Gene Symbol: Gli2
Description: GLI-Kruppel family member GLI2
Alias: zinc finger protein GLI2, Tax helper protein
Species: mouse
Products:     Gli2

Top Publications

  1. Ding Q, Motoyama J, Gasca S, Mo R, Sasaki H, Rossant J, et al. Diminished Sonic hedgehog signaling and lack of floor plate differentiation in Gli2 mutant mice. Development. 1998;125:2533-43 pubmed
    ..that the expression of known Shh-responsive genes such as Ptc and Gli1 is downregulated in mutant mice lacking Gli2 function...
  2. Kesper D, Didt Koziel L, Vortkamp A. Gli2 activator function in preosteoblasts is sufficient to mediate Ihh-dependent osteoblast differentiation, whereas the repressor function of Gli2 is dispensable for endochondral ossification. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:1818-26 pubmed publisher
    ..of the key regulators of endochondral ossification is mediated by transcription factors of the Gli family, Gli1, Gli2, and Gli3. Gli3 and to a lesser extent Gli2 can be proteolytically processed into short repressor proteins...
  3. Eggenschwiler J, Bulgakov O, Qin J, Li T, Anderson K. Mouse Rab23 regulates hedgehog signaling from smoothened to Gli proteins. Dev Biol. 2006;290:1-12 pubmed
    ..Double mutant analysis indicates that the primary target of Rab23 is the Gli2 activator and that Rab23 and Gli3 repressor have additive effects on patterning...
  4. Niewiadomski P, Zhujiang A, Youssef M, Waschek J. Interaction of PACAP with Sonic hedgehog reveals complex regulation of the hedgehog pathway by PKA. Cell Signal. 2013;25:2222-30 pubmed publisher
    ..activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and inhibition of the translocation of the Shh-dependent transcription factor Gli2 into the primary cilium...
  5. Koziel L, Wuelling M, Schneider S, Vortkamp A. Gli3 acts as a repressor downstream of Ihh in regulating two distinct steps of chondrocyte differentiation. Development. 2005;132:5249-60 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, by regulating distal chondrocyte differentiation, Gli3 seems to position the domain of PTHrP expression. ..
  6. Canettieri G, Di Marcotullio L, Greco A, Coni S, Antonucci L, Infante P, et al. Histone deacetylase and Cullin3-REN(KCTD11) ubiquitin ligase interplay regulates Hedgehog signalling through Gli acetylation. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:132-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that Gli1 and Gli2 are acetylated proteins and that their HDAC-mediated deacetylation promotes transcriptional activation and sustains ..
  7. Cheng W, Yeung C, Ng Y, Zhang J, Hui C, Kim P. Sonic Hedgehog mediator Gli2 regulates bladder mesenchymal patterning. J Urol. 2008;180:1543-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the Shh transcriptional factor Gli2 and the Shh target gene Bmp4 (R&D Systems) were expressed in the inner mesenchymal zone of the bladder, where ..
  8. McDermott A, Gustafsson M, Elsam T, Hui C, Emerson C, Borycki A. Gli2 and Gli3 have redundant and context-dependent function in skeletal muscle formation. Development. 2005;132:345-57 pubmed
    ..We report that Gli genes are differentially expressed in the mouse somite. Gli2 and Gli3 are essential for Gli1 expression in somites, establishing Gli2 and Gli3 as primary mediators and Gli1 as ..
  9. Corrales J, Rocco G, Blaess S, Guo Q, Joyner A. Spatial pattern of sonic hedgehog signaling through Gli genes during cerebellum development. Development. 2004;131:5581-90 pubmed
    ..By contrast, Gli2 is expressed uniformly in all cells in the developing cerebellum except Purkinje cells and Gli3 is broadly ..

More Information


  1. Lei Q, Jeong Y, Misra K, Li S, Zelman A, Epstein D, et al. Wnt signaling inhibitors regulate the transcriptional response to morphogenetic Shh-Gli signaling in the neural tube. Dev Cell. 2006;11:325-37 pubmed
    ..These results identify a transcriptional mechanism that integrates graded Shh and Wnt signaling to define progenitor gene expression domains and cell fates in the neural tube. ..
