Gjd2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Gjd2
Description: gap junction protein, delta 2
Alias: Gja9, connexin36, cx36, connexin-36, gap junction alpha-9 protein, gap junction delta-2 protein, gap junction membrane channel protein alpha 9, gap junction protein, alpha 9
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The murine gap junction gene connexin36 is highly expressed in mouse retina and regulated during brain development
    G Sohl
    Institut fur Genetik, Abteilung Molekulargenetik, Universitat Bonn, Germany
    FEBS Lett 428:27-31. 1998
  2. ncbi Differentiating the effects of Cx36 and E-cadherin for proper insulin secretion of MIN6 cells
    Alessandra Calabrese
    Department of Morphology, University of Geneva Medical School, Geneva, Switzerland
    Exp Cell Res 294:379-91. 2004
  3. ncbi Analysis of a new allele of limb deformity (ld) reveals tissue- and age-specific transcriptional effects of the Ld Global Control Region
    Emilia Pavel
    Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
    Int J Dev Biol 51:273-81. 2007
  4. pmc Colocalization of connexin 36 and corticotropin-releasing hormone in the mouse brain
    Lars Westberg
    Laboratory of Neurobiology and Behavior, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    BMC Neurosci 10:41. 2009
  5. ncbi Loss of connexin36 channels alters beta-cell coupling, islet synchronization of glucose-induced Ca2+ and insulin oscillations, and basal insulin release
    Magalie A Ravier
    Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, University of Geneva, C M U, 1 rue Michel Servet, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Diabetes 54:1798-807. 2005
  6. pmc Connexins protect mouse pancreatic β cells against apoptosis
    Philippe Klee
    Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, University of Geneva, Medical School, Geneva, Switzerland
    J Clin Invest 121:4870-9. 2011
  7. ncbi Loss of connexin36 increases retinal cell vulnerability to secondary cell loss
    Katharine Striedinger
    Department of Neuroanatomy and Molecular Brain Research, Ruhr University, Universitätstrasse 150, D 44801 Bochum, Germany
    Eur J Neurosci 22:605-16. 2005
  8. pmc Connexin45-containing neuronal gap junctions in rodent retina also contain connexin36 in both apposing hemiplaques, forming bihomotypic gap junctions, with scaffolding contributed by zonula occludens-1
    Xinbo Li
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    J Neurosci 28:9769-89. 2008
  9. ncbi Expression pattern of lacZ reporter gene representing connexin36 in transgenic mice
    Joachim Degen
    Institute of Genetics, Division of Molecular Genetics, University of Bonn, D 53117 Bonn, Germany
    J Comp Neurol 473:511-25. 2004
  10. pmc Gap junctions and other mechanisms of cell-cell communication regulate basal insulin secretion in the pancreatic islet
    R K P Benninger
    Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University Medical Centre, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    J Physiol 589:5453-66. 2011

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Detail Information

Publications86

  1. ncbi The murine gap junction gene connexin36 is highly expressed in mouse retina and regulated during brain development
    G Sohl
    Institut fur Genetik, Abteilung Molekulargenetik, Universitat Bonn, Germany
    FEBS Lett 428:27-31. 1998
    A new gap junction gene isolated from rat brain cDNA, mouse retina cDNA and mouse genomic DNA is called connexin36, since it codes for a connexin protein of 321 amino acids corresponding to the theoretical molecular mass of 36045 kDa (rat)..
  2. ncbi Differentiating the effects of Cx36 and E-cadherin for proper insulin secretion of MIN6 cells
    Alessandra Calabrese
    Department of Morphology, University of Geneva Medical School, Geneva, Switzerland
    Exp Cell Res 294:379-91. 2004
    ..Primary pancreatic beta-cells and insulin-producing lines are connected by gap junction channels made of Cx36. Using stable transfection of an antisense Cx36 cDNA, we have previously obtained clones of MIN6 cells that ..
  3. ncbi Analysis of a new allele of limb deformity (ld) reveals tissue- and age-specific transcriptional effects of the Ld Global Control Region
    Emilia Pavel
    Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
    Int J Dev Biol 51:273-81. 2007
    ..These data indicate that the predominant effect of the Ld GCR is to activate the expression of Grem1 in the developing limb buds, although it may serve a minor role in long-range transcriptional effects that extend beyond Fmn1 and Grem1...
  4. pmc Colocalization of connexin 36 and corticotropin-releasing hormone in the mouse brain
    Lars Westberg
    Laboratory of Neurobiology and Behavior, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    BMC Neurosci 10:41. 2009
    ..Here we employ double labeling and retrograde tracing methods to investigate to what extent neuroendocrine and neuropeptide-containing neurons of the hypothalamus and brainstem express the neuronal gap junction protein connexin 36.
