Gjd2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Gjd2
Description: gap junction protein, delta 2
Alias: Gja9, connexin36, cx36, gap junction delta-2 protein, connexin-36, gap junction alpha-9 protein, gap junction membrane channel protein alpha 9, gap junction protein, alpha 9
Species: mouse
Products:     Gjd2

Top Publications

  1. Sohl G, Degen J, Teubner B, Willecke K. The murine gap junction gene connexin36 is highly expressed in mouse retina and regulated during brain development. FEBS Lett. 1998;428:27-31 pubmed
    A new gap junction gene isolated from rat brain cDNA, mouse retina cDNA and mouse genomic DNA is called connexin36, since it codes for a connexin protein of 321 amino acids corresponding to the theoretical molecular mass of 36045 kDa (rat)..
  2. Guldenagel M, Ammermuller J, Feigenspan A, Teubner B, Degen J, Sohl G, et al. Visual transmission deficits in mice with targeted disruption of the gap junction gene connexin36. J Neurosci. 2001;21:6036-44 pubmed
    ..into the cone pathway through electrotonic coupling, and recent histological data suggest the involvement of connexin36 (Cx36) in this pathway...
  3. Ciolofan C, Lynn B, Wellershaus K, Willecke K, Nagy J. Spatial relationships of connexin36, connexin57 and zonula occludens-1 in the outer plexiform layer of mouse retina. Neuroscience. 2007;148:473-88 pubmed
    ..Double immunofluorescence labeling was conducted to determine the spatial relationships of connexin36, connexin57, the gap junction-associated protein zonula occludens-1 and the photoreceptor ribbon synapse-..
  4. Oguro K, Jover T, Tanaka H, Lin Y, Kojima T, Oguro N, et al. Global ischemia-induced increases in the gap junctional proteins connexin 32 (Cx32) and Cx36 in hippocampus and enhanced vulnerability of Cx32 knock-out mice. J Neurosci. 2001;21:7534-42 pubmed
    ..that the gap junctional proteins connexin 32 (Cx32; expressed by oligodendrocytes, interneurons, or both), Cx36 (expressed by interneurons), and Cx43 (expressed by astrocytes) play a role in defining cell-specific patterns of ..
  5. Ciolofan C, Li X, Olson C, Kamasawa N, Gebhardt B, Yasumura T, et al. Association of connexin36 and zonula occludens-1 with zonula occludens-2 and the transcription factor zonula occludens-1-associated nucleic acid-binding protein at neuronal gap junctions in rodent retina. Neuroscience. 2006;140:433-51 pubmed
    Most gap junctions between neurons in mammalian retina contain abundant connexin36, often in association with the scaffolding protein zonula occludens-1...
  6. Klee P, Allagnat F, Pontes H, Cederroth M, Charollais A, Caille D, et al. Connexins protect mouse pancreatic ? cells against apoptosis. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:4870-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that connexin 36 (Cx36), a trans-membrane protein that forms gap junctions between ? cells in the pancreatic islets, protects ..
  7. Striedinger K, Petrasch Parwez E, Zoidl G, Napirei M, Meier C, Eysel U, et al. Loss of connexin36 increases retinal cell vulnerability to secondary cell loss. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22:605-16 pubmed
    ..The present study was aimed at clarifying the contribution of the neuronal gap-junction protein connexin36 (Cx36) to secondary cell loss after injury in the mouse retina...
  8. Van Der Giessen R, Koekkoek S, van Dorp S, De Gruijl J, Cupido A, Khosrovani S, et al. Role of olivary electrical coupling in cerebellar motor learning. Neuron. 2008;58:599-612 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we subjected mice that lack olivary coupling to paradigms that require learning-dependent timing. Cx36-deficient mice showed impaired timing of both locomotion and eye-blink responses that were conditioned to a tone...
