Gene Symbol: Gjc1
Description: gap junction protein, gamma 1
Alias: C130009G16Rik, Cnx45, Cx45, Gja-7, Gja7, gap junction gamma-1 protein, connexin-45, gap junction alpha-7 protein, gap junction membrane channel protein alpha 7
Species: mouse
Products:     Gjc1

Top Publications

  1. van Veen T, van Rijen H, Jongsma H. Electrical conductance of mouse connexin45 gap junction channels is modulated by phosphorylation. Cardiovasc Res. 2000;46:496-510 pubmed
    In this study we report about the modulation of connexin45 (Cx45) gap junction channel properties by phosphorylation of the connexin molecules through different protein kinases...
  2. Van Der Giessen R, Maxeiner S, French P, Willecke K, De Zeeuw C. Spatiotemporal distribution of Connexin45 in the olivocerebellar system. J Comp Neurol. 2006;495:173-84 pubmed
    ..These morphological data suggest that Connexin45 may play a modifying role in widely distributed, coupled neurons of the olivocerebellar system, but that it is not essential for the creation of its neuronal gap junctions. ..
  3. Zlomuzica A, Reichinnek S, Maxeiner S, Both M, May E, Wörsdörfer P, et al. Deletion of connexin45 in mouse neurons disrupts one-trial object recognition and alters kainate-induced gamma-oscillations in the hippocampus. Physiol Behav. 2010;101:245-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Novel object recognition after delays of up to 60min was impaired in neuronal Cx45 deficient mice. However, object-place recognition was not significantly different from controls...
  4. Nishii K, Kumai M, Egashira K, Miwa T, Hashizume K, Miyano Y, et al. Mice lacking connexin45 conditionally in cardiac myocytes display embryonic lethality similar to that of germline knockout mice without endocardial cushion defect. Cell Commun Adhes. 2003;10:365-9 pubmed
    The gap junction protein connexin45-deficient (Cx45-KO) mice die shortly after the hearts begin to beat...
  5. Kumai M, Nishii K, Nakamura K, Takeda N, Suzuki M, Shibata Y. Loss of connexin45 causes a cushion defect in early cardiogenesis. Development. 2000;127:3501-12 pubmed
    ..These results indicate a requirement for gap junction channels during early cardiogenesis and hence implicate connexin45 in congenital heart diseases. http://www. biologists.com/Development/movies/dev4369.html ..
  6. Kurt B, Kurtz L, Sequeira Lopez M, Gomez R, Willecke K, Wagner C, et al. Reciprocal expression of connexin 40 and 45 during phenotypical changes in renin-secreting cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011;300:F743-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was designed to determine the relevance of the vascular gap junction protein connexin 45 (Cx45) for the control of renin expression and secretion...
  7. Schweda F, Kurtz L, de Wit C, Janssen Bienhold U, Kurtz A, Wagner C. Substitution of connexin40 with connexin45 prevents hyperreninemia and attenuates hypertension. Kidney Int. 2009;75:482-9 pubmed publisher
    ..properties of Cx40, we measured renin release in mice where the coding sequence for Cx40 was replaced by that for Cx45, using the knock-in method...
  8. Butterweck A, Elfgang C, Willecke K, Traub O. Differential expression of the gap junction proteins connexin45, -43, -40, -31, and -26 in mouse skin. Eur J Cell Biol. 1994;65:152-63 pubmed
    ..For this purpose, polyclonal antibodies to Cx31 and Cx45 were raised by immunizing rabbits with fusion proteins of glutathione S-transferase and carboxy-terminal peptides ..
  9. von Maltzahn J, Kreuzberg M, Matern G, Euwens C, Höher T, Wörsdörfer P, et al. C-terminal tagging with eGFP yields new insights into expression of connexin45 but prevents rescue of embryonic lethal connexin45-deficient mice. Eur J Cell Biol. 2009;88:481-94 pubmed publisher
    Connexin45 (Cx45) is a member of the connexin family which can form gap junction channels and is known to be expressed in several cell types in the embryonic as well as adult mouse including working cardiomyocytes and certain types of ..

More Information


  1. Dedek K, Breuninger T, de Sevilla Müller L, Maxeiner S, Schultz K, Janssen Bienhold U, et al. A novel type of interplexiform amacrine cell in the mouse retina. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;30:217-28 pubmed publisher
    ..A new type of interplexiform ON amacrine cell is described, which is strongly coupled and uses GABA but not dopamine as its neurotransmitter. ..