  5. ncbi Loss of connexin36 channels alters beta-cell coupling, islet synchronization of glucose-induced Ca2+ and insulin oscillations, and basal insulin release
    Magalie A Ravier
    Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, University of Geneva, C M U, 1 rue Michel Servet, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Diabetes 54:1798-807. 2005
    ..In particular, adjacent beta-cells are coupled via channels made of connexin36 (Cx36)...
  6. pmc Connexins protect mouse pancreatic β cells against apoptosis
    Philippe Klee
    Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, University of Geneva, Medical School, Geneva, Switzerland
    J Clin Invest 121:4870-9. 2011
    ..Here, we show that connexin 36 (Cx36), a trans-membrane protein that forms gap junctions between β cells in the pancreatic islets, protects ..
  7. ncbi Loss of connexin36 increases retinal cell vulnerability to secondary cell loss
    Katharine Striedinger
    Department of Neuroanatomy and Molecular Brain Research, Ruhr University, Universitätstrasse 150, D 44801 Bochum, Germany
    Eur J Neurosci 22:605-16. 2005
    ..The present study was aimed at clarifying the contribution of the neuronal gap-junction protein connexin36 (Cx36) to secondary cell loss after injury in the mouse retina...
  8. pmc Connexin45-containing neuronal gap junctions in rodent retina also contain connexin36 in both apposing hemiplaques, forming bihomotypic gap junctions, with scaffolding contributed by zonula occludens-1
    Xinbo Li
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    J Neurosci 28:9769-89. 2008
    ..junctions, particularly in the inner plexiform layer (IPL), where the two principal neuronal connexin proteins are Cx36 and Cx45...
  9. ncbi Expression pattern of lacZ reporter gene representing connexin36 in transgenic mice
    Joachim Degen
    Institute of Genetics, Division of Molecular Genetics, University of Bonn, D 53117 Bonn, Germany
    J Comp Neurol 473:511-25. 2004
    Targeted deletion of the connexin36 (Cx36) gene in the mouse genome leads to visual transmission defects, weakened synchrony of rhythmic inhibitory potentials in the neocortex, and disruption of gamma-frequency network oscillations...
  10. pmc Gap junctions and other mechanisms of cell-cell communication regulate basal insulin secretion in the pancreatic islet
    R K P Benninger
    Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University Medical Centre, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    J Physiol 589:5453-66. 2011
    ..insulin secretion levels were measured from islets lacking gap-junction coupling following deletion of connexion36 (Cx36(-/-)), and these results were compared to those obtained using fully isolated β-cells...
  11. ncbi ICER-1gamma overexpression drives palmitate-mediated connexin36 down-regulation in insulin-secreting cells
    Florent Allagnat
    Department of Medicine, University Hospital, CHUV 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Biol Chem 283:5226-34. 2008
    Channels formed by the gap junction protein connexin36 (Cx36) contribute to the proper control of insulin secretion. We investigated the impact of chronic hyperlipidemia on Cx36 expression in pancreatic beta-cells...
  12. pmc Direct rod input to cone BCs and direct cone input to rod BCs challenge the traditional view of mammalian BC circuitry
    Ji Jie Pang
    Cullen Eye Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:395-400. 2010
    ..cells (DBCs) in the wild-type and three pathway-specific knockout mice (rod transducin knockout [Tralpha(-/-)], connexin36 knockout [Cx36(-/-)], and transcription factor beta4 knockout [Bhlhb4(-/-)]), we show that a subpopulation of ..
  13. ncbi Connexin 36 in photoreceptor cells: studies on transgenic rod-less and cone-less mouse retinas
    Loan Dang
    Eye Research Institute, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309 4481, USA
    Mol Vis 10:323-7. 2004
    ..A recent report has shown that this transfer does not occur in mice in which the gap junction protein connexin 36 is knocked out indicating that rod-cone gap junctions are assembled from this protein...
  14. pmc Neuronal gap junction coupling is regulated by glutamate and plays critical role in cell death during neuronal injury
    Yongfu Wang
    Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas 66160, USA
    J Neurosci 32:713-25. 2012
    ..activation of group II mGluRs increases background levels of neuronal gap junction coupling and expression of connexin 36 (Cx36) (neuronal gap junction protein), and inactivation of group II mGluRs prevents the ischemia-mediated ..
  15. ncbi Synchronous activity of inhibitory networks in neocortex requires electrical synapses containing connexin36
    M R Deans
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Neuron 31:477-85. 2001
    ..in such activity, we constructed mice expressing histochemical reporters in place of the gap junction protein Cx36. Localization of the reporter with somatostatin and parvalbumin suggested that Cx36 was expressed largely by ..
  16. ncbi Visual transmission deficits in mice with targeted disruption of the gap junction gene connexin36
    M Guldenagel
    Institute of Genetics, Division of Molecular Genetics, University of Bonn, 53117 Bonn, Germany
    J Neurosci 21:6036-44. 2001
    ..into the cone pathway through electrotonic coupling, and recent histological data suggest the involvement of connexin36 (Cx36) in this pathway...