  9. Pang J, Gao F, Lem J, Bramblett D, Paul D, Wu S. Direct rod input to cone BCs and direct cone input to rod BCs challenge the traditional view of mammalian BC circuitry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:395-400 pubmed publisher
    ..cells (DBCs) in the wild-type and three pathway-specific knockout mice (rod transducin knockout [Tralpha(-/-)], connexin36 knockout [Cx36(-/-)], and transcription factor beta4 knockout [Bhlhb4(-/-)]), we show that a subpopulation of ..
  10. Dang L, Pulukuri S, Mears A, Swaroop A, Reese B, Sitaramayya A. Connexin 36 in photoreceptor cells: studies on transgenic rod-less and cone-less mouse retinas. Mol Vis. 2004;10:323-7 pubmed
    ..A recent report has shown that this transfer does not occur in mice in which the gap junction protein connexin 36 is knocked out indicating that rod-cone gap junctions are assembled from this protein...

Detail Information

Publications70

  1. Sohl G, Degen J, Teubner B, Willecke K. The murine gap junction gene connexin36 is highly expressed in mouse retina and regulated during brain development. FEBS Lett. 1998;428:27-31 pubmed
    A new gap junction gene isolated from rat brain cDNA, mouse retina cDNA and mouse genomic DNA is called connexin36, since it codes for a connexin protein of 321 amino acids corresponding to the theoretical molecular mass of 36045 kDa (rat)..
  2. Guldenagel M, Ammermuller J, Feigenspan A, Teubner B, Degen J, Sohl G, et al. Visual transmission deficits in mice with targeted disruption of the gap junction gene connexin36. J Neurosci. 2001;21:6036-44 pubmed
    ..into the cone pathway through electrotonic coupling, and recent histological data suggest the involvement of connexin36 (Cx36) in this pathway...
  3. Ciolofan C, Lynn B, Wellershaus K, Willecke K, Nagy J. Spatial relationships of connexin36, connexin57 and zonula occludens-1 in the outer plexiform layer of mouse retina. Neuroscience. 2007;148:473-88 pubmed
    ..Double immunofluorescence labeling was conducted to determine the spatial relationships of connexin36, connexin57, the gap junction-associated protein zonula occludens-1 and the photoreceptor ribbon synapse-..
  4. Oguro K, Jover T, Tanaka H, Lin Y, Kojima T, Oguro N, et al. Global ischemia-induced increases in the gap junctional proteins connexin 32 (Cx32) and Cx36 in hippocampus and enhanced vulnerability of Cx32 knock-out mice. J Neurosci. 2001;21:7534-42 pubmed
    ..that the gap junctional proteins connexin 32 (Cx32; expressed by oligodendrocytes, interneurons, or both), Cx36 (expressed by interneurons), and Cx43 (expressed by astrocytes) play a role in defining cell-specific patterns of ..
  5. Ciolofan C, Li X, Olson C, Kamasawa N, Gebhardt B, Yasumura T, et al. Association of connexin36 and zonula occludens-1 with zonula occludens-2 and the transcription factor zonula occludens-1-associated nucleic acid-binding protein at neuronal gap junctions in rodent retina. Neuroscience. 2006;140:433-51 pubmed
    Most gap junctions between neurons in mammalian retina contain abundant connexin36, often in association with the scaffolding protein zonula occludens-1...
  6. Klee P, Allagnat F, Pontes H, Cederroth M, Charollais A, Caille D, et al. Connexins protect mouse pancreatic ? cells against apoptosis. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:4870-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that connexin 36 (Cx36), a trans-membrane protein that forms gap junctions between ? cells in the pancreatic islets, protects ..
  7. Striedinger K, Petrasch Parwez E, Zoidl G, Napirei M, Meier C, Eysel U, et al. Loss of connexin36 increases retinal cell vulnerability to secondary cell loss. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22:605-16 pubmed
    ..The present study was aimed at clarifying the contribution of the neuronal gap-junction protein connexin36 (Cx36) to secondary cell loss after injury in the mouse retina...
