Gene Symbol: Glp1r
Description: glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor
Alias: GLP-1R, GLP1Rc, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor, GLP-1 receptor, GLP-1-R
Species: mouse
Products:     Glp1r

Top Publications

  1. Scrocchi L, Brown T, MacLusky N, Brubaker P, Auerbach A, Joyner A, et al. Glucose intolerance but normal satiety in mice with a null mutation in the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor gene. Nat Med. 1996;2:1254-8 pubmed
    ..behavior and insulin secretion, we have generated mice with a targeted disruption of the GLP1 receptor gene (GLP1R)...
  2. Cani P, Holst J, Drucker D, Delzenne N, Thorens B, Burcelin R, et al. GLUT2 and the incretin receptors are involved in glucose-induced incretin secretion. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007;276:18-23 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, both incretins secretion depends on mechanisms involving their own receptors and GLP-1 further requires GLUT2. ..
  3. Hansotia T, Maida A, Flock G, Yamada Y, Tsukiyama K, Seino Y, et al. Extrapancreatic incretin receptors modulate glucose homeostasis, body weight, and energy expenditure. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:143-52 pubmed
    ..We examined the importance of endogenous incretin receptors for control of glucose homeostasis through analysis of Glp1r(-/-), Gipr(-/-), and double incretin receptor knockout (DIRKO) mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet...
  4. Pederson R, Satkunarajah M, McIntosh C, Scrocchi L, Flamez D, Schuit F, et al. Enhanced glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide secretion and insulinotropic action in glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor -/- mice. Diabetes. 1998;47:1046-52 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that upregulation of the GIP component of the enteroinsular axis, at the levels of GIP secretion and action, modifies the phenotype resulting from interruption of the insulinotropic activity of GLP-1 in vivo. ..
  5. Ayala J, Bracy D, James F, Burmeister M, Wasserman D, Drucker D. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor knockout mice are protected from high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. Endocrinology. 2010;151:4678-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Chow-fed mice lacking the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (Glp1r) exhibit enhanced insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake but impaired suppression of endogenous glucose ..
  6. Jacovetti C, Abderrahmani A, Parnaud G, Jonas J, Peyot M, Cornu M, et al. MicroRNAs contribute to compensatory ? cell expansion during pregnancy and obesity. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:3541-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings point to a major role for miR-338-3p in compensatory ? cell mass expansion occurring under different insulin resistance states. ..
  7. Lamont B, Li Y, Kwan E, Brown T, Gaisano H, Drucker D. Pancreatic GLP-1 receptor activation is sufficient for incretin control of glucose metabolism in mice. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:388-402 pubmed publisher
    ..we generated transgenic mice that expressed the human GLP-1R in islets and pancreatic ductal cells (Pdx1-hGLP1R:Glp1r-/- mice)...
  8. Hsieh J, Longuet C, Baker C, Qin B, Federico L, Drucker D, et al. The glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor is essential for postprandial lipoprotein synthesis and secretion in hamsters and mice. Diabetologia. 2010;53:552-61 pubmed publisher
    ..As dyslipidaemia is a contributing risk factor for cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes, we examined the mechanisms linking pharmacological and physiological regulation of GLP-1 action to control of postprandial lipid metabolism...
  9. Li Y, Hansotia T, Yusta B, Ris F, Halban P, Drucker D. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor signaling modulates beta cell apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:471-8 pubmed

More Information


  1. Knauf C, Cani P, Perrin C, Iglesias M, Maury J, Bernard E, et al. Brain glucagon-like peptide-1 increases insulin secretion and muscle insulin resistance to favor hepatic glycogen storage. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:3554-63 pubmed
    ..Our data show that during hyperglycemia, brain GLP-1 inhibited muscle glucose utilization and increased insulin secretion to favor hepatic glycogen stores, preparing efficiently for the next fasting state. ..