  2. Kurtz L, Janssen Bienhold U, Kurtz A, Wagner C. Connexin expression in renin-producing cells. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20:506-12 pubmed publisher
    ..development, the appearance of renin-producing cells paralleled the expression of Cx40 and, to a lesser extent, Cx45 but not other Cxs...
  3. Li X, Kamasawa N, Ciolofan C, Olson C, Lu S, Davidson K, et al. Connexin45-containing neuronal gap junctions in rodent retina also contain connexin36 in both apposing hemiplaques, forming bihomotypic gap junctions, with scaffolding contributed by zonula occludens-1. J Neurosci. 2008;28:9769-89 pubmed publisher
    ..particularly in the inner plexiform layer (IPL), where the two principal neuronal connexin proteins are Cx36 and Cx45. Currently undetermined are coupling relationships between these connexins and whether both are expressed together ..
  4. Hilgen G, von Maltzahn J, Willecke K, Weiler R, Dedek K. Subcellular distribution of connexin45 in OFF bipolar cells of the mouse retina. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:433-50 pubmed publisher
    In the mouse retina, connexin45 (Cx45) participates in the gap junction between ON cone bipolar cells and AII amacrine cells, which constitutes an essential element of the primary rod pathway...
  5. Schubert T, Maxeiner S, Krüger O, Willecke K, Weiler R. Connexin45 mediates gap junctional coupling of bistratified ganglion cells in the mouse retina. J Comp Neurol. 2005;490:29-39 pubmed
    ..Connexin45 (Cx45) appears to be the major component of the gap junctional channels because tracer coupling is absent in Cx45-..
  6. Maxeiner S, Dedek K, Janssen Bienhold U, Ammermüller J, Brune H, Kirsch T, et al. Deletion of connexin45 in mouse retinal neurons disrupts the rod/cone signaling pathway between AII amacrine and ON cone bipolar cells and leads to impaired visual transmission. J Neurosci. 2005;25:566-76 pubmed
    Connexin45 (Cx45) is known to be expressed in the retina, but its functional analysis was problematic because general deletion of Cx45 coding DNA resulted in cardiovascular defects and embryonic lethality at embryonic day 10.5...
  7. Hennemann H, Kozjek G, Dahl E, Nicholson B, Willecke K. Molecular cloning of mouse connexins26 and -32: similar genomic organization but distinct promoter sequences of two gap junction genes. Eur J Cell Biol. 1992;58:81-9 pubmed
    ..Cx26 mRNA is much more abundant in adult mouse skin than in adult kidney and liver where Cx32 transcripts are relatively strongly expressed. ..
  8. Sohl G, Willecke K. An update on connexin genes and their nomenclature in mouse and man. Cell Commun Adhes. 2003;10:173-80 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, this short review contains an update on phenotypic correlations between connexin deficient mice and patients bearing mutations in their orthologous connexin genes. ..
  9. Maxeiner S, Kruger O, Schilling K, Traub O, Urschel S, Willecke K. Spatiotemporal transcription of connexin45 during brain development results in neuronal expression in adult mice. Neuroscience. 2003;119:689-700 pubmed
  10. Butterweck A, Gergs U, Elfgang C, Willecke K, Traub O. Immunochemical characterization of the gap junction protein connexin45 in mouse kidney and transfected human HeLa cells. J Membr Biol. 1994;141:247-56 pubmed
    Antibodies to the gap junction protein connexin45 (Cx45) were obtained by immunizing rabbits with fusion protein consisting of glutathione S-transferase and 138 carboxy-terminal amino acids of mouse Cx45...
  11. Kruger O, Plum A, Kim J, Winterhager E, Maxeiner S, Hallas G, et al. Defective vascular development in connexin 45-deficient mice. Development. 2000;127:4179-93 pubmed
    In order to reveal the biological function(s) of the gap-junction protein connexin 45 (Cx45), we generated Cx45-deficient mice with targeted replacement of the Cx45-coding region with the lacZ reporter gene...
  12. Hanner F, von Maltzahn J, Maxeiner S, Toma I, Sipos A, Krüger O, et al. Connexin45 is expressed in the juxtaglomerular apparatus and is involved in the regulation of renin secretion and blood pressure. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;295:R371-80 pubmed publisher
    ..have identified several connexin isoforms in the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA), but the vascular connexin isoform Cx45 has not yet been studied in this region...