  2. Motoyama J, Liu J, Mo R, Ding Q, Post M, Hui C. Essential function of Gli2 and Gli3 in the formation of lung, trachea and oesophagus. Nat Genet. 1998;20:54-7 pubmed
    ..In mice, three zinc-finger transcription factors, Gli1, Gli2 and Gli3, have been implicated in the transduction of Shh signal...
  3. Dai D, Zhu H, Wlodarczyk B, Zhang L, Li L, Li A, et al. Fuz controls the morphogenesis and differentiation of hair follicles through the formation of primary cilia. J Invest Dermatol. 2011;131:302-10 pubmed publisher
  4. Park H, Bai C, Platt K, Matise M, Beeghly A, Hui C, et al. Mouse Gli1 mutants are viable but have defects in SHH signaling in combination with a Gli2 mutation. Development. 2000;127:1593-605 pubmed
    ..requirements for the three Gli genes in mice, we have produced a Gli1 mutant and analyzed the phenotypes of Gli1/Gli2 and Gli1/3 double mutants...
  5. Motoyama J, Milenkovic L, Iwama M, Shikata Y, Scott M, Hui C. Differential requirement for Gli2 and Gli3 in ventral neural cell fate specification. Dev Biol. 2003;259:150-61 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the transcription factors Gli2 and Gli3, mediators of Shh signaling, are required for the development of the ventral cell fates but make distinct ..
  6. Law K, Makino S, Mo R, Zhang X, Puviindran V, Hui C. Antagonistic and cooperative actions of Kif7 and Sufu define graded intracellular Gli activities in Hedgehog signaling. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50193 pubmed publisher that Kif7 is also required to establish high intracellular Gli activity by antagonizing the Sufu-inhibition of Gli2. Strikingly, by abolishing the negative regulatory action of Sufu, diverse ventral cell fates can be specified in ..
  7. Dassule H, Lewis P, Bei M, Maas R, McMahon A. Sonic hedgehog regulates growth and morphogenesis of the tooth. Development. 2000;127:4775-85 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate that Shh regulates growth and determines the shape of the tooth. However, Shh signaling is not essential for differentiation of ameloblasts or odontoblasts. ..
  8. Mill P, Mo R, Fu H, Grachtchouk M, Kim P, Dlugosz A, et al. Sonic hedgehog-dependent activation of Gli2 is essential for embryonic hair follicle development. Genes Dev. 2003;17:282-94 pubmed
    ..Of the three Gli transcription factors involved in transducing Shh signals in vertebrates, we demonstrate here that Gli2 is the key mediator of Shh responses in skin...
  9. Hui C, Slusarski D, Platt K, Holmgren R, Joyner A. Expression of three mouse homologs of the Drosophila segment polarity gene cubitus interruptus, Gli, Gli-2, and Gli-3, in ectoderm- and mesoderm-derived tissues suggests multiple roles during postimplantation development. Dev Biol. 1994;162:402-13 pubmed
    ..Consistent with this hypothesis, a naturally occurring Gli-3 mutation, the mouse extra-toes mutant; shows defects in both mesoderm- and ectoderm-derived tissues. ..
  10. Shimoyama A, Wada M, Ikeda F, Hata K, Matsubara T, Nifuji A, et al. Ihh/Gli2 signaling promotes osteoblast differentiation by regulating Runx2 expression and function. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:2411-8 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of Gli2- but not Gli3-induced ALP, osteocalcin expression, and calcification of these cells...
  11. Wall D, Mears A, McNeill B, Mazerolle C, Thurig S, Wang Y, et al. Progenitor cell proliferation in the retina is dependent on Notch-independent Sonic hedgehog/Hes1 activity. J Cell Biol. 2009;184:101-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Shh-driven stabilization of Hes1 is independent of Notch signaling and requires the Shh effector Gli2. We identify Gli2 as a primary mediator of this response by showing that Gli2 is required for Hh (Hedgehog)-..
  12. Ribes V, Balaskas N, Sasai N, Cruz C, Dessaud E, Cayuso J, et al. Distinct Sonic Hedgehog signaling dynamics specify floor plate and ventral neuronal progenitors in the vertebrate neural tube. Genes Dev. 2010;24:1186-200 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we provide evidence supporting a common scheme for FP specification by Shh signaling that reconciles mechanisms of FP development in teleosts and amniotes. ..