  8. Van Der Giessen R, Koekkoek S, van Dorp S, De Gruijl J, Cupido A, Khosrovani S, et al. Role of olivary electrical coupling in cerebellar motor learning. Neuron. 2008;58:599-612 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we subjected mice that lack olivary coupling to paradigms that require learning-dependent timing. Cx36-deficient mice showed impaired timing of both locomotion and eye-blink responses that were conditioned to a tone...
  9. Pang J, Gao F, Lem J, Bramblett D, Paul D, Wu S. Direct rod input to cone BCs and direct cone input to rod BCs challenge the traditional view of mammalian BC circuitry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:395-400 pubmed publisher
    ..cells (DBCs) in the wild-type and three pathway-specific knockout mice (rod transducin knockout [Tralpha(-/-)], connexin36 knockout [Cx36(-/-)], and transcription factor beta4 knockout [Bhlhb4(-/-)]), we show that a subpopulation of ..
  10. Dang L, Pulukuri S, Mears A, Swaroop A, Reese B, Sitaramayya A. Connexin 36 in photoreceptor cells: studies on transgenic rod-less and cone-less mouse retinas. Mol Vis. 2004;10:323-7 pubmed
    ..A recent report has shown that this transfer does not occur in mice in which the gap junction protein connexin 36 is knocked out indicating that rod-cone gap junctions are assembled from this protein...
  11. Helbig I, Sammler E, Eliava M, Bolshakov A, Rozov A, Bruzzone R, et al. In vivo evidence for the involvement of the carboxy terminal domain in assembling connexin 36 at the electrical synapse. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;45:47-58 pubmed publisher
    b>Connexin 36 (Cx36)-containing electrical synapses contribute to the timing and amplitude of neural responses in many brain regions. A Cx36-EGFP transgenic was previously generated to facilitate their identification and study...
  12. Feigenspan A, Janssen Bienhold U, Hormuzdi S, Monyer H, Degen J, Sohl G, et al. Expression of connexin36 in cone pedicles and OFF-cone bipolar cells of the mouse retina. J Neurosci. 2004;24:3325-34 pubmed
    ..injection techniques, and reverse transcription PCR were combined to study the expression of neuronal connexin36 (Cx36) in the outer plexiform layer of the mouse retina...
  13. Wang Y, Song J, Denisova J, Park W, Fontes J, Belousov A. Neuronal gap junction coupling is regulated by glutamate and plays critical role in cell death during neuronal injury. J Neurosci. 2012;32:713-25 pubmed publisher
    ..activation of group II mGluRs increases background levels of neuronal gap junction coupling and expression of connexin 36 (Cx36) (neuronal gap junction protein), and inactivation of group II mGluRs prevents the ischemia-mediated ..
  14. Volgyi B, Pan F, Paul D, Wang J, Huberman A, Bloomfield S. Gap junctions are essential for generating the correlated spike activity of neighboring retinal ganglion cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69426 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our findings expand our understanding of the roles of gap junctions in the retina, showing that they are essential for generating all forms of concerted GC activity transmitted to central brain targets. ..
  15. Deans M, Volgyi B, Goodenough D, Bloomfield S, Paul D. Connexin36 is essential for transmission of rod-mediated visual signals in the mammalian retina. Neuron. 2002;36:703-12 pubmed
    ..of electrical synapses in the transmission of signals from rod photoreceptors to ganglion cells, we generated connexin36 knockout mice...
  16. Buhl D, Harris K, Hormuzdi S, Monyer H, Buzsaki G. Selective impairment of hippocampal gamma oscillations in connexin-36 knock-out mouse in vivo. J Neurosci. 2003;23:1013-8 pubmed
    ..The recent generation of the connexin-36 knock-out (Cx36 KO) mouse has offered a unique opportunity to examine this problem...
  17. Pan F, Paul D, Bloomfield S, Volgyi B. Connexin36 is required for gap junctional coupling of most ganglion cell subtypes in the mouse retina. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:911-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Both connexin36 (Cx36) and connexin45 (Cx45) subunits are widely distributed in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and therefore ..