  2. Baggio L, Kim J, Drucker D. Chronic exposure to GLP-1R agonists promotes homologous GLP-1 receptor desensitization in vitro but does not attenuate GLP-1R-dependent glucose homeostasis in vivo. Diabetes. 2004;53 Suppl 3:S205-14 pubmed
  3. Preitner F, Ibberson M, Franklin I, Binnert C, Pende M, Gjinovci A, et al. Gluco-incretins control insulin secretion at multiple levels as revealed in mice lacking GLP-1 and GIP receptors. J Clin Invest. 2004;113:635-45 pubmed
  4. Hansotia T, Baggio L, Delmeire D, Hinke S, Yamada Y, Tsukiyama K, et al. Double incretin receptor knockout (DIRKO) mice reveal an essential role for the enteroinsular axis in transducing the glucoregulatory actions of DPP-IV inhibitors. Diabetes. 2004;53:1326-35 pubmed
  5. Baggio L, Huang Q, Cao X, Drucker D. An albumin-exendin-4 conjugate engages central and peripheral circuits regulating murine energy and glucose homeostasis. Gastroenterology. 2008;134:1137-47 pubmed publisher
    ..conjugated protein, at the GLP-1R using heterologous cells expressing the GLP-1R in vitro and both wild-type and Glp1r(-/-) mice in vivo...
  6. Lachey J, D Alessio D, Rinaman L, Elmquist J, Drucker D, Seeley R. The role of central glucagon-like peptide-1 in mediating the effects of visceral illness: differential effects in rats and mice. Endocrinology. 2005;146:458-62 pubmed
    ..possibility that alternate GLP-1Rs mediate aversive effects, we examined the ability of GLP-1 to produce a CTA in GLP1R -/- mice...
  7. Shin Y, Martin B, Golden E, Dotson C, Maudsley S, Kim W, et al. Modulation of taste sensitivity by GLP-1 signaling. J Neurochem. 2008;106:455-63 pubmed publisher
    ..A modest increase in citric acid taste sensitivity in these knockout mice suggests GLP-1 signaling may modulate sour taste, as well. Together, these findings suggest a novel paracrine mechanism for the regulation of taste function. ..
  8. Pocai A, Carrington P, Adams J, Wright M, Eiermann G, Zhu L, et al. Glucagon-like peptide 1/glucagon receptor dual agonism reverses obesity in mice. Diabetes. 2009;58:2258-66 pubmed publisher
    Oxyntomodulin (OXM) is a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP1R)/glucagon receptor (GCGR) dual agonist peptide that reduces body weight in obese subjects through increased energy expenditure and decreased energy intake...
  9. Picha K, Cunningham M, Drucker D, Mathur A, Ort T, Scully M, et al. Protein engineering strategies for sustained glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor-dependent control of glucose homeostasis. Diabetes. 2008;57:1926-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data demonstrate that CNTO736 produces a spectrum of GLP-1 receptor-dependent actions while exhibiting significantly improved pharmacokinetics relative to the native GLP-1 peptide. ..
  10. Knauf C, Cani P, Kim D, Iglesias M, Chabo C, Waget A, et al. Role of central nervous system glucagon-like Peptide-1 receptors in enteric glucose sensing. Diabetes. 2008;57:2603-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the gut-glucose sensor modulates peripheral glucose metabolism through a nutrient-sensitive mechanism, which requires brain GLP-1Rc signaling and is impaired during diabetes. ..
  11. Tornehave D, Kristensen P, Rømer J, Knudsen L, Heller R. Expression of the GLP-1 receptor in mouse, rat, and human pancreas. J Histochem Cytochem. 2008;56:841-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This manuscript contains online supplemental material at Please visit this article online to view these materials. ..
  12. Cabou C, Campistron G, Marsollier N, Leloup C, Cruciani Guglielmacci C, Penicaud L, et al. Brain glucagon-like peptide-1 regulates arterial blood flow, heart rate, and insulin sensitivity. Diabetes. 2008;57:2577-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that central GLP-1 signaling is an essential component of circuits integrating cardiovascular and metabolic responses to hyperglycemia. ..