  13. Buttitta L, Mo R, Hui C, Fan C. Interplays of Gli2 and Gli3 and their requirement in mediating Shh-dependent sclerotome induction. Development. 2003;130:6233-43 pubmed
    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is essential for sclerotome development in the mouse. Gli2 and Gli3 are thought to be the primary transcriptional mediators of Shh signaling; however, their roles in Shh induction of sclerotomal genes have ..
  14. Kim J, Kato M, Beachy P. Gli2 trafficking links Hedgehog-dependent activation of Smoothened in the primary cilium to transcriptional activation in the nucleus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:21666-71 pubmed publisher the nucleus is not known, and to address this question we have characterized the cellular trafficking of Gli2, the principal mediator of Hh-dependent transcriptional activation...
  15. Ahn S, Joyner A. Dynamic changes in the response of cells to positive hedgehog signaling during mouse limb patterning. Cell. 2004;118:505-16 pubmed
    ..Finally, by fate mapping Shh-responding cells in Gli2 and Gli3 mutant limbs, we demonstrate that a specific level of positive Hh signaling is not required to specify ..
  16. Tuson M, He M, Anderson K. Protein kinase A acts at the basal body of the primary cilium to prevent Gli2 activation and ventralization of the mouse neural tube. Development. 2011;138:4921-30 pubmed publisher
    ..form of Gli3, the principal function of PKA in the Shh pathway in neural development is to restrain activation of Gli2. Activation of the Hh pathway in PKA mutants depends on cilia, and the catalytic and regulatory subunits of PKA are ..
  17. Szczepny A, Hime G, Loveland K. Expression of hedgehog signalling components in adult mouse testis. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:3063-70 pubmed
    ..Overall, the coordinated expression pattern of these genes in adult mouse testis indicates a role for Hh signalling in spermatogenesis. ..
  18. Boras Granic K, Chang H, Grosschedl R, Hamel P. Lef1 is required for the transition of Wnt signaling from mesenchymal to epithelial cells in the mouse embryonic mammary gland. Dev Biol. 2006;295:219-31 pubmed
    ..Specifically, Shh, Ihh, and Gli2 are expressed in mammary epithelial cells at levels in Lef1-deficient animals similar to wild-type littermates...
  19. Zhang Q, Shi Q, Chen Y, Yue T, Li S, Wang B, et al. Multiple Ser/Thr-rich degrons mediate the degradation of Ci/Gli by the Cul3-HIB/SPOP E3 ubiquitin ligase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:21191-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide a mechanistic insight into how HIB/SPOP recognizes its substrates and have important implications for the genome-wide prediction of substrates for Cul3-based E3 ligases. ..
  20. Hynes M, Stone D, Dowd M, Pitts Meek S, Goddard A, Gurney A, et al. Control of cell pattern in the neural tube by the zinc finger transcription factor and oncogene Gli-1. Neuron. 1997;19:15-26 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that GLI-1 can reproduce the cell patterning actions of Shh in the developing nervous system and provide support for the hypothesis that it is a mediator of the Shh signal in vertebrates. ..
  21. Bhatia N, Thiyagarajan S, Elcheva I, Saleem M, Dlugosz A, Mukhtar H, et al. Gli2 is targeted for ubiquitination and degradation by beta-TrCP ubiquitin ligase. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:19320-6 pubmed
    ..The transcription factor Gli2 plays a key role in the transduction of Hh signals by modulating transcription of some Hh target genes, yet the ..
  22. Tukachinsky H, Lopez L, Salic A. A mechanism for vertebrate Hedgehog signaling: recruitment to cilia and dissociation of SuFu-Gli protein complexes. J Cell Biol. 2010;191:415-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support a simple mechanism in which Hh signals at vertebrate cilia cause dissociation of inactive SuFu-Gli complexes, a process inhibited by PKA. ..
  23. Hughes D, Allen J, Morley G, Sutherland K, Ahmed W, Prosser J, et al. Cloning and sequencing of the mouse Gli2 gene: localization to the Dominant hemimelia critical region. Genomics. 1997;39:205-15 pubmed
    ..We have cloned and sequenced the mouse homolog of the zinc finger gene Gli2 and demonstrated significant similarity to the human GLI3 gene...