  17. doi A new conditional mouse mutant reveals specific expression and functions of connexin36 in neurons and pancreatic beta-cells
    Kerstin Wellershaus
    Institute of Genetics, Division of Molecular Genetics, University of Bonn, Roemerstrasse 164, Bonn, Germany
    Exp Cell Res 314:997-1012. 2008
    b>Connexin36 (Cx36) is the main connexin isoform expressed in neurons of the central nervous system (CNS) and in pancreatic beta-cells, i.e...
  18. doi Rod and cone contributions to horizontal cell light responses in the mouse retina
    Jennifer Trümpler
    Department of Neurobiology, Carl von Ossietzky University, D 26111 Oldenburg, Germany
    J Neurosci 28:6818-25. 2008
    ..we assessed the rod and cone contributions to horizontal cell somatic and axon terminal light responses in the connexin36-deficient mouse retina, which lacks rod-cone coupling...
  19. ncbi Spatial relationships of connexin36, connexin57 and zonula occludens-1 in the outer plexiform layer of mouse retina
    C Ciolofan
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, 730 William Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3E 3J7
    Neuroscience 148:473-88. 2007
    ..Double immunofluorescence labeling was conducted to determine the spatial relationships of connexin36, connexin57, the gap junction-associated protein zonula occludens-1 and the photoreceptor ribbon synapse-..
  20. pmc Association of connexin36 and zonula occludens-1 with zonula occludens-2 and the transcription factor zonula occludens-1-associated nucleic acid-binding protein at neuronal gap junctions in rodent retina
    C Ciolofan
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, 730 William Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3E 3J7
    Neuroscience 140:433-51. 2006
    Most gap junctions between neurons in mammalian retina contain abundant connexin36, often in association with the scaffolding protein zonula occludens-1...
  21. ncbi Cx36 and the function of endocrine pancreas
    A Calabrese
    Department of Morphology, University of Geneva, Geneve, Switzerland
    Cell Commun Adhes 8:387-91. 2001
    ..The insulin-producing beta-cells, which form the bulk of endocrine pancreatic islets, express predominantly Cx36. To assess the function of this connexin, we have first studied its expression in rats, during sequential changes ..
  22. pmc Genetic dissection of rod and cone pathways in the dark-adapted mouse retina
    Muhammad M Abd-El-Barr
    Department of Ophthalmology, Cullen Eye Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, NC 205, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    J Neurophysiol 102:1945-55. 2009
    ..pathways by analyzing electroretinograms (ERGs), primarily b-wave responses, in dark-adapted wildtype, connexin36 knockout, depolarizing rod-bipolar cell (DBCR) knockout, and rod transducin alpha-subunit knockout mice [WT, ..
  23. ncbi Electrical synapses in the thalamic reticular nucleus
    Carole E Landisman
    Department of Neuroscience, Division of Biology and Medicine, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA
    J Neurosci 22:1002-9. 2002
    ..Electrical synapses between TRN neurons were absent in mice with a null mutation for the connexin36 (Cx36) gene...
  24. ncbi Global ischemia-induced increases in the gap junctional proteins connexin 32 (Cx32) and Cx36 in hippocampus and enhanced vulnerability of Cx32 knock-out mice
    K Oguro
    Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
    J Neurosci 21:7534-42. 2001
    ..that the gap junctional proteins connexin 32 (Cx32; expressed by oligodendrocytes, interneurons, or both), Cx36 (expressed by interneurons), and Cx43 (expressed by astrocytes) play a role in defining cell-specific patterns of ..
  25. ncbi Stimulus complexity dependent memory impairment and changes in motor performance after deletion of the neuronal gap junction protein connexin36 in mice
    C Frisch
    Institute of Physiological Psychology, Center for Biological and Medical Research, Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf, Universitatstrasse 1, D 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Behav Brain Res 157:177-85. 2005
    ..b>Connexin36 (Cx36) is expressed in distinct subpopulations of neurons throughout the mammalian brain...
  26. ncbi Connexin36 mediates gap junctional coupling of alpha-ganglion cells in mouse retina
    Timm Schubert
    Institute of Biology, University of Oldenburg, D 26111 Oldenburg, Germany
    J Comp Neurol 485:191-201. 2005
    ..These tracer coupling patterns were completely absent in mice deficient in connexin36 (Cx36)...
  27. pmc Connexin36 vs. connexin32, "miniature" neuronal gap junctions, and limited electrotonic coupling in rodent suprachiasmatic nucleus
    J E Rash
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Campus Delivery 1617, Fort Collins, CO 80523 1617, USA
    Neuroscience 149:350-71. 2007
    ..been proposed that neuronal gap junctions exist in the SCN; that they consist of connexin32 or, alternatively, connexin36; and that connexin36 knockout eliminates neuronal coupling between SCN neurons and disrupts circadian rhythms...