  13. Maida A, Lovshin J, Baggio L, Drucker D. The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist oxyntomodulin enhances beta-cell function but does not inhibit gastric emptying in mice. Endocrinology. 2008;149:5670-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may have implications for therapeutic efforts using OXM as a long-acting GLP-1R agonist for the treatment of metabolic disorders. ..
  14. Flock G, Baggio L, Longuet C, Drucker D. Incretin receptors for glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide are essential for the sustained metabolic actions of vildagliptin in mice. Diabetes. 2007;56:3006-13 pubmed
  15. Griffioen K, Wan R, Okun E, Wang X, Lovett Barr M, Li Y, et al. GLP-1 receptor stimulation depresses heart rate variability and inhibits neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons. Cardiovasc Res. 2011;89:72-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We used the long-lasting GLP-1 receptor agonist Exendin-4 (Ex-4) to test the hypothesis that GLP-1 signalling modulates central parasympathetic control of heart rate...
  16. Baggio L, Huang Q, Brown T, Drucker D. Oxyntomodulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 differentially regulate murine food intake and energy expenditure. Gastroenterology. 2004;127:546-58 pubmed
    ..Hence ligand-specific activation of a common GLP-1R increases the complexity of gut-central nervous system pathways regulating energy homeostasis and metabolic expenditure. ..
  17. During M, Cao L, Zuzga D, Francis J, Fitzsimons H, Jiao X, et al. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is involved in learning and neuroprotection. Nat Med. 2003;9:1173-9 pubmed
    ..GLP-1R-deficient mice have a phenotype characterized by a learning deficit that is restored after hippocampal Glp1r gene transfer. In addition, rats overexpressing GLP-1R in the hippocampus show improved learning and memory...
  18. Ellingsgaard H, Hauselmann I, Schuler B, Habib A, Baggio L, Meier D, et al. Interleukin-6 enhances insulin secretion by increasing glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion from L cells and alpha cells. Nat Med. 2011;17:1481-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This previously unidentified endocrine loop implicates IL-6 in the regulation of insulin secretion and suggests that drugs modulating this loop may be useful in type 2 diabetes. ..
  19. Panjwani N, Mulvihill E, Longuet C, Yusta B, Campbell J, Brown T, et al. GLP-1 receptor activation indirectly reduces hepatic lipid accumulation but does not attenuate development of atherosclerosis in diabetic male ApoE(-/-) mice. Endocrinology. 2013;154:127-39 pubmed publisher
    ..We were unable to detect expression of the entire Glp1r coding sequence in macrophages isolated from ApoE(-/-), C57BL/6, and IL10(-/-) mice...
  20. Ban K, Noyan Ashraf M, Hoefer J, Bolz S, Drucker D, Husain M. Cardioprotective and vasodilatory actions of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor are mediated through both glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor-dependent and -independent pathways. Circulation. 2008;117:2340-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Unexpectedly, many of these actions of GLP-1 were preserved in Glp1r(-/-) mice...
  21. Lovshin J, Estall J, Yusta B, Brown T, Drucker D. Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 action in the murine central nervous system is enhanced by elimination of GLP-1 receptor signaling. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:21489-99 pubmed
    ..These findings illustrate that CNS GLP-2R expression is not restricted to hypothalamic nuclei and demonstrate that the anorectic effects of GLP-2 are transient and modulated by the presence or absence of GLP-1R signaling in vivo. ..
  22. Campos R, Lee Y, Drucker D. Divergent tissue-specific and developmental expression of receptors for glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 in the mouse. Endocrinology. 1994;134:2156-64 pubmed
  23. Wilson Perez H, Chambers A, Ryan K, Li B, Sandoval D, Stoffers D, et al. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy is effective in two genetic mouse models of glucagon-like Peptide 1 receptor deficiency. Diabetes. 2013;62:2380-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that GLP-1 receptor activity is not necessary for the metabolic improvements induced by VSG surgery. ..
