinsufficiency of glutamine synthetase increases susceptibility to experimental febrile seizures. Genes Brain Behav. 2009;8:290-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Glutamine synthetase (GS) is a pivotal glial enzyme in the glutamate-glutamine cycle...
  28. Grimal S, Puech S, Wagener R, Venteo S, Carroll P, Fichard Carroll A. Collagen XXVIII is a distinctive component of the peripheral nervous system nodes of ranvier and surrounds nonmyelinating glial cells. Glia. 2010;58:1977-87 pubmed publisher
  29. Li Y, Pinzon Duarte G, Dattilo M, Claudepierre T, Koch M, Brunken W. The expression and function of netrin-4 in murine ocular tissues. Exp Eye Res. 2012;96:24-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Ntn4-/- mice may serve as a good model in which to study the role of netrins in vivo of the pathobiologic vascular remodeling in the retina and cornea. ..
  30. Cornall R, Friedman J, Todd J. Mouse microsatellites from a flow-sorted 4:6 Robertsonian chromosome. Mamm Genome. 1992;3:620-4 pubmed
    ..Eight (62%) of the 13 repeats that have been mapped lie on Chromosomes (Chr) 4 and 6. This approach is an effective way of generating informative markers on specific chromosomes. ..
  31. Muto A, Iida A, Satoh S, Watanabe S. The group E Sox genes Sox8 and Sox9 are regulated by Notch signaling and are required for Müller glial cell development in mouse retina. Exp Eye Res. 2009;89:549-58 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first evidence that group E Sox genes play important roles in the developing vertebrate retina. ..
  32. Weng C, Ding M, Chang L, Ren M, Zhang H, Lu Z, et al. Ankfy1 is dispensable for neural stem/precursor cell development. Neural Regen Res. 2016;11:1804-1809 pubmed publisher
    ..5. We conclude that Ankfy1 protein is dispensable in neural stem/precursor cells, but could be critical for early embryonic murine development, depending on the genetic background. ..
  33. Zhang D, Shao J, Lin J, Zhang N, Lu B, Lin S, et al. RIP3, an energy metabolism regulator that switches TNF-induced cell death from apoptosis to necrosis. Science. 2009;325:332-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that modulation of energy metabolism in response to death stimuli has an important role in the choice between apoptosis and necrosis. ..
  34. Matuzelski E, Bunt J, Harkins D, Lim J, Gronostajski R, Richards L, et al. Transcriptional regulation of Nfix by NFIB drives astrocytic maturation within the developing spinal cord. Dev Biol. 2017;432:286-297 pubmed publisher
    ..This hierarchical organisation of NFI protein expression and function during spinal cord gliogenesis reveals a previously unrecognised auto-regulatory mechanism within this gene family. ..
  35. Kuo C, Darnell J. Mouse glutamine synthetase is encoded by a single gene that can be expressed in a localized fashion. J Mol Biol. 1989;208:45-56 pubmed
    Two mouse glutamine synthetase (GSase) cDNAs were cloned that correspond to the 2.8 kb and 1.4 kb mRNA species found in many mouse tissues (1 kb = 10(3) base-pairs)...
  36. Zhou J, Shen X, Lu Q, Zhang M. Thioredoxin-Interacting Protein (TXNIP) Suppresses Expression of Glutamine Synthetase by Inducing Oxidative Stress in Retinal Muller Glia Under Diabetic Conditions. Med Sci Monit. 2016;22:1460-6 pubmed
    ..We demonstrated the expression level of glutamine synthetase (GS) when TXNIP was inhibited...
  37. Zhao X, Chen Y, Zhu Q, Huang H, Teng P, Zheng K, et al. Control of astrocyte progenitor specification, migration and maturation by Nkx6.1 homeodomain transcription factor. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e109171 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our studies indicate that Nkx6.1 plays a vital role in astrocyte specification and differentiation in the ventral spinal cord. ..