  28. ncbi Connexin36 mediates spike synchrony in olfactory bulb glomeruli
    Jason M Christie
    Vollum Institute, Portland, Oregon, USA
    Neuron 46:761-72. 2005
    ..as well as correlated spiking between mitral cells projecting to the same glomerulus was entirely absent in connexin36 (Cx36) knockout mice...
  29. ncbi Expression of connexin30.2 in interneurons of the central nervous system in the mouse
    Maria M Kreuzberg
    Institute of Genetics, Division of Molecular Genetics, University of Bonn, 53117 Bonn, Germany
    Mol Cell Neurosci 37:119-34. 2008
    ..approximately 94% of the Cx30.2 expressing parvalbumin-positive interneurons also expressed Cx36. Performing field potential recordings from hippocampal slices we found no differences in basal excitation and ..
  30. ncbi Effects of electrically coupled inhibitory networks on local neuronal responses to intracortical microstimulation
    Sergejus Butovas
    Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, Department of Cognitive Neurology, University Tübingen, Otfried Müller Str 27, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    J Neurophysiol 96:1227-36. 2006
    ..Furthermore, evoked inhibition was weaker and longer in connexin 36 knockout (KO) mice that feature decoupled cortical inhibitory networks...
  31. doi Role of olivary electrical coupling in cerebellar motor learning
    Ruben S Van Der Giessen
    Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Neuron 58:599-612. 2008
    ..Here, we subjected mice that lack olivary coupling to paradigms that require learning-dependent timing. Cx36-deficient mice showed impaired timing of both locomotion and eye-blink responses that were conditioned to a tone...
  32. ncbi NMDA receptors regulate developmental gap junction uncoupling via CREB signaling
    Harsha Arumugam
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118, USA
    Nat Neurosci 8:1720-6. 2005
    ..uncoupling of gap junctions in the rat hypothalamus in vivo and in vitro is associated with a decrease in connexin 36 (Cx36) protein expression...
  33. ncbi Selective impairment of hippocampal gamma oscillations in connexin-36 knock-out mouse in vivo
    Derek L Buhl
    Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey 07102, USA
    J Neurosci 23:1013-8. 2003
    ..The recent generation of the connexin-36 knock-out (Cx36 KO) mouse has offered a unique opportunity to examine this problem...
  34. ncbi Electrical synapses coordinate activity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus
    Michael A Long
    Department of Neuroscience, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA
    Nat Neurosci 8:61-6. 2005
    ..In wild-type mice, as in rats, the SCN contained electrical synapses, but electrical synapses were absent in connexin36-knockout mice...
  35. ncbi Genomic organization and chromosomal localization of the mouse Connexin36 (mCx36) gene
    F Cicirata
    Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiologiche, Universita di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125, Catania, Italy
    Gene 251:123-30. 2000
    b>Connexin36 (Cx36) is a new connexin that was recently cloned in mouse, rat and human. It is highly expressed in neurons of the CNS...
  36. ncbi Impaired electrical signaling disrupts gamma frequency oscillations in connexin 36-deficient mice
    S G Hormuzdi
    Department of Clinical Neurobiology, University Hospital of Neurology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 364, Heidelberg, Germany
    Neuron 31:487-95. 2001
    ..role of gap junction-mediated electrical signaling in this network property, we generated mice lacking connexin 36, the major neuronal connexin...
  37. ncbi Expression of connexin36 in cone pedicles and OFF-cone bipolar cells of the mouse retina
    Andreas Feigenspan
    Institute of Biology, University of Oldenburg, D 26111 Oldenburg, Germany
    J Neurosci 24:3325-34. 2004
    ..injection techniques, and reverse transcription PCR were combined to study the expression of neuronal connexin36 (Cx36) in the outer plexiform layer of the mouse retina...
  38. ncbi Immunohistochemical detection of the neuronal connexin36 in the mouse central nervous system in comparison to connexin36-deficient tissues
    Carola Meier
    Department of Neuroanatomy and Molecular Brain Research, Ruhr University Bochum, Universitatsstrasse 150, MA6 159, Germany
    Histochem Cell Biol 117:461-71. 2002
    Investigating the spatial and temporal expression of connexin36 (Cx36) protein in neuronal tissue is of prime importance to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying extensive electrical coupling...
  39. pmc Connexin36 is essential for transmission of rod-mediated visual signals in the mammalian retina
    Michael R Deans
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Neuron 36:703-12. 2002
    ..of electrical synapses in the transmission of signals from rod photoreceptors to ganglion cells, we generated connexin36 knockout mice...
  40. ncbi Disynaptic amplification of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 responses in the olfactory bulb
    Didier De Saint Jan
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    J Neurosci 27:132-40. 2007
    ..We suggest that persistent responses in mitral cells amplify the incoming sensory information and, along with asynchronous inputs, drive odor-evoked slow temporal activity in the bulb...