  24. Rafferty E, Wylie A, Hand K, Elliott C, Grieve D, Green B. Investigating the effects of physiological bile acids on GLP-1 secretion and glucose tolerance in normal and GLP-1R(-/-) mice. Biol Chem. 2011;392:539-46 pubmed publisher
    ..However, GLP-1 secretion appears to be only part of the glucose-lowering mechanism and our studies indicate that the other major incretin GIP is not involved. ..
  25. Ayala J, Bracy D, James F, Julien B, Wasserman D, Drucker D. The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor regulates endogenous glucose production and muscle glucose uptake independent of its incretin action. Endocrinology. 2009;150:1155-64 pubmed publisher
    ..postmeal glucose excursions by enhancing insulin secretion via activation of the beta-cell GLP-1 receptor (Glp1r). GLP-1 may also control glucose levels through mechanisms that are independent of this incretin effect...
  26. Williams E, Chang R, Strochlic D, Umans B, Lowell B, Liberles S. Sensory Neurons that Detect Stretch and Nutrients in the Digestive System. Cell. 2016;166:209-21 pubmed publisher
    ..responses to ingested nutrients (GPR65 neurons) and mechanical distension of the stomach and intestine (GLP1R neurons)...
  27. Yamada C, Yamada Y, Tsukiyama K, Yamada K, Udagawa N, Takahashi N, et al. The murine glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is essential for control of bone resorption. Endocrinology. 2008;149:574-9 pubmed
    ..These findings establish an essential role for endogenous GLP-1 receptor signaling in the control of bone resorption, likely through a calcitonin-dependent pathway. ..
  28. Cani P, Knauf C, Iglesias M, Drucker D, Delzenne N, Burcelin R. Improvement of glucose tolerance and hepatic insulin sensitivity by oligofructose requires a functional glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor. Diabetes. 2006;55:1484-90 pubmed
    ..In summary, our data show that the antidiabetic actions of OFS require a functional GLP-1 receptor. These findings highlight the therapeutic potential of enhancing endogenous GLP-1 secretion for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. ..
  29. List J, He H, Habener J. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor and proglucagon expression in mouse skin. Regul Pept. 2006;134:149-57 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest a possible paracrine/autocrine role for GLP-1 and its receptor in skin development and possibly also in folliculogenesis. ..
  30. Kim D, Park M, Heo Y, Park S. Metformin ameliorates lipotoxicity-induced mesangial cell apoptosis partly via upregulation of glucagon like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R). Arch Biochem Biophys. 2015;584:90-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggested that regulation of GLP-1R expression could be a promising approach to treat diabetic nephropathy and the novel mechanism of metformin mediated GLP-1R regulation. ..
  31. Moffett R, Vasu S, Thorens B, Drucker D, Flatt P. Incretin receptor null mice reveal key role of GLP-1 but not GIP in pancreatic beta cell adaptation to pregnancy. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e96863 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that GLP-1 but not GIP is a key mediator of beta cell mass expansion and related adaptations in pregnancy, triggered in part by generation of intra-islet GLP-1. ..
  32. Waget A, Cabou C, Masseboeuf M, Cattan P, Armanet M, Karaca M, et al. Physiological and pharmacological mechanisms through which the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin regulates glycemia in mice. Endocrinology. 2011;152:3018-29 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Glp1r(-/-) and Gipr(-/-) mice were studied and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling was blocked by ..
  33. Ussher J, Baggio L, Campbell J, Mulvihill E, Kim M, Kabir M, et al. Inactivation of the cardiomyocyte glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) unmasks cardiomyocyte-independent GLP-1R-mediated cardioprotection. Mol Metab. 2014;3:507-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we studied GLP-1R-dependent adaptive and cardioprotective responses to ventricular injury. Glp1r (-/-) hearts exhibited chamber-specific differences in gene expression, but normal mortality and left ventricular (..
  34. Nakashima K, Shimoda M, Hamamoto S, Tatsumi F, Hirukawa H, Tawaramoto K, et al. Self-inducible secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) that allows MIN6 cells to maintain insulin secretion and insure cell survival. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;349:281-8 pubmed publisher
    ..MIN6 cells possess a mechanism of GLP-1 signal amplification in an autocrine fashion, by which the cells maintained insulin production and cell survival. ..