  18. Dedek K, Schultz K, Pieper M, Dirks P, Maxeiner S, Willecke K, et al. Localization of heterotypic gap junctions composed of connexin45 and connexin36 in the rod pathway of the mouse retina. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;24:1675-86 pubmed
    ..Two gap junctional proteins, connexin36 (Cx36) and connexin45 (Cx45), appear to play a pivotal role in this pathway because lack of either protein leads ..
  19. Allagnat F, Alonso F, Martin D, Abderrahmani A, Waeber G, Haefliger J. ICER-1gamma overexpression drives palmitate-mediated connexin36 down-regulation in insulin-secreting cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:5226-34 pubmed
    Channels formed by the gap junction protein connexin36 (Cx36) contribute to the proper control of insulin secretion. We investigated the impact of chronic hyperlipidemia on Cx36 expression in pancreatic beta-cells...
  20. Li X, Kamasawa N, Ciolofan C, Olson C, Lu S, Davidson K, et al. Connexin45-containing neuronal gap junctions in rodent retina also contain connexin36 in both apposing hemiplaques, forming bihomotypic gap junctions, with scaffolding contributed by zonula occludens-1. J Neurosci. 2008;28:9769-89 pubmed publisher
    ..junctions, particularly in the inner plexiform layer (IPL), where the two principal neuronal connexin proteins are Cx36 and Cx45...
  21. Abd El Barr M, Pennesi M, Saszik S, Barrow A, Lem J, Bramblett D, et al. Genetic dissection of rod and cone pathways in the dark-adapted mouse retina. J Neurophysiol. 2009;102:1945-55 pubmed publisher
    ..pathways by analyzing electroretinograms (ERGs), primarily b-wave responses, in dark-adapted wildtype, connexin36 knockout, depolarizing rod-bipolar cell (DBCR) knockout, and rod transducin alpha-subunit knockout mice [WT, ..
  22. Lynn B, Li X, Nagy J. Under construction: building the macromolecular superstructure and signaling components of an electrical synapse. J Membr Biol. 2012;245:303-17 pubmed publisher
    ..and adherens junctions, are also components of neuronal gap junctions in rodent brain and directly interact with connexin36 (Cx36) that forms these junctions...
  23. Volgyi B, Deans M, Paul D, Bloomfield S. Convergence and segregation of the multiple rod pathways in mammalian retina. J Neurosci. 2004;24:11182-92 pubmed
    ..Overall, our data show a complex arrangement of convergence and segregation of rod inputs to ganglion cells in the mammalian retina. ..
  24. Landisman C, Long M, Beierlein M, Deans M, Paul D, Connors B. Electrical synapses in the thalamic reticular nucleus. J Neurosci. 2002;22:1002-9 pubmed
    ..Electrical synapses between TRN neurons were absent in mice with a null mutation for the connexin36 (Cx36) gene...
  25. Calabrese A, Guldenagel M, Charollais A, Mas C, Caton D, Bauquis J, et al. Cx36 and the function of endocrine pancreas. Cell Commun Adhes. 2001;8:387-91 pubmed
    ..The insulin-producing beta-cells, which form the bulk of endocrine pancreatic islets, express predominantly Cx36. To assess the function of this connexin, we have first studied its expression in rats, during sequential changes ..
  26. Benninger R, Head W, Zhang M, Satin L, Piston D. Gap junctions and other mechanisms of cell-cell communication regulate basal insulin secretion in the pancreatic islet. J Physiol. 2011;589:5453-66 pubmed publisher
    ..insulin secretion levels were measured from islets lacking gap-junction coupling following deletion of connexion36 (Cx36(-/-)), and these results were compared to those obtained using fully isolated ?-cells...
  27. Li X, Lynn B, Nagy J. The effector and scaffolding proteins AF6 and MUPP1 interact with connexin36 and localize at gap junctions that form electrical synapses in rodent brain. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;35:166-81 pubmed publisher
    Electrical synapses formed by neuronal gap junctions composed of connexin36 (Cx36) occur in most major structures in the mammalian central nervous system. These synapses link ensembles of neurons and influence their network properties...