  41. pmc Neuronal connexin36 association with zonula occludens-1 protein (ZO-1) in mouse brain and interaction with the first PDZ domain of ZO-1
    Xinbo Li
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, 730 William Ave, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3E 3J7
    Eur J Neurosci 19:2132-46. 2004
    Among the 20 members in the connexin family of gap junction proteins, only connexin36 (Cx36) is firmly established to be expressed in neurons and to form electrical synapses at widely distributed interneuronal gap junctions in mammalian ..
  42. pmc Reduction of connexin36 content by ICER-1 contributes to insulin-secreting cells apoptosis induced by oxidized LDL particles
    Jacques Antoine Haefliger
    Service of Internal Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland
    PLoS ONE 8:e55198. 2013
    b>Connexin36 (Cx36), a trans-membrane protein that forms gap junctions between insulin-secreting beta-cells in the Langerhans islets, contributes to the proper control of insulin secretion and beta-cell survival...
  43. pmc Rod, M-cone and M/S-cone inputs to hyperpolarizing bipolar cells in the mouse retina
    Ji Jie Pang
    Cullen Eye Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, NC 205, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    J Physiol 590:845-54. 2012
    ..chloride currents (I(C) and I(Cl)) from over 50 morphologically identified HBCs in the dark-adapted wildtype and connexin36 knockout (Cx36(-/-)) mouse retinas, we identified three types of HBCs, each with distinct light responses and ..
  44. doi Altered olivocerebellar activity patterns in the connexin36 knockout mouse
    Sarah P Marshall
    Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, New York University, School of Medicine, New York, USA
    Cerebellum 6:287-99. 2007
    ..Gap junctions between neurons are formed mostly by connexin36 proteins...
  45. doi Cx36 is a target of Beta2/NeuroD1, which associates with prenatal differentiation of insulin-producing β cells
    Rachel Nlend Nlend
    Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, University of Geneva, CMU, 1 rue Michel Servet CH 1211, Geneva 4, Switzerland
    J Membr Biol 245:263-73. 2012
    The insulin-producing β cells of pancreatic islets are coupled by connexin36 (Cx36) channels...
  46. pmc Synergy between electrical coupling and membrane properties promotes strong synchronization of neurons of the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus
    Sebastian Curti
    Laboratorio de Neurofisiología Celular, Departamento de Fisiologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo 11800, Uruguay
    J Neurosci 32:4341-59. 2012
    ..Electrical transmission is supported by connexin36 (Cx36)-containing gap junctions at somato-somatic contacts where only a small proportion of channels appear to ..
  47. pmc Experience-dependent maturation of the glomerular microcircuit
    Brady J Maher
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:16865-70. 2009
    ..Although mitral-mitral EPSCs were generally unidirectional, they were not present in young adult Cx36(-/-) mice, suggesting that gap junctions are required for the development and/or function of the mature circuit...
  48. pmc Aberrant DNA methylation occurs in colon neoplasms arising in the azoxymethane colon cancer model
    Scott C Borinstein
    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109 1024, USA
    Mol Carcinog 49:94-103. 2010
    ..This analysis revealed different patterns of DNA methylation that were gene specific. Zik1 and Gja9 demonstrated cancer-specific aberrant DNA methylation, whereas, Cdkn2a/p16, Igfbp3, Mgmt, Id4, and Cxcr4 were ..
  49. doi Gap junctions between neuronal inputs but not gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons control estrous cycles in the mouse
    Rebecca E Campbell
    Centre for Neuroendocrinology, Department of Physiology, University of Otago School of Medical Sciences, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Endocrinology 152:2290-301. 2011
    ..Using adult connexin 36 (Cx36)-cyan fluorescent protein transgenic mice, Cx36 was identified in cells within several hypothalamic brain ..
  50. doi GABAergic compensation in connexin36 knock-out mice evident during low-magnesium seizure-like event activity
    Logan J Voss
    Department of Anesthesiology, Waikato Clinical School, University of Auckland, New Zealand
    Brain Res 1360:49-55. 2010
    ..To investigate this, one option is to compare wild-type (WT) animals with those lacking the gene for connexin36 (Cx36 KO); the protein that forms neuronal gap junctions between cortical inhibitory cells...
  51. doi Neuronal coupling via connexin36 contributes to spontaneous synaptic currents of striatal medium-sized spiny neurons
    Damian M Cummings
    Mental Retardation Research Center, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    J Neurosci Res 86:2147-58. 2008
    ..b>Connexin36 (Cx36) is largely neuron specific and provides a target for genetic manipulation to determine the physiological ..
  52. pmc Connexin36 is required for gap junctional coupling of most ganglion cell subtypes in the mouse retina
    Feng Pan
    Department of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA
    J Comp Neurol 518:911-27. 2010
    ..Both connexin36 (Cx36) and connexin45 (Cx45) subunits are widely distributed in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and therefore ..