  35. Suzuki A, Nakauchi H, Taniguchi H. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (1-37) converts intestinal epithelial cells into insulin-producing cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:5034-9 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that efficient induction of insulin production in intestinal epithelial cells by GLP-1-(1-37) could represent a new therapeutic approach to diabetes mellitus. ..
  36. Burmeister M, Ayala J, Drucker D, Ayala J. Central glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor-induced anorexia requires glucose metabolism-mediated suppression of AMPK and is impaired by central fructose. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013;304:E677-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We also suggest that fructose stimulates food intake by impairing central GLP-1R action. This has significant implications given the correlation between sugar consumption and obesity. ..
  37. Sirohi S, Schurdak J, Seeley R, Benoit S, Davis J. Central & peripheral glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor signaling differentially regulate addictive behaviors. Physiol Behav. 2016;161:140-144 pubmed publisher
  38. Scrocchi L, Brown T, Drucker D. Leptin sensitivity in nonobese glucagon-like peptide I receptor -/- mice. Diabetes. 1997;46:2029-34 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the greater effects of leptin on glucose and insulin in leptin-treated versus pair-fed GLP-IR -/- mice raises the possibility that disruption of GLP-I signaling modifies the sensitivity to leptin in vivo. ..
  39. Tatarkiewicz K, Sablan E, Polizzi C, Villescaz C, Parkes D. Long-term metabolic benefits of exenatide in mice are mediated solely via the known glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2014;306:R490-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we examined 3-mo dosing of exenatide in mice lacking a functional GLP-1R (Glp1r(-/-))...
  40. Nakamura Y, Kanai T, Saeki K, Takabe M, Irie J, Miyoshi J, et al. CCR2 knockout exacerbates cerulein-induced chronic pancreatitis with hyperglycemia via decreased GLP-1 receptor expression and insulin secretion. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2013;304:G700-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the CCR2/CCL2 axis-mediated CD11b(+)-cell migration to the pancreas is critically involved in chronic pancreatitis-mediated hyperglycemia through the modulation of GLP-1 receptor expression and insulin secretion. ..
  41. Carmody J, Muñoz R, Yin H, Kaplan L. Peripheral, but not central, GLP-1 receptor signaling is required for improvement in glucose tolerance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2016;310:E855-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results suggest a detectable but only modest role for GLP-1 in mediating the effects of RYGB and that this role is limited to its well-described action on glucose regulation. ..
  42. Martin C, Passilly Degrace P, Chevrot M, Ancel D, Sparks S, Drucker D, et al. Lipid-mediated release of GLP-1 by mouse taste buds from circumvallate papillae: putative involvement of GPR120 and impact on taste sensitivity. J Lipid Res. 2012;53:2256-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This regulatory loop, probably triggered by the LCFA-GPR120 interaction, might contribute to the high palatability of foods rich both in fat and sugar...
  43. Flock G, Holland D, Seino Y, Drucker D. GPR119 regulates murine glucose homeostasis through incretin receptor-dependent and independent mechanisms. Endocrinology. 2011;152:374-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Gastric emptying was assessed in WT, Glp1r-/-, DIRKO, Glp2r-/-, and GPR119-/- mice treated with the GPR119 agonist AR231453...
  44. Hadjiyanni I, Siminovitch K, Danska J, Drucker D. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor signalling selectively regulates murine lymphocyte proliferation and maintenance of peripheral regulatory T cells. Diabetologia. 2010;53:730-40 pubmed
    ..However, there is little information on the role of the GLP-1R in the immune system. We studied the role of the GLP-1R in immune function in wild-type (WT) and nonobese diabetic (NOD) and Glp1r-/- mice.