  28. Butovas S, Hormuzdi S, Monyer H, Schwarz C. Effects of electrically coupled inhibitory networks on local neuronal responses to intracortical microstimulation. J Neurophysiol. 2006;96:1227-36 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, evoked inhibition was weaker and longer in connexin 36 knockout (KO) mice that feature decoupled cortical inhibitory networks...
  29. Arumugam H, Liu X, Colombo P, Corriveau R, Belousov A. NMDA receptors regulate developmental gap junction uncoupling via CREB signaling. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:1720-6 pubmed
    ..uncoupling of gap junctions in the rat hypothalamus in vivo and in vitro is associated with a decrease in connexin 36 (Cx36) protein expression...
  30. Rash J, Olson C, Pouliot W, Davidson K, Yasumura T, Furman C, et al. Connexin36 vs. connexin32, "miniature" neuronal gap junctions, and limited electrotonic coupling in rodent suprachiasmatic nucleus. Neuroscience. 2007;149:350-71 pubmed
    ..been proposed that neuronal gap junctions exist in the SCN; that they consist of connexin32 or, alternatively, connexin36; and that connexin36 knockout eliminates neuronal coupling between SCN neurons and disrupts circadian rhythms...
  31. Meier C, Petrasch Parwez E, Habbes H, Teubner B, Güldenagel M, Degen J, et al. Immunohistochemical detection of the neuronal connexin36 in the mouse central nervous system in comparison to connexin36-deficient tissues. Histochem Cell Biol. 2002;117:461-71 pubmed
    Investigating the spatial and temporal expression of connexin36 (Cx36) protein in neuronal tissue is of prime importance to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying extensive electrical coupling...
  32. Hormuzdi S, Pais I, LeBeau F, Towers S, Rozov A, Buhl E, et al. Impaired electrical signaling disrupts gamma frequency oscillations in connexin 36-deficient mice. Neuron. 2001;31:487-95 pubmed
    ..role of gap junction-mediated electrical signaling in this network property, we generated mice lacking connexin 36, the major neuronal connexin...
  33. Maher B, McGinley M, Westbrook G. Experience-dependent maturation of the glomerular microcircuit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:16865-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Although mitral-mitral EPSCs were generally unidirectional, they were not present in young adult Cx36(-/-) mice, suggesting that gap junctions are required for the development and/or function of the mature circuit...
  34. Frank M, Eiberger B, Janssen Bienhold U, de Sevilla Müller L, Tjarks A, Kim J, et al. Neuronal connexin-36 can functionally replace connexin-45 in mouse retina but not in the developing heart. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:3605-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuron-directed deletion of Cx45 leads to defects in transmission of visual signals. Connexin-36 (Cx36) is co-expressed with Cx45 in certain types of retinal interneurons...
  35. Cicirata F, Parenti R, Spinella F, Giglio S, Tuorto F, Zuffardi O, et al. Genomic organization and chromosomal localization of the mouse Connexin36 (mCx36) gene. Gene. 2000;251:123-30 pubmed
    b>Connexin36 (Cx36) is a new connexin that was recently cloned in mouse, rat and human. It is highly expressed in neurons of the CNS...
  36. Speier S, Gjinovci A, Charollais A, Meda P, Rupnik M. Cx36-mediated coupling reduces beta-cell heterogeneity, confines the stimulating glucose concentration range, and affects insulin release kinetics. Diabetes. 2007;56:1078-86 pubmed
    ..electrophysiological properties of beta-cells from mice (C57Bl/6 background) lacking the gap junction protein connexin36 (Cx36(-/-)) were compared with heterozygous (Cx36(+/-)) and wild-type littermates (Cx36(+/+)) and with ..