  38. Lie Venema H, de Boer P, Moorman A, Lamers W. Role of the 5' enhancer of the glutamine synthetase gene in its organ-specific expression. Biochem J. 1997;323 ( Pt 3):611-9 pubmed
    In mammals, glutamine synthetase (GS) is expressed in a large number of organs, but the precise regulation of its expression is still obscure...
  39. Skarpetas A, Mawal Y, Qureshi I. Developmental study of hepatic glutamine synthetase in a mouse model of congenital hyperammonemia. Biochem Mol Biol Int. 1997;43:133-9 pubmed
    The development of hepatic glutamine synthetase (GS; EC activity and expression was studied in 1 to 112 day old sparse-fur (spf) mutant mice, with X-linked ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC, EC deficiency...
  40. Tarchini B, Jolicoeur C, Cayouette M. In vivo evidence for unbiased Ikaros retinal lineages using an Ikaros-Cre mouse line driving clonal recombination. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:1973-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These mouse lines confirm the unbiased potential of the Ikaros lineage in vivo and provide novel tools for clonal lineage tracing and single neuron tracking in the retina. ..
  41. de Melo J, Peng G, Chen S, Blackshaw S. The Spalt family transcription factor Sall3 regulates the development of cone photoreceptors and retinal horizontal interneurons. Development. 2011;138:2325-36 pubmed publisher
  42. Jin K, Jiang H, Mo Z, Xiang M. Early B-cell factors are required for specifying multiple retinal cell types and subtypes from postmitotic precursors. J Neurosci. 2010;30:11902-16 pubmed publisher
  43. Stanulovic V, Kyrmizi I, Kruithof de Julio M, Hoogenkamp M, Vermeulen J, Ruijter J, et al. Hepatic HNF4alpha deficiency induces periportal expression of glutamine synthetase and other pericentral enzymes. Hepatology. 2007;45:433-44 pubmed
    ..A putative HNF4alpha-response element in the upstream enhancer of glutamine synthetase (GS), an exclusively pericentral enzyme, was protected against DNase-I and interacted with a protein that ..
  44. Junghans D, Heidenreich M, Hack I, Taylor V, Frotscher M, Kemler R. Postsynaptic and differential localization to neuronal subtypes of protocadherin beta16 in the mammalian central nervous system. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:559-71 pubmed publisher
  45. Nakamura K, Harada C, Namekata K, Harada T. Expression of olig2 in retinal progenitor cells. Neuroreport. 2006;17:345-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that olig2 is involved in the maintenance of the undifferentiated state of retinal progenitor cells. ..
  46. Shiojiri N, Ohta T, Ogawa K, Gebhardt R. Complementary expression of glutamine synthetase and carbamoylphosphate synthetase I in ornithine carbamoyltransferase-deficient mouse liver (spf-ash mouse). Histochem Cell Biol. 1997;108:489-94 pubmed
    b>Glutamine synthetase and carbamoylphosphate synthetase I expression was examined immunohistochemically in livers of spf-ash homozygous and hemizygous mice, in which one of the urea cycle enzymes (ornithine carbamoyltransferase) is ..
  47. Liu X, Zhang Z, Guo W, Burnstock G, He C, Xiang Z. The superficial glia limitans of mouse and monkey brain and spinal cord. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2013;296:995-1007 pubmed publisher
    ..At P10, the layer of astrocytes also covered the brain surface. The highest proliferation rates of surface astrocytes were found at E17 in the spinal cord and at E18 in the forebrain. ..
  48. Wang Y, Dakubo G, Howley P, Campsall K, Mazarolle C, Shiga S, et al. Development of normal retinal organization depends on Sonic hedgehog signaling from ganglion cells. Nat Neurosci. 2002;5:831-2 pubmed
    ..Here we show that Sonic hedgehog signaling from RGCs is required for the normal laminar organization in the vertebrate retina. ..