  53. pmc In vivo evidence for the involvement of the carboxy terminal domain in assembling connexin 36 at the electrical synapse
    Ingo Helbig
    Department of Neuropediatrics, University Medical Center Schleswig Holstein UKSH, Schwanenweg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany
    Mol Cell Neurosci 45:47-58. 2010
    b>Connexin 36 (Cx36)-containing electrical synapses contribute to the timing and amplitude of neural responses in many brain regions. A Cx36-EGFP transgenic was previously generated to facilitate their identification and study...
  54. doi Behavioral alterations and changes in Ca/calmodulin kinase II levels in the striatum of connexin36 deficient mice
    A Zlomuzica
    Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Behav Brain Res 226:293-300. 2012
    ..The connexin36 (Cx36) protein has been detected in GJ between interneurons of the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, striatum, ..
  55. pmc The role of neuronal connexins 36 and 45 in shaping spontaneous firing patterns in the developing retina
    Aaron G Blankenship
    Neurosciences Graduate Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    J Neurosci 31:9998-10008. 2011
    ..During development, two connexin isoforms, connexin 36 (Cx36) and Cx45, are expressed in bipolar cells and RGCs, and therefore provide a potential substrate for ..
  56. ncbi Functional significance of gap junctional coupling in preimplantation development
    F D Houghton
    Department of Physiology, Dental Sciences Building, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C1
    Biol Reprod 66:1403-12. 2002
    ..chain reaction analysis that the genes encoding 3 additional connexins (connexin 30 or beta6, connexin 36 or alpha9, and connexin 57 or alpha10) are also transcribed in preimplantation mouse embryos...
  57. pmc Is connexin36 critical for GABAergic hypersynchronization in the hippocampus?
    Michael Beaumont
    Northwestern University Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Department of Physiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, 303 E Chicago Ave, Tarry Blg Rm 5 707, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Physiol 589:1663-80. 2011
    ..was critical for the generation of this pathological activity, then the development of selective blockers of connexin36-based interneuronal gap junctions could be of therapeutic value...
  58. ncbi The novel mouse connexin39 gene is expressed in developing striated muscle fibers
    Julia von Maltzahn
    Institut fur Genetik, Abteilung Molekulargenetik, Universitat Bonn, Römerstr 164, 53117 Bonn, Germany
    J Cell Sci 117:5381-92. 2004
    ..1). The coding regions of mCx39 and hCx40.1 are located on two different exons as described for murine and human connexin36. Northern blot and RT-PCR analyses revealed that mCx39 is expressed after embryonic day (ED) 13...
  59. pmc High frequency, synchronized bursting drives eye-specific segregation of retinogeniculate projections
    Christine L Torborg
    Neurobiology Section, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 0357, USA
    Nat Neurosci 8:72-8. 2005
    ..These findings provide a possible resolution to previously described discrepancies regarding the role of retinal waves in retinogeniculate segregation...
  60. pmc Convergence and segregation of the multiple rod pathways in mammalian retina
    Bela Volgyi
    Department of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA
    J Neurosci 24:11182-92. 2004
    ..Overall, our data show a complex arrangement of convergence and segregation of rod inputs to ganglion cells in the mammalian retina...
  61. ncbi Analysis of Cx36 knockout does not support tenet that olivary gap junctions are required for complex spike synchronization and normal motor performance
    W M Kistler
    Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, 3000DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 978:391-404. 2002
    ..Here, we investigated the motor performance of mice that lack connexin36 (Cx36), which appears necessary for functional olivary gap junctions...
  62. ncbi An expression atlas of connexin genes in the mouse
    Annalisa Buniello
    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Via P Castellino 111, 80131 Naples, Italy
    Genomics 83:812-20. 2004
    ....
  63. ncbi Heterogeneous expression of connexin 36 in the olfactory epithelium and glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb
    Chunbo Zhang
    Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, the Rocky Mountain Taste and Smell Center and Neuroscience Program, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver 80262, USA
    J Comp Neurol 459:426-39. 2003
    ..Connexins are gap junction channel-forming protein subunits. In this study, we studied the expression of connexin 36 (Cx36) in the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb of adult mice...
  64. ncbi Critical role of the transcriptional repressor neuron-restrictive silencer factor in the specific control of connexin36 in insulin-producing cell lines
    David Martin
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, CHUV 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Biol Chem 278:53082-9. 2003
    b>Connexin36 (Cx36) is specifically expressed in neurons and in pancreatic beta-cells. Cx36 functions as a critical regulator of insulin secretion and content in beta-cells...
  65. ncbi Cx36 involvement in insulin secretion: characteristics and mechanism
    Paolo Meda
    Department of Morphology, University of Geneva Medical School, Geneva, Switzerland
    Cell Commun Adhes 10:431-5. 2003
    ..To investigate their function, we have first determined that these junctions are made of Cx36. We have then tested the effect of changing the expression of Cx36, and other connexin isoforms, and have found ..