  37. Deans M, Gibson J, Sellitto C, Connors B, Paul D. Synchronous activity of inhibitory networks in neocortex requires electrical synapses containing connexin36. Neuron. 2001;31:477-85 pubmed
    ..in such activity, we constructed mice expressing histochemical reporters in place of the gap junction protein Cx36. Localization of the reporter with somatostatin and parvalbumin suggested that Cx36 was expressed largely by ..
  38. Christie J, Bark C, Hormuzdi S, Helbig I, Monyer H, Westbrook G. Connexin36 mediates spike synchrony in olfactory bulb glomeruli. Neuron. 2005;46:761-72 pubmed
    ..as well as correlated spiking between mitral cells projecting to the same glomerulus was entirely absent in connexin36 (Cx36) knockout mice...
  39. Wellershaus K, Degen J, Deuchars J, Theis M, Charollais A, Caille D, et al. A new conditional mouse mutant reveals specific expression and functions of connexin36 in neurons and pancreatic beta-cells. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:997-1012 pubmed publisher
    b>Connexin36 (Cx36) is the main connexin isoform expressed in neurons of the central nervous system (CNS) and in pancreatic beta-cells, i.e...
  40. Li X, Olson C, Lu S, Kamasawa N, Yasumura T, Rash J, et al. Neuronal connexin36 association with zonula occludens-1 protein (ZO-1) in mouse brain and interaction with the first PDZ domain of ZO-1. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;19:2132-46 pubmed
    Among the 20 members in the connexin family of gap junction proteins, only connexin36 (Cx36) is firmly established to be expressed in neurons and to form electrical synapses at widely distributed interneuronal gap junctions in mammalian ..
  41. Grimes W, Schwartz G, Rieke F. The synaptic and circuit mechanisms underlying a change in spatial encoding in the retina. Neuron. 2014;82:460-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a clear example of how a simple synaptic mechanism can repurpose a neural circuit to perform diverse computations. ..
  42. Maxeiner S, Dedek K, Janssen Bienhold U, Ammermüller J, Brune H, Kirsch T, et al. Deletion of connexin45 in mouse retinal neurons disrupts the rod/cone signaling pathway between AII amacrine and ON cone bipolar cells and leads to impaired visual transmission. J Neurosci. 2005;25:566-76 pubmed
    ..of mutant mice revealed a normal a-wave but a 40% reduction in the b-wave amplitude, similar to that found in Cx36-deficient animals, suggesting a possible defect in the rod pathway of visual transmission...
  43. Head W, Orseth M, Nunemaker C, Satin L, Piston D, Benninger R. Connexin-36 gap junctions regulate in vivo first- and second-phase insulin secretion dynamics and glucose tolerance in the conscious mouse. Diabetes. 2012;61:1700-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We characterized the connexin-36 knockout (Cx36(-/-)) mouse phenotype and performed hyperglycemic clamps with rapid sampling of insulin in Cx36(-/-) and control ..
  44. Degen J, Meier C, Van Der Giessen R, Sohl G, Petrasch Parwez E, Urschel S, et al. Expression pattern of lacZ reporter gene representing connexin36 in transgenic mice. J Comp Neurol. 2004;473:511-25 pubmed
    Targeted deletion of the connexin36 (Cx36) gene in the mouse genome leads to visual transmission defects, weakened synchrony of rhythmic inhibitory potentials in the neocortex, and disruption of gamma-frequency network oscillations...
  45. Long M, Jutras M, Connors B, Burwell R. Electrical synapses coordinate activity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:61-6 pubmed
    ..In wild-type mice, as in rats, the SCN contained electrical synapses, but electrical synapses were absent in connexin36-knockout mice...
  46. Frisch C, De Souza Silva M, Sohl G, Guldenagel M, Willecke K, Huston J, et al. Stimulus complexity dependent memory impairment and changes in motor performance after deletion of the neuronal gap junction protein connexin36 in mice. Behav Brain Res. 2005;157:177-85 pubmed
    ..b>Connexin36 (Cx36) is expressed in distinct subpopulations of neurons throughout the mammalian brain...