  45. Maida A, Lamont B, Cao X, Drucker D. Metformin regulates the incretin receptor axis via a pathway dependent on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α in mice. Diabetologia. 2011;54:339-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Metformin action was assessed in Glp1r(-/-), Gipr(-/-), Glp1r:Gipr(-/-), Pparα (also known as Ppara)(-/-) and hyperglycaemic obese wild-type mice with ..
  46. Mulvihill E, Varin E, Gladanac B, Campbell J, Ussher J, Baggio L, et al. Cellular Sites and Mechanisms Linking Reduction of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Activity to Control of Incretin Hormone Action and Glucose Homeostasis. Cell Metab. 2017;25:152-165 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings identify distinct roles for DPP4 in the EC versus the bone marrow compartment for selective incretin degradation and DPP4i-mediated glucoregulation. ..
  47. Gaspari T, Liu H, Welungoda I, Hu Y, Widdop R, Knudsen L, et al. A GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide inhibits endothelial cell dysfunction and vascular adhesion molecule expression in an ApoE-/- mouse model. Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2011;8:117-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these studies identify in vivo protection, by the GLP-1R agonist liraglutide, against ECD and provide a potential molecular mechanism responsible for these effects. ..
  48. González Mariscal I, Krzysik Walker S, Kim W, Rouse M, Egan J. Blockade of cannabinoid 1 receptor improves GLP-1R mediated insulin secretion in mice. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016;423:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings suggest a novel mechanism in which endocannabinoids are negative modulators of incretin-mediated insulin secretion. ..
  49. Vasu S, Moffett R, Thorens B, Flatt P. Role of endogenous GLP-1 and GIP in beta cell compensatory responses to insulin resistance and cellular stress. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e101005 pubmed publisher
  50. Kershaw E, Chua S, Leibel R. Localization of a (CA)n repeat in glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor gene (Glp1r) to proximal mouse chromosome 17 and its linkage to other markers. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:301-3 pubmed
  51. Zhu B, Gong N, Fan H, Peng C, Ding X, Jiang Y, et al. Lamiophlomis rotata, an orally available Tibetan herbal painkiller, specifically reduces pain hypersensitivity states through the activation of spinal glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors. Anesthesiology. 2014;121:835-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Results support the notion that the activation of spinal GLP-1Rs leads to specific antinociception in pain hypersensitivity and further suggest that GLP-1R is a human-validated target molecule for the treatment of chronic pain. ..
  52. Roed S, Wismann P, Underwood C, Kulahin N, Iversen H, Cappelen K, et al. Real-time trafficking and signaling of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2014;382:938-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, a prolonged cycling of ligand-activated GLP-1Rs was observed and is suggested to be correlated with a prolonged cAMP signal. ..
  53. Maida A, Hansotia T, Longuet C, Seino Y, Drucker D. Differential importance of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide vs glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor signaling for beta cell survival in mice. Gastroenterology. 2009;137:2146-57 pubmed publisher
    ..assessed in Gipr(-/-) mice given streptozotocin and by gene expression profiling of RNA from islets isolated from Glp1r(-/-) and Gipr(-/-) mice...
  54. Parlevliet E, Wang Y, Geerling J, Schröder van der Elst J, Picha K, O Neil K, et al. GLP-1 receptor activation inhibits VLDL production and reverses hepatic steatosis by decreasing hepatic lipogenesis in high-fat-fed APOE*3-Leiden mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49152 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that GLP-receptor agonists could reduce hepatic steatosis and ameliorate dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. ..
  55. Scrocchi L, Hill M, Saleh J, Perkins B, Drucker D. Elimination of glucagon-like peptide 1R signaling does not modify weight gain and islet adaptation in mice with combined disruption of leptin and GLP-1 action. Diabetes. 2000;49:1552-60 pubmed
  56. Mima A, Hiraoka Yamomoto J, Li Q, Kitada M, Li C, Geraldes P, et al. Protective effects of GLP-1 on glomerular endothelium and its inhibition by PKC? activation in diabetes. Diabetes. 2012;61:2967-79 pubmed publisher
  57. Campbell J, Ussher J, Mulvihill E, Kolic J, Baggio L, Cao X, et al. TCF1 links GIPR signaling to the control of beta cell function and survival. Nat Med. 2016;22:84-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence the GIPR-TCF1 axis represents a potential therapeutic target for preserving both the function and survival of vulnerable, diabetic beta cells. ..