  66. ncbi An update on connexin genes and their nomenclature in mouse and man
    Goran Sohl
    Institut fur Genetik, Universitat Bonn, Germany
    Cell Commun Adhes 10:173-80. 2003
    ..Furthermore, this short review contains an update on phenotypic correlations between connexin deficient mice and patients bearing mutations in their orthologous connexin genes...
  67. ncbi Different functional types of bipolar cells use different gap-junctional proteins
    Bin Lin
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    J Neurosci 25:6696-701. 2005
    ..The AII amacrine cells are known to express connexin36 (Cx36), but previous studies of Cx36 in ON cone bipolars have been ambiguous...
  68. pmc Electrical synapses in retinal ON cone bipolar cells: subtype-specific expression of connexins
    Yi Han
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:13313-8. 2005
    ..We have found variable connexin 36 (cx36) expression in different types of ON cone bipolar cells: cx36 message was found in some, but not all, ON ..
  69. ncbi Expression and function of the neuronal gap junction protein connexin 36 in developing mammalian retina
    Kristi A Hansen
    Neurobiology Section, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, 92093 0357, USA
    J Comp Neurol 493:309-20. 2005
    ..Previously, we reported that retinal ganglion cells in mice lacking the neuronal gap junction protein connexin 36 (Cx36) have nearly normal firing patterns at postnatal day 4 (P4) but many more asynchronous action potentials ..
  70. ncbi The mouse gap junction gene connexin29 is highly expressed in sciatic nerve and regulated during brain development
    G Sohl
    Institut fur Genetik, Abteilung Molekulargenetik, Universitat Bonn, Germany
    Biol Chem 382:973-8. 2001
    ..Our expression data suggest that the new connexin gene is active in myelin-forming glial cells...
  71. pmc Reduction of high-frequency network oscillations (ripples) and pathological network discharges in hippocampal slices from connexin 36-deficient mice
    Nikolaus Maier
    Johannes Müller Institut für Physiologie der Charité, Humboldt Universitat, Tucholskystrasse 2, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    J Physiol 541:521-8. 2002
    ..Here we made use of a targeted disruption of the gene coding for Cx36, a recently discovered neuronal gap junction subunit, to analyse its role in hippocampal network behaviour...
  72. ncbi Cx36-mediated coupling reduces beta-cell heterogeneity, confines the stimulating glucose concentration range, and affects insulin release kinetics
    Stephan Speier
    The Rolf Luft Center for Diabetes Research, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital L1, Stockholm, Sweden
    Diabetes 56:1078-86. 2007
    ..electrophysiological properties of beta-cells from mice (C57Bl/6 background) lacking the gap junction protein connexin36 (Cx36(-/-)) were compared with heterozygous (Cx36(+/-)) and wild-type littermates (Cx36(+/+)) and with ..
  73. pmc Mouse horizontal cells do not express connexin26 or connexin36
    M R Deans
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell Commun Adhes 8:361-6. 2001
    ..b>Cx36, Cx37, Cx43, Cx45 and Cx57 mRNA could be detected in mouse retina by RT-PCR...
  74. ncbi Localization of heterotypic gap junctions composed of connexin45 and connexin36 in the rod pathway of the mouse retina
    Karin Dedek
    Department of Neurobiology, University of Oldenburg, D 26111 Oldenburg, Germany
    Eur J Neurosci 24:1675-86. 2006
    ..Two gap junctional proteins, connexin36 (Cx36) and connexin45 (Cx45), appear to play a pivotal role in this pathway because lack of either protein leads ..
  75. ncbi Protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of connexin36 in mouse retina results in decreased gap junctional communication between AII amacrine cells
    Stephanie Urschel
    Institute of Genetics, University of Bonn, 53117 Bonn, Germany
    J Biol Chem 281:33163-71. 2006
    ..AII amacrine cells express the gap junctional protein connexin36 (Cx36). Phosphorylation of Cx36 has been hypothesized to regulate gap junctional activity of AII amacrine cells...
  76. ncbi Lateral excitation within the olfactory bulb
    Jason M Christie
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    J Neurosci 26:2269-77. 2006
    ..This lateral excitation was absent in connexin36(-/-) mice, which lack mitral-mitral cell gap junctions...
  77. ncbi Fine structural localization of connexin-36 immunoreactivity in mouse cerebral cortex and thalamus
    Xiao Bo Liu
    Center for Neuroscience, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Comp Neurol 466:457-67. 2003
    ....
  78. pmc Rhythmicity without synchrony in the electrically uncoupled inferior olive
    Michael A Long
    Department of Neuroscience, Division of Biology and Medicine, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA
    J Neurosci 22:10898-905. 2002
    ..WT) mice were electrically coupled, but coupling was rare and weak between neurons of knock-out (KO) mice for connexin36, a neuronal gap junction protein...