  49. Hoffmann S, Hos D, Küspert M, Lang R, Lovell Badge R, Wegner M, et al. Stem cell factor Sox2 and its close relative Sox3 have differentiation functions in oligodendrocytes. Development. 2014;141:39-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This study presents one of the few cases in which SoxB1 proteins, including the stem cell factor Sox2, are associated with differentiation rather than precursor functions. ..
  50. Des Portes V, Coulpier M, Melki J, Dreyfus P. Early detection of mouse wobbler mutation: a model of pathological motoneurone death. Neuroreport. 1994;5:1861-4 pubmed
    ..We localized the wobbler gene to chromosome 11 at 0.98 +/- 1.1 cM from the glutamine synthetase (Glns) gene...
  51. Planas Paz L, Orsini V, Boulter L, Calabrese D, Pikiolek M, Nigsch F, et al. The RSPO-LGR4/5-ZNRF3/RNF43 module controls liver zonation and size. Nat Cell Biol. 2016;18:467-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results indicate that the RSPO-LGR4/5-ZNRF3/RNF43 module controls metabolic liver zonation and is a hepatic growth/size rheostat during development, homeostasis and regeneration. ..
  52. Jo H, Kang K, Joe C, Kim J. Pten coordinates retinal neurogenesis by regulating Notch signalling. EMBO J. 2012;31:817-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that Pten plays a pivotal role in retinal neurogenesis by supporting Notch-driven RPC maintenance against neurogenic PI3K-Akt signalling. ..
  53. Li Y, Radner S, French M, Pinzon Duarte G, Daly G, Burgeson R, et al. The ?3 chain of laminin is widely but differentially expressed in murine basement membranes: expression and functional studies. Matrix Biol. 2012;31:120-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support the suggestion that the ?3 chain is deposited in BMs and contributes some unique properties to their function, particularly in the nervous system...
  54. Saghizadeh M, Gribanova Y, Akhmedov N, Farber D. ZBED4, a cone and Müller cell protein in human retina, has a different cellular expression in mouse. Mol Vis. 2011;17:2011-8 pubmed
    ..The patterns of spatial and temporal expression of Zbed4 in the mouse retina suggest a possible involvement of this protein in retinal morphogenesis and Müller cell function. ..
  55. Zhao W, Jiang B, Hu H, Zhang S, Lv S, Yuan J, et al. Lack of CUL4B leads to increased abundance of GFAP-positive cells that is mediated by PTGDS in mouse brain. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:4686-97 pubmed publisher
    ..We further observed that Ptgds is targeted and repressed by the CUL4B/PRC2 complex. Together, our results demonstrate CUL4B as a negative regulator of GFAP expression during neural development. ..
  56. Ivanova E, Hwang G, Pan Z. Characterization of transgenic mouse lines expressing Cre recombinase in the retina. Neuroscience. 2010;165:233-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In other lines, the Cre-induced recombination was found in several retinal cell types. These Cre lines provide a valuable resource for retinal research. ..
  57. Kamei Y, Hattori M, Hatazawa Y, Kasahara T, Kanou M, Kanai S, et al. FOXO1 activates glutamine synthetase gene in mouse skeletal muscles through a region downstream of 3'-UTR: possible contribution to ammonia detoxification. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014;307:E485-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The mRNA and protein expressions of glutamine synthetase (GS) were increased in skeletal muscle of FOXO1-Tg mice...
  58. Palmieri E, Menga A, Lebrun A, Hooper D, Butterfield D, Mazzone M, et al. Blockade of Glutamine Synthetase Enhances Inflammatory Response in Microglial Cells. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2017;26:351-363 pubmed publisher
    ..Since metabolism is an important modulator of immune cell function, we focused our attention on glutamine synthetase (GS), a modulator of the response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation in other cell types, which is ..