  24. Hatsell S, Cowin P. Gli3-mediated repression of Hedgehog targets is required for normal mammary development. Development. 2006;133:3661-70 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that although Gli2 and Gli3 are expressed during embryonic mammary development, transcriptional reporters of positive Hedgehog ..
  25. Blaess S, Corrales J, Joyner A. Sonic hedgehog regulates Gli activator and repressor functions with spatial and temporal precision in the mid/hindbrain region. Development. 2006;133:1799-809 pubmed
    ..Thus, the precise spatial and temporal regulation of Gli2A and Gli3R by Shh is instrumental in coordinating mid/hindbrain development in three dimensions. ..
  26. Svärd J, Heby Henricson K, Henricson K, Persson Lek M, Rozell B, Lauth M, et al. Genetic elimination of Suppressor of fused reveals an essential repressor function in the mammalian Hedgehog signaling pathway. Dev Cell. 2006;10:187-97 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that, in striking contrast to Drosophila, in mammals, Sufu has a central role, and its loss of function leads to potent ligand-independent activation of the Hh pathway. ..
  27. Wang H, Lei Q, Oosterveen T, Ericson J, Matise M. Tcf/Lef repressors differentially regulate Shh-Gli target gene activation thresholds to generate progenitor patterning in the developing CNS. Development. 2011;138:3711-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data reveal a Shh-Gli-independent transcriptional input that is required to shape the precise spatial and temporal response to extracellular morphogen signaling information during lineage segregation in the CNS. ..
  28. Haycraft C, Banizs B, Aydin Son Y, Zhang Q, Michaud E, Yoder B. Gli2 and Gli3 localize to cilia and require the intraflagellar transport protein polaris for processing and function. PLoS Genet. 2005;1:e53 pubmed
    ..Thus, our data support a model where cilia have a direct role in Gli processing and Shh signal transduction. ..
  29. Gritli Linde A, Bei M, Maas R, Zhang X, Linde A, McMahon A. Shh signaling within the dental epithelium is necessary for cell proliferation, growth and polarization. Development. 2002;129:5323-37 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we provide evidence that Shh signaling between ameloblasts and the overlying stratum intermedium may involve subcellular localization of Patched 2 and Gli1 mRNAs, both of which are targets of Shh signaling in these cells. ..
  30. Kietzman H, Everson J, Sulik K, Lipinski R. The teratogenic effects of prenatal ethanol exposure are exacerbated by Sonic Hedgehog or GLI2 haploinsufficiency in the mouse. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e89448 pubmed publisher
    ..Single allele mutations in the Hh pathway genes Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) and GLI2 cause holoprosencephaly with extremely variable phenotypic penetrance in humans...
  31. Mo R, Freer A, Zinyk D, Crackower M, Michaud J, Heng H, et al. Specific and redundant functions of Gli2 and Gli3 zinc finger genes in skeletal patterning and development. Development. 1997;124:113-23 pubmed
    ..We show here that Gli2 mutant mice exhibit severe skeletal abnormalities including cleft palate, tooth defects, absence of vertebral body ..
  32. Wen X, Lai C, Evangelista M, Hongo J, De Sauvage F, Scales S. Kinetics of hedgehog-dependent full-length Gli3 accumulation in primary cilia and subsequent degradation. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:1910-22 pubmed publisher
    ..By generating antibodies capable of detecting endogenous pathway transcription factors Gli2 and Gli3, we monitored their kinetics of accumulation in cilia upon Hh stimulation...
  33. Hojo H, Ohba S, Yano F, Saito T, Ikeda T, Nakajima K, et al. Gli1 protein participates in Hedgehog-mediated specification of osteoblast lineage during endochondral ossification. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:17860-9 pubmed publisher
    With regard to Hedgehog signaling in mammalian development, the majority of research has focused on Gli2 and Gli3 rather than Gli1...
  34. Balaskas N, Ribeiro A, Panovska J, Dessaud E, Sasai N, Page K, et al. Gene regulatory logic for reading the Sonic Hedgehog signaling gradient in the vertebrate neural tube. Cell. 2012;148:273-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal that morphogen interpretation is an emergent property of the architecture of a transcriptional network that provides robustness and reliability to tissue patterning. ..