  58. Burmeister M, Bracy D, James F, Holt R, Ayala J, King E, et al. Regulation of glucose kinetics during exercise by the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor. J Physiol. 2012;590:5245-55 pubmed publisher
    In response to oral glucose, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (Glp1r) knockout (Glp1r?/?) mice become hyperglycaemic due to impaired insulin secretion. Exercise also induces hyperglycaemia in Glp1r?/? mice...
  59. Xu F, Lin B, Zheng X, Chen Z, Cao H, Xu H, et al. GLP-1 receptor agonist promotes brown remodelling in mouse white adipose tissue through SIRT1. Diabetologia. 2016;59:1059-69 pubmed publisher
    ..These data highlight that a GLP-1R agonist promotes brown remodelling of WAT in a SIRT1-dependent manner; this might be one of the mechanisms underlying its effect on weight loss. ..
  60. Takai S, Yasumatsu K, Inoue M, Iwata S, Yoshida R, Shigemura N, et al. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is specifically involved in sweet taste transmission. FASEB J. 2015;29:2268-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus GLP-1 may be involved in normal sweet taste signal transmission in mice. ..
  61. Barrera J, D Alessio D, Drucker D, Woods S, Seeley R. Differences in the central anorectic effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 and exendin-4 in rats. Diabetes. 2009;58:2820-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A better understanding of these unique differences may lead to expansion and/or improvement of GLP-1-based therapies for type 2 diabetes and obesity. ..
  62. Hu Y, Yang J, Ma X, Chen Z, Hu Y, Zhao J, et al. A lincRNA-DYNLRB2-2/GPR119/GLP-1R/ABCA1-dependent signal transduction pathway is essential for the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis. J Lipid Res. 2014;55:681-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, GPR119 decreased lipid and serum inflammatory cytokine levels, decreasing atherosclerosis in apoE(-/-) mice. These suggest that GPR119 may be a promising candidate as a therapeutic agent. ..
  63. Clemmensen C, Smajilovic S, Smith E, Woods S, Brauner Osborne H, Seeley R, et al. Oral L-arginine stimulates GLP-1 secretion to improve glucose tolerance in male mice. Endocrinology. 2013;154:3978-83 pubmed publisher
    ..assess the contribution of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R)-signaling to these improvements, L-arginine was given to Glp1r knockout mice and their wild-type littermates...
  64. Peier A, Desai K, Hubert J, Du X, Yang L, Qian Y, et al. Effects of peripherally administered neuromedin U on energy and glucose homeostasis. Endocrinology. 2011;152:2644-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that NMU functions as a peripheral regulator of energy and glucose homeostasis and the development of NMUR1 agonists may be an effective treatment for diabetes and obesity. ..
  65. Cabou C, Vachoux C, Campistron G, Drucker D, Burcelin R. Brain GLP-1 signaling regulates femoral artery blood flow and insulin sensitivity through hypothalamic PKC-?. Diabetes. 2011;60:2245-56 pubmed publisher
  66. MacLusky N, Cook S, Scrocchi L, Shin J, Kim J, Vaccarino F, et al. Neuroendocrine function and response to stress in mice with complete disruption of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor signaling. Endocrinology. 2000;141:752-62 pubmed
  67. Sisley S, Gutierrez Aguilar R, Scott M, D Alessio D, Sandoval D, Seeley R. Neuronal GLP1R mediates liraglutide's anorectic but not glucose-lowering effect. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:2456-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Both glucose and body weight are regulated by the brain, which contains GLP1 receptors (GLP1R)...