  47. Trümpler J, Dedek K, Schubert T, de Sevilla Müller L, Seeliger M, Humphries P, et al. Rod and cone contributions to horizontal cell light responses in the mouse retina. J Neurosci. 2008;28:6818-25 pubmed publisher
    ..we assessed the rod and cone contributions to horizontal cell somatic and axon terminal light responses in the connexin36-deficient mouse retina, which lacks rod-cone coupling...
  48. Kreuzberg M, Deuchars J, Weiss E, Schober A, Sonntag S, Wellershaus K, et al. Expression of connexin30.2 in interneurons of the central nervous system in the mouse. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2008;37:119-34 pubmed
    ..approximately 94% of the Cx30.2 expressing parvalbumin-positive interneurons also expressed Cx36. Performing field potential recordings from hippocampal slices we found no differences in basal excitation and ..
  49. Lin B, Jakobs T, Masland R. Different functional types of bipolar cells use different gap-junctional proteins. J Neurosci. 2005;25:6696-701 pubmed
    ..The AII amacrine cells are known to express connexin36 (Cx36), but previous studies of Cx36 in ON cone bipolars have been ambiguous...
  50. Han Y, Massey S. Electrical synapses in retinal ON cone bipolar cells: subtype-specific expression of connexins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:13313-8 pubmed
    ..We have found variable connexin 36 (cx36) expression in different types of ON cone bipolar cells: cx36 message was found in some, but not all, ON ..
  51. Schubert T, Degen J, Willecke K, Hormuzdi S, Monyer H, Weiler R. Connexin36 mediates gap junctional coupling of alpha-ganglion cells in mouse retina. J Comp Neurol. 2005;485:191-201 pubmed
    ..These tracer coupling patterns were completely absent in mice deficient in connexin36 (Cx36)...
  52. Ravier M, Güldenagel M, Charollais A, Gjinovci A, Caille D, Sohl G, et al. Loss of connexin36 channels alters beta-cell coupling, islet synchronization of glucose-induced Ca2+ and insulin oscillations, and basal insulin release. Diabetes. 2005;54:1798-807 pubmed
    ..In particular, adjacent beta-cells are coupled via channels made of connexin36 (Cx36)...
  53. Liu X, Jones E. Fine structural localization of connexin-36 immunoreactivity in mouse cerebral cortex and thalamus. J Comp Neurol. 2003;466:457-67 pubmed
  54. Theis M, Mas C, Döring B, Degen J, Brink C, Caille D, et al. Replacement by a lacZ reporter gene assigns mouse connexin36, 45 and 43 to distinct cell types in pancreatic islets. Exp Cell Res. 2004;294:18-29 pubmed
    Transcripts of three connexin isoforms (Cx36, Cx43 and Cx45) have been reported in rodent pancreatic islets, but the precise distribution of the cognate proteins is still unknown...
  55. Allen K, Fuchs E, Jaschonek H, Bannerman D, Monyer H. Gap junctions between interneurons are required for normal spatial coding in the hippocampus and short-term spatial memory. J Neurosci. 2011;31:6542-52 pubmed publisher
    Gap junctions containing connexin 36 electrically couple interneurons in many brain regions and synchronize their activity...
  56. Pizarro Delgado J, Fasciani I, Temperán A, Romero M, González Nieto D, Alonso Magdalena P, et al. Inhibition of connexin 36 hemichannels by glucose contributes to the stimulation of insulin secretion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014;306:E1354-66 pubmed publisher
    The existence of functional connexin36 (Cx36) hemichannels in ?-cells was investigated in pancreatic islets of rat and wild-type (Cx36(+/+)), monoallelic (Cx36(+/-)), and biallelic (Cx36(-/-)) knockout mice...
  57. von Maltzahn J, Euwens C, Willecke K, Sohl G. The novel mouse connexin39 gene is expressed in developing striated muscle fibers. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:5381-92 pubmed
    ..1). The coding regions of mCx39 and hCx40.1 are located on two different exons as described for murine and human connexin36. Northern blot and RT-PCR analyses revealed that mCx39 is expressed after embryonic day (ED) 13...