  59. Bulera S, Birge R, Cohen S, Khairallah E. Identification of the mouse liver 44-kDa acetaminophen-binding protein as a subunit of glutamine synthetase. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1995;134:313-20 pubmed
    ..were sequenced and 14 of the 15 amino acids detected were found to be identical to subunits of mouse liver glutamine synthetase (EC
  60. He Y, Hakvoort T, Vermeulen J, Labruyere W, de Waart D, van der Hel W, et al. Glutamine synthetase deficiency in murine astrocytes results in neonatal death. Glia. 2010;58:741-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Glutamine synthetase (GS) is a key enzyme in the "glutamine-glutamate cycle" between astrocytes and neurons, but its function in vivo was thus far tested only pharmacologically...
  61. Palmieri E, Spera I, Menga A, Infantino V, Iacobazzi V, Castegna A. Glutamine synthetase desensitizes differentiated adipocytes to proinflammatory stimuli by raising intracellular glutamine levels. FEBS Lett. 2014;588:4807-14 pubmed publisher
    The role of glutamine synthetase (GS) during adipocyte differentiation is unclear. Here, we assess the impact of GS on the adipocytic response to a proinflammatory challenge at different differentiation stages...
  62. Tokunaga A, Kohyama J, Yoshida T, Nakao K, Sawamoto K, Okano H. Mapping spatio-temporal activation of Notch signaling during neurogenesis and gliogenesis in the developing mouse brain. J Neurochem. 2004;90:142-54 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the present method has enabled us to determine the timing, gradients, and boundaries of the activation of Notch signaling. ..
  63. Alves C, Sanz A, Park B, Pellissier L, Tanimoto N, Beck S, et al. Loss of CRB2 in the mouse retina mimics human retinitis pigmentosa due to mutations in the CRB1 gene. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:35-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest an essential role for CRB2 in proper lamination of the photoreceptor layer and suppression of proliferation of late-born retinal progenitor cells...
  64. Aremu D, Meshitsuka S. Accumulation of aluminum by primary cultured astrocytes from aluminum amino acid complex and its apoptotic effect. Brain Res. 2005;1031:284-96 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of glutamine synthetase, by methionine sulfoximine (MSO), enhanced the uptake of aluminum from various amino acid complexes within ..
  65. Kay J, Chu M, Sanes J. MEGF10 and MEGF11 mediate homotypic interactions required for mosaic spacing of retinal neurons. Nature. 2012;483:465-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that members of this gene family can also serve as subtype-specific ligands that pattern neuronal arrays. ..
  66. Matsuoka R, Chivatakarn O, Badea T, SAMUELS I, Cahill H, Katayama K, et al. Class 5 transmembrane semaphorins control selective Mammalian retinal lamination and function. Neuron. 2011;71:460-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings define a set of ligands and receptors required for the establishment of inner retinal lamination and function. ..
  67. Nasonkin I, Lazo K, Hambright D, Brooks M, Fariss R, Swaroop A. Distinct nuclear localization patterns of DNA methyltransferases in developing and mature mammalian retina. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:1914-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies indicate that DNA methyltransferases contribute to the establishment and maturation of cell fates during retinal development. ..
  68. Jin Z, Hirokawa G, Gui L, Takahashi R, Osakada F, Hiura Y, et al. Targeted deletion of miR-182, an abundant retinal microRNA. Mol Vis. 2009;15:523-33 pubmed
    ..Further studies are required to elucidate any functional changes in the retina. ..
  69. Lin Y, Ouchi Y, Satoh S, Watanabe S. Sox2 plays a role in the induction of amacrine and Müller glial cells in mouse retinal progenitor cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:68-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, ectopic Sox2 expression can induce amacrine cells in the mouse retina from stage E17 onward, possibly by facilitating cell cycle exit. ..
  70. Baroti T, Schillinger A, Wegner M, Stolt C. Sox13 functionally complements the related Sox5 and Sox6 as important developmental modulators in mouse spinal cord oligodendrocytes. J Neurochem. 2016;136:316-28 pubmed publisher
    ..By itself, it has little impact on oligodendrocyte development but supports Sox5 and Sox6 during the process as a functionally redundant transcription factor. ..