  35. Pan Y, Wang C, Wang B. Phosphorylation of Gli2 by protein kinase A is required for Gli2 processing and degradation and the Sonic Hedgehog-regulated mouse development. Dev Biol. 2009;326:177-89 pubmed publisher
    In mice, Gli2 and Gli3 are the transcription factors that mediate the initial Hedgehog (Hh) signaling...
  36. Grindley J, Bellusci S, Perkins D, Hogan B. Evidence for the involvement of the Gli gene family in embryonic mouse lung development. Dev Biol. 1997;188:337-48 pubmed
    Murine Gli, Gli2, and Gli3 are zinc finger genes related to Drosophila cubitus interuptus, a component of the hedgehog signal transduction pathway...
  37. Liu J, Heydeck W, Zeng H, Liu A. Dual function of suppressor of fused in Hh pathway activation and mouse spinal cord patterning. Dev Biol. 2012;362:141-53 pubmed publisher
    ..and spinal cord D/V patterning remain controversial, particularly in light of recent findings that Sufu protects Gli2 and Gli3 proteins from proteasomal degradation...
  38. Pan Y, Wang B. A novel protein-processing domain in Gli2 and Gli3 differentially blocks complete protein degradation by the proteasome. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:10846-52 pubmed
    ..The molecular mechanism for such limited degradation is unknown. The repressor forms of Gli2 and Gli3 transcription factors are generated from their full-length proteins through limited proteasome-mediated ..
  39. Friedland Little J, Hoffmann A, Ocbina P, Peterson M, Bosman J, Chen Y, et al. A novel murine allele of Intraflagellar Transport Protein 172 causes a syndrome including VACTERL-like features with hydrocephalus. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:3725-37 pubmed publisher
    ..mutant cilia showed defects of the distal ciliary axoneme, including disrupted IFT88 localization and Hh-dependent Gli2 localization...
  40. Bok J, Dolson D, Hill P, Ruther U, Epstein D, Wu D. Opposing gradients of Gli repressor and activators mediate Shh signaling along the dorsoventral axis of the inner ear. Development. 2007;134:1713-22 pubmed
    ..which Shh regulates inner ear development, we examined embryos with various combinations of mutant alleles for Shh, Gli2 and Gli3...
  41. Palma V, Ruiz i Altaba A. Hedgehog-GLI signaling regulates the behavior of cells with stem cell properties in the developing neocortex. Development. 2004;131:337-45 pubmed
    ..These findings identify a crucial mechanism for the regulation of the number of cells with stem cell properties that is unexpectedly conserved in different stem cell niches. ..
  42. Lee J, Platt K, Censullo P, Ruiz i Altaba A. Gli1 is a target of Sonic hedgehog that induces ventral neural tube development. Development. 1997;124:2537-52 pubmed
    ..In contrast, Gli2 and Gli3 are absent from the neural plate midline with Gli2 expressed widely and Gli3 in a graded fashion with ..
  43. Gianakopoulos P, Skerjanc I. Hedgehog signaling induces cardiomyogenesis in P19 cells. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:21022-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, aggregated P19 cell lines expressing Gli2 or Meox1 also up-regulated the expression of cardiac muscle factors, leading to cardiomyogenesis...
  44. Patterson V, Damrau C, Paudyal A, Reeve B, Grimes D, Stewart M, et al. Mouse hitchhiker mutants have spina bifida, dorso-ventral patterning defects and polydactyly: identification of Tulp3 as a novel negative regulator of the Sonic hedgehog pathway. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:1719-39 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the possible mechanism of action of Tulp3 in Shh-mediated signalling in light of these new data...
  45. Kolterud A, Grosse A, Zacharias W, Walton K, Kretovich K, Madison B, et al. Paracrine Hedgehog signaling in stomach and intestine: new roles for hedgehog in gastrointestinal patterning. Gastroenterology. 2009;137:618-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The results may have implications for several human anomalies and could potentially expand the spectrum of the human VACTERL association. ..
  46. Cheung H, Zhang X, Ribeiro A, Mo R, Makino S, Puviindran V, et al. The kinesin protein Kif7 is a critical regulator of Gli transcription factors in mammalian hedgehog signaling. Sci Signal. 2009;2:ra29 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Kif7 is a missing component of the mammalian Hh signaling machinery, implying a greater commonality between the Drosophila and mammalian system than the prevailing view suggests. ..