  68. Nguyen A, Mandard S, Dray C, Deckert V, Valet P, Besnard P, et al. Lipopolysaccharides-mediated increase in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion: involvement of the GLP-1 pathway. Diabetes. 2014;63:471-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, enhanced GLP-1 secretion and action underlies the development of glucose-mediated hyperinsulinemia associated with endotoxemia. ..
  69. Hernández C, Bogdanov P, Corraliza L, García Ramírez M, Solà Adell C, Arranz J, et al. Topical Administration of GLP-1 Receptor Agonists Prevents Retinal Neurodegeneration in Experimental Diabetes. Diabetes. 2016;65:172-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that GLP-1R activation itself prevents retinal neurodegeneration. Our results should open up a new approach in the treatment of the early stages of DR. ..
  70. Hou Y, Ernst S, Heidenreich K, Williams J. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is present in pancreatic acinar cells and regulates amylase secretion through cAMP. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016;310:G26-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show that GLP-1R is present in pancreatic acinar cells and that GLP-1 can regulate secretion through its receptor and cAMP signaling pathway. ..
  71. Mabilleau G, Mieczkowska A, Irwin N, Flatt P, Chappard D. Optimal bone mechanical and material properties require a functional glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor. J Endocrinol. 2013;219:59-68 pubmed publisher
    ..X-ray microradiography, microcomputed tomography, qBEI, and FTIRI bone strength and bone quality in male Glp1r knockout (Glp1r KO) mice when compared with control WT animals...
  72. Koehler J, Baggio L, Lamont B, Ali S, Drucker D. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor activation modulates pancreatitis-associated gene expression but does not modify the susceptibility to experimental pancreatitis in mice. Diabetes. 2009;58:2148-61 pubmed publisher
    ..GLP-1R signaling for gene expression in the exocrine pancreas and the severity of pancreatitis was assessed in Glp1r(-/-) mice. Acute administration of Ex-4 increased expression of egr-1 and c-fos in the exocrine pancreas...
  73. Flamez D, Gilon P, Moens K, Van Breusegem A, Delmeire D, Scrocchi L, et al. Altered cAMP and Ca2+ signaling in mouse pancreatic islets with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor null phenotype. Diabetes. 1999;48:1979-86 pubmed
    ..These abnormalities suggest that GLP-1R signaling is an essential upstream component of multiple beta-cell signaling pathways. ..
  74. Bang Berthelsen C, Holm T, Pyke C, Simonsen L, Søkilde R, Pociot F, et al. GLP-1 Induces Barrier Protective Expression in Brunner's Glands and Regulates Colonic Inflammation. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2016;22:2078-97 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, GLP-1 receptor agonists upregulate IL-33, mucin 5b, and CCL20 in murine Brunner's glands. Taken together, our data indicate that GLP-1 receptor agonists affect gut homeostasis in both proximal and distal parts of the gut. ..
  75. Heppner K, Baquero A, Bennett C, Lindsley S, Kirigiti M, Bennett B, et al. GLP-1R Signaling Directly Activates Arcuate Nucleus Kisspeptin Action in Brain Slices but Does not Rescue Luteinizing Hormone Inhibition in Ovariectomized Mice During Negative Energy Balance. Eneuro. 2017;4: pubmed publisher
    ..we found that GLP-producing fibers come in close apposition with ARC Kiss1 neurons; these neurons also contain Glp1r mRNA...
  76. Muhammad A, Xing B, Liu C, Naji A, Ma X, Simmons R, et al. Menin and PRMT5 suppress GLP1 receptor transcript and PKA-mediated phosphorylation of FOXO1 and CREB. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2017;313:E148-E166 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that menin and protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) suppress GLP1 receptor (GLP1R) transcript levels...
  77. Harikumar K, Lau S, Sexton P, Wootten D, Miller L. Coexpressed Class B G Protein-Coupled Secretin and GLP-1 Receptors Self- and Cross-Associate: Impact on Pancreatic Islets. Endocrinology. 2017;158:1685-1700 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the heterodimeric receptor complexes also mediated agonist-induced cross-receptor internalization, a process that could have broad functional significance in sites of natural receptor coexpression. ..