  79. ncbi Replacement by a lacZ reporter gene assigns mouse connexin36, 45 and 43 to distinct cell types in pancreatic islets
    Martin Theis
    Institut fur Genetik, Abteilung Molekulargenetik, Universitat Bonn, D 53117 Bonn, Germany
    Exp Cell Res 294:18-29. 2004
    Transcripts of three connexin isoforms (Cx36, Cx43 and Cx45) have been reported in rodent pancreatic islets, but the precise distribution of the cognate proteins is still unknown...
  80. ncbi Expression of connexins in embryonic mouse neocortical development
    Cima Cina
    Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z3, Canada
    J Comp Neurol 504:298-313. 2007
    ..Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry, we found that among the family of gap junction proteins, Cx26, Cx36, Cx37, Cx43, and Cx45 were expressed in the developing cortex of mice, Cx30 and Cx32 were absent, while Cx40 was ..
  81. ncbi Function and plasticity of homologous coupling between AII amacrine cells
    Stewart A Bloomfield
    Department of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Vision Res 44:3297-306. 2004
    ..Further, the conductance of AII-AII cell gap junctions is highly dynamic, regulated by ambient light conditions, thereby preserving the fidelity of rod signaling over the scotopic operating range from starlight to twilight...
  82. pmc Relative contributions of rod and cone bipolar cell inputs to AII amacrine cell light responses in the mouse retina
    Ji Jie Pang
    Department of Ophthalmology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    J Physiol 580:397-410. 2007
    ..in the Bhlhb4-/- mouse (which lacks DBC(R)s) resembles that of the DNQX-resistant component, and that of the connexin36 (Cx36)-/- mouse resembles the DNQX-sensitive component...
  83. ncbi Gap junctions are required for NMDA receptor dependent cell death in developing neurons
    Juan Carlos de Rivero Vaccari
    Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, USA
    J Neurophysiol 98:2878-86. 2007
    ..Pharmacological inactivation of gap junctions or knockout of neuronal connexin 36 prevents the cell death caused by NMDA receptor hypofunction or hyperfunction...
  84. pmc Identification of connexin36 in gap junctions between neurons in rodent locus coeruleus
    J E Rash
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Campus Delivery 1617, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
    Neuroscience 147:938-56. 2007
    ..In early postnatal development, connexin36 (Cx36) and connexin43 (Cx43) immunofluorescent puncta were densely distributed in the locus coeruleus, whereas ..
  85. ncbi Cloning of a new gap junction gene (Cx36) highly expressed in mammalian brain neurons
    D F Condorelli
    Institute of Biochemistry, University of Catania, Italy
    Eur J Neurosci 10:1202-8. 1998
    ..The nucleotide sequence encodes a protein of 321 amino acids (called Cx36) with highly significant homology to the members of the connexin family...
  86. ncbi Cx36 is dynamically expressed during early development of mouse brain and nervous system
    M Gulisano
    Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiologiche, Universita di Catania, Italy
    Neuroreport 11:3823-8. 2000
    ..b>Connexin36 (Cx36) is a new member of the connexin gene family, found to be expressed essentially if not exclusively in ..

Research Grants43

  1. Connexins in Neuronal and Glial Gap Junctions in CNS
    JOHN RASH; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  2. Connexins in Neuronal and Glial Gap Junctions in the Central Nervous System
    John E Rash; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..normal human cerebral cortex and hippocampus. These data will serve as a prelude to measuring changes in these structures in human disease such as epilepsy, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and autism spectral disorders. ..
  3. Gap Junctions and Connexins in Developing CNS
    JOHN RASH; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  4. Connexins in Neuronal and Glial Gap Junctions in the Central Nervous System
    JOHN RASH; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  5. Dendritic Processing in the Olfactory Bulb
    Jason Christie; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The specific aims are: (1) to determine the function of autoexcitation in mitral cell processing and (2) to determine how dendritic compartmentalization effects mitral cell processing. ..
  6. Zeiss LSM 510 Laser Scanning Microscope
    JOHN RASH; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The DIC Board of Directors will meet bi-monthly to insure continued efficient scheduling and operation of the replacement confocal microscope, to consider future upgrades, and to establish or change DIC access policies. ..
  7. Neuropharmacological substrates of alcohol addiction
    Scott C Steffensen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  8. AMACRINE CELL FUNCTION IN THE RETINA
    Stewart Bloomfield; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..from retinal neurons under conditions in which gap junctions are disrupted either pharamcologically or in a connexin36 knockout mouse model...
  9. AMACRINE CELL FUNCTION IN THE RETINA
    STEWART ALLEN BLOOMFIELD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  10. Neuropharmacological substrates of alcohol addiction
    Scott Steffensen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  11. AMACRINE CELL FUNCTION IN THE RETINA
    Stewart Bloomfield; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  12. Neuropharmacological Subsrates of Alcohol Addiction
    Scott Steffensen; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..VTA GABA neurons may act as unique integrators of convergent information from sensory, cortical and limbic areas subserving ethanol addiction. ..