  47. Barnfield P, Zhang X, Thanabalasingham V, Yoshida M, Hui C. Negative regulation of Gli1 and Gli2 activator function by Suppressor of fused through multiple mechanisms. Differentiation. 2005;73:397-405 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate here that Su(fu) prevents the nuclear accumulation of Gli1 and Gli2 through multiple mechanisms...
  48. Wang C, Pan Y, Wang B. Suppressor of fused and Spop regulate the stability, processing and function of Gli2 and Gli3 full-length activators but not their repressors. Development. 2010;137:2001-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Gli2 and Gli3 are primary transcriptional regulators that mediate hedgehog (Hh) signaling...
  49. Hu M, Mo R, Bhella S, Wilson C, Chuang P, Hui C, et al. GLI3-dependent transcriptional repression of Gli1, Gli2 and kidney patterning genes disrupts renal morphogenesis. Development. 2006;133:569-78 pubmed
    ..deficiency or cyclopamine-mediated SMO inhibition disrupted renal organogenesis, decreased expression of GLI1 and GLI2 proteins, but increased expression of GLI3 repressor relative to GLI3 activator...
  50. Zhulyn O, Li D, Deimling S, Vakili N, Mo R, Puviindran V, et al. A switch from low to high Shh activity regulates establishment of limb progenitors and signaling centers. Dev Cell. 2014;29:241-9 pubmed publisher
  51. Mukhopadhyay S, Wen X, Ratti N, Loktev A, Rangell L, Scales S, et al. The ciliary G-protein-coupled receptor Gpr161 negatively regulates the Sonic hedgehog pathway via cAMP signaling. Cell. 2013;152:210-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, Shh signaling directs Gpr161 to be internalized from cilia, preventing its activity. Thus, Gpr161 defines a morphogenetic pathway coupling protein kinase A activation to Shh signaling during neural tube development. ..
  52. Zhang Y, Fu L, Qi X, Zhang Z, Xia Y, Jia J, et al. Structural insight into the mutual recognition and regulation between Suppressor of Fused and Gli/Ci. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2608 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study thus provides mechanistic insight into the mutual recognition and regulation between Sufu and Gli/Ci. ..
  53. Chen M, Wilson C, Li Y, Law K, Lu C, Gacayan R, et al. Cilium-independent regulation of Gli protein function by Sufu in Hedgehog signaling is evolutionarily conserved. Genes Dev. 2009;23:1910-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these studies delineate important aspects of cilium-dependent and cilium-independent Hh signal transduction and provide significant mechanistic insight into Hh signaling in diverse species. ..
  54. Bai C, Joyner A. Gli1 can rescue the in vivo function of Gli2. Development. 2001;128:5161-72 pubmed
    ..In particular, Gli1 appears to be a constitutive activator, and Gli2 and Gli3 have repressor functions...
  55. Harfe B, Scherz P, Nissim S, Tian H, McMahon A, Tabin C. Evidence for an expansion-based temporal Shh gradient in specifying vertebrate digit identities. Cell. 2004;118:517-28 pubmed
    ..Genetic studies of the effects of limiting accessibility of Shh within the limb support this model, in which the effect of the Shh morphogen is dictated by a temporal as well as a spatial gradient. ..
  56. Sasaki H, Hui C, Nakafuku M, Kondoh H. A binding site for Gli proteins is essential for HNF-3beta floor plate enhancer activity in transgenics and can respond to Shh in vitro. Development. 1997;124:1313-22 pubmed
    ..Gli expression is restricted to the ventral part, while Gli2 and Gli3 are expressed throughout the neural tube and dorsally, respectively...
  57. Joeng K, Long F. The Gli2 transcriptional activator is a crucial effector for Ihh signaling in osteoblast development and cartilage vascularization. Development. 2009;136:4177-85 pubmed publisher
    ..To test the involvement of Gli2 activation in these processes, we have generated a mouse strain that expresses a constitutive Gli2 activator in a ..
  58. Takanaga H, Tsuchida Straeten N, Nishide K, Watanabe A, Aburatani H, Kondo T. Gli2 is a novel regulator of sox2 expression in telencephalic neuroepithelial cells. Stem Cells. 2009;27:165-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that the expression of sox2 gene, which is essential for the maintenance of NSCs, is regulated by the Gli2 transcription factor, a downstream mediator of sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling: Gli2 binds to an enhancer that is ..