  58. Nlend R, Ait Lounis A, Allagnat F, Cigliola V, Charollais A, Reith W, et al. Cx36 is a target of Beta2/NeuroD1, which associates with prenatal differentiation of insulin-producing ? cells. J Membr Biol. 2012;245:263-73 pubmed publisher
    The insulin-producing ? cells of pancreatic islets are coupled by connexin36 (Cx36) channels...
  59. Frinchi M, Di Liberto V, Turimella S, D Antoni F, Theis M, Belluardo N, et al. Connexin36 (Cx36) expression and protein detection in the mouse carotid body and myenteric plexus. Acta Histochem. 2013;115:252-6 pubmed publisher
    Although connexin36 (Cx36) has been studied in several tissues, it is notable that no data are available on Cx36 expression in the carotid body and the intestine...
  60. Sohl G, Eiberger J, Jung Y, Kozak C, Willecke K. The mouse gap junction gene connexin29 is highly expressed in sciatic nerve and regulated during brain development. Biol Chem. 2001;382:973-8 pubmed
    ..Our expression data suggest that the new connexin gene is active in myelin-forming glial cells. ..
  61. Bautista W, Nagy J. Connexin36 in gap junctions forming electrical synapses between motoneurons in sexually dimorphic motor nuclei in spinal cord of rat and mouse. Eur J Neurosci. 2014;39:771-87 pubmed publisher
    ..reportedly linked by gap junctions, we examined immunofluorescence labeling for the gap junction-forming protein connexin36 (Cx36) in male and female mice and rats...
  62. Pang J, Gao F, Paul D, Wu S. Rod, M-cone and M/S-cone inputs to hyperpolarizing bipolar cells in the mouse retina. J Physiol. 2012;590:845-54 pubmed publisher
    ..chloride currents (I(C) and I(Cl)) from over 50 morphologically identified HBCs in the dark-adapted wildtype and connexin36 knockout (Cx36(-/-)) mouse retinas, we identified three types of HBCs, each with distinct light responses and ..
  63. Zhang C, Restrepo D. Heterogeneous expression of connexin 36 in the olfactory epithelium and glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb. J Comp Neurol. 2003;459:426-39 pubmed
    ..Connexins are gap junction channel-forming protein subunits. In this study, we studied the expression of connexin 36 (Cx36) in the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb of adult mice...
  64. Gire D, Franks K, Zak J, Tanaka K, Whitesell J, Mulligan A, et al. Mitral cells in the olfactory bulb are mainly excited through a multistep signaling path. J Neurosci. 2012;32:2964-75 pubmed publisher
    ..a multistep mechanism reflects the fact that signals arising from direct OSN inputs are drastically shunted by connexin 36-mediated gap junctions on MCs, but not tufted cells...
  65. Li D, Sekhon P, Barr K, Marquez Rosado L, Lampe P, Kidder G. Connexins and steroidogenesis in mouse Leydig cells. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013;91:157-64 pubmed publisher
    ..A reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction screen involving isolated adult Leydig cells identified connexin36 and connexin45 as expressed along with connexin43...
  66. Zolnik T, Connors B. Electrical synapses and the development of inhibitory circuits in the thalamus. J Physiol. 2016;594:2579-92 pubmed publisher
    ..are inhibitory cells interconnected by electrical synapses, most of which require the gap junction protein connexin36 (Cx36)...
  67. Lall V, Bruce G, Voytenko L, Drinkhill M, Wellershaus K, Willecke K, et al. Physiologic regulation of heart rate and blood pressure involves connexin 36-containing gap junctions. FASEB J. 2017;31:3966-3977 pubmed publisher
    ..The contribution of the gap junctional protein connexin 36 (Cx36) to the regulation of sympathetic activity and thus blood pressure and heart rate was determined using a ..