  71. Love J, Knight A, McAleer M, Todd J. Towards construction of a high resolution map of the mouse genome using PCR-analysed microsatellites. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:4123-30 pubmed
    ..This simple approach is extremely useful in linkage and genome mapping studies and will facilitate construction of high resolution maps of both the mouse and human genomes. ..
  72. Shen Y, Gao H, Shi X, Wang N, Ai D, Li J, et al. Glutamine synthetase plays a role in D-galactose-induced astrocyte aging in vitro and in vivo. Exp Gerontol. 2014;58:166-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Real-time PCR and western blot analysis showed that the levels of glutamine synthetase (GS) mRNA and protein were strikingly decreased in the cultured senescent astrocytes, and the senescent ..
  73. Yeh C, Verkhratsky A, Terzieva S, Rodriguez J. Glutamine synthetase in astrocytes from entorhinal cortex of the triple transgenic animal model of Alzheimer's disease is not affected by pathological progression. Biogerontology. 2013;14:777-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Astroglial glutamine synthetase (GS), converting glutamate to glutamine, is a key element in the Glu-Gln cycle...
  74. Kechad A, Jolicoeur C, Tufford A, Mattar P, Chow R, Harris W, et al. Numb is required for the production of terminal asymmetric cell divisions in the developing mouse retina. J Neurosci. 2012;32:17197-17210 pubmed publisher
  75. Hu B, Petrasch Parwez E, Laue M, Kilimann M. Molecular characterization and immunohistochemical localization of palmdelphin, a cytosolic isoform of the paralemmin protein family implicated in membrane dynamics. Eur J Cell Biol. 2005;84:853-66 pubmed
    ..Its C-terminal region binds glutamine synthetase. Immunohistochemical analysis of the rat brain shows a prominent localization of palmdelphin in the ..
  76. Huyghe D, Nakamura Y, Terunuma M, Faideau M, Haydon P, Pangalos M, et al. Glutamine synthetase stability and subcellular distribution in astrocytes are regulated by γ-aminobutyric type B receptors. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:28808-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we reveal that the cytoplasmic tail of the GABABR2 subunit binds directly to the astrocytic protein glutamine synthetase (GS) and that this interaction determines the subcellular localization of GS...
  77. Lee D, Lee D, Zhou L, Zhou L, Zhou Z, Xie J, et al. Neogenin inhibits HJV secretion and regulates BMP-induced hepcidin expression and iron homeostasis. Blood. 2010;115:3136-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a novel mechanism underlying neogenin regulation of HJV-BMP signaling...
  78. Orieux G, Picault L, Slembrouck A, Roger J, Guillonneau X, Sahel J, et al. Involvement of Bcl-2-associated transcription factor 1 in the differentiation of early-born retinal cells. J Neurosci. 2014;34:1530-41 pubmed publisher
  79. Jambekar A, Palma E, Nicolosi L, Rasola A, Petronilli V, Chiara F, et al. A glutamine synthetase inhibitor increases survival and decreases cytokine response in a mouse model of acute liver failure. Liver Int. 2011;31:1209-21 pubmed publisher
    ..As part of an effort to identify drugs to treat this disease model, we have investigated whether the glutamine synthetase inhibitor methionine sulfoximine (MSO) could play a protective role, given its effectiveness in the ..
  80. Miyake T, Kitamura T. Glutamine synthetase immunoreactivity in two types of mouse brain glial cells. Brain Res. 1992;586:53-60 pubmed
    The localization and distribution of glutamine synthetase (GS) in the adult mouse brain were studied by immunohistochemistry...
  81. Cai Z, Simons D, Fu X, Feng G, Wu S, Zhang X. Loss of Shp2-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in Muller glial cells results in retinal degeneration. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:2973-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Shp2-mediated Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (Ras-MAPK) signaling plays a critical role in Müller cell maturation and function, which is necessary for the survival of retinal neurons. ..