  59. Ocbina P, Eggenschwiler J, Moskowitz I, Anderson K. Complex interactions between genes controlling trafficking in primary cilia. Nat Genet. 2011;43:547-53 pubmed publisher
  60. Furimsky M, Wallace V. Complementary Gli activity mediates early patterning of the mouse visual system. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:594-605 pubmed
    ..This pathway is mediated by the Gli transcription factors (Gli1, Gli2, and Gli3) that differentially activate and repress the expression of specific downstream target genes...
  61. Zhao M, Ko S, Liu J, Chen D, Zhang J, Wang B, et al. Inhibition of microtubule assembly in osteoblasts stimulates bone morphogenetic protein 2 expression and bone formation through transcription factor Gli2. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:1291-305 pubmed publisher osteoblasts, inhibition of microtubule assembly increased cytoplasmic levels and transcriptional activity of Gli2, a transcriptional mediator of Hh signaling that we have previously shown to enhance BMP-2 expression in ..
  62. Petropoulos H, Gianakopoulos P, Ridgeway A, Skerjanc I. Disruption of Meox or Gli activity ablates skeletal myogenesis in P19 cells. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:23874-81 pubmed
    b>Gli2 and Meox1 are transcription factors that are expressed in the developing somite and play roles in the commitment of cells to the skeletal muscle lineage...
  63. Bai C, Auerbach W, Lee J, Stephen D, Joyner A. Gli2, but not Gli1, is required for initial Shh signaling and ectopic activation of the Shh pathway. Development. 2002;129:4753-61 pubmed
    ..Of significance, we found instead that Gli2 is required for mediating some of the inappropriate Shh signaling in Ptc mutants...
  64. Murone M, Luoh S, Stone D, Li W, Gurney A, Armanini M, et al. Gli regulation by the opposing activities of fused and suppressor of fused. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:310-2 pubmed
  65. Ding Q, Fukami S, Meng X, Nishizaki Y, Zhang X, Sasaki H, et al. Mouse suppressor of fused is a negative regulator of sonic hedgehog signaling and alters the subcellular distribution of Gli1. Curr Biol. 1999;9:1119-22 pubmed
    ..Although the Gli1, Gli2, and Gli3 zinc finger proteins are known to be effectors of Hh signaling in vertebrates, the mechanisms regulating ..
  66. Wechsler Reya R, Scott M. Control of neuronal precursor proliferation in the cerebellum by Sonic Hedgehog. Neuron. 1999;22:103-14 pubmed
    ..Blocking Shh function in vivo dramatically reduces GCP proliferation. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms of normal growth and tumorigenesis in the cerebellum. ..
  67. Hui C, Joyner A. A mouse model of greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome: the extra-toesJ mutation contains an intragenic deletion of the Gli3 gene. Nat Genet. 1993;3:241-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, structures affected in the mouse mutant and human syndrome were found to correlate with expression domains of Gli3 in mouse. These results strongly suggest that the deficiency of GLI3 function leads to GCPS. ..
  68. Corrales J, Blaess S, Mahoney E, Joyner A. The level of sonic hedgehog signaling regulates the complexity of cerebellar foliation. Development. 2006;133:1811-21 pubmed
    ..shown that sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling correlates spatially and temporally with fissure formation, and that Gli2 is the main activator driving Shh induced proliferation of embryonic GCPs...
  69. Liem K, He M, Ocbina P, Anderson K. Mouse Kif7/Costal2 is a cilia-associated protein that regulates Sonic hedgehog signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:13377-82 pubmed publisher
    ..screen, we show that, similar to Drosophila and zebrafish Cos2, mouse Kif7 acts downstream of Smo and upstream of Gli2 and has both negative and positive roles in Shh signal transduction...
  70. Matise M, Epstein D, Park H, Platt K, Joyner A. Gli2 is required for induction of floor plate and adjacent cells, but not most ventral neurons in the mouse central nervous system. Development. 1998;125:2759-70 pubmed
    ..In this study, we have examined d/v patterning of the CNS in Gli2 mouse mutants...