  13. Hennemann H, Schwarz H, Willecke K. Characterization of gap junction genes expressed in F9 embryonic carcinoma cells: molecular cloning of mouse connexin31 and -45 cDNAs. Eur J Cell Biol. 1992;57:51-8 pubmed
    ..Cx31 and Cx45 are coded for by single genes in the mouse genome...
  14. Juneja S. mRNA expression pattern of multiple members of connexin gene family in normal and abnormal fetal gonads in mouse. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2003;47:147-56 pubmed
    ..The mRNA expression pattern of connexins (Cx26, Cx30.3, Cx31, Cx31.1, Cx32, Cx37, Cx40, Cx43, Cx45, Cx46 and Cx50) was analyzed by RT-PCR...
  15. Schmidt V, Jobs A, von Maltzahn J, Wörsdörfer P, Willecke K, de Wit C. Connexin45 is expressed in vascular smooth muscle but its function remains elusive. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42287 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, expression and physiological functions of Cx45 is unclear although its expression has been suggested in vascular smooth muscle (VSM)...
  16. Pang J, Paul D, Wu S. Survey on amacrine cells coupling to retrograde-identified ganglion cells in the mouse retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:5151-62 pubmed publisher
    ..nearly 11% of displaced ACs and 4% of conventional ACs in wild-type mice, and were 9% and 4% of displaced ACs in Cx45(-/-) and Cx36/45(-/-) mice, respectively...
  17. Nishii K, Seki A, Kumai M, Morimoto S, Miwa T, Hagiwara N, et al. Connexin45 contributes to global cardiovascular development by establishing myocardial impulse propagation. Mech Dev. 2016;140:41-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examined mouse embryos with a region-specific deletion of Cx45 in the myocardium (CA-Cre; Cx45(flox/flox)) or endothelium (Tie2-Cre; Cx45(flox/flox))...
  18. Jacob A, Beyer E. Mouse connexin 45: genomic cloning and exon usage. DNA Cell Biol. 2001;20:11-9 pubmed
    b>Connexin 45 is a gap junction protein that is prominent in early embryos and is widely expressed in many mature cell types. To elucidate its gene structure, expression, and regulation, we isolated mouse Cx45 genomic clones...
  19. Kausalya P, Reichert M, Hunziker W. Connexin45 directly binds to ZO-1 and localizes to the tight junction region in epithelial MDCK cells. FEBS Lett. 2001;505:92-6 pubmed
    ..b>Cx45 interacts with the PDZ domains of ZO-1 and ZO-3, but not ZO-2, via a short C-terminal PDZ binding motif (SVWI)...
  20. Cohen Salmon M, Maxeiner S, Krüger O, Theis M, Willecke K, Petit C. Expression of the connexin43- and connexin45-encoding genes in the developing and mature mouse inner ear. Cell Tissue Res. 2004;316:15-22 pubmed
    ..We took advantage of the lacZ reporter gene in Cx43 and Cx45 knock-out mice to study the expression of the connexin43 and connexin45 genes during the inner ear development...
  21. Auth T, Schlüter S, Urschel S, Kussmann P, Sonntag S, Höher T, et al. The TSG101 protein binds to connexins and is involved in connexin degradation. Exp Cell Res. 2009;315:1053-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that TSG101 is involved in the degradation of connexins via interaction with connexin proteins. ..
  22. Araya R, Eckardt D, Maxeiner S, Krüger O, Theis M, Willecke K, et al. Expression of connexins during differentiation and regeneration of skeletal muscle: functional relevance of connexin43. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:27-37 pubmed
    ..Thus, the expression of Cx45 and Cx43 is upregulated during skeletal muscle regeneration and Cx43 is required for normal myogenesis in vitro and ..
  23. von Maltzahn J, Euwens C, Willecke K, Sohl G. The novel mouse connexin39 gene is expressed in developing striated muscle fibers. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:5381-92 pubmed
    ..As expression of no other known connexin could be verified in these cells, intercellular dye transfer might result from functional expression of Cx39 in developing striated muscle fibers. ..
  24. Furuyama T, Kitayama K, Shimoda Y, Ogawa M, Sone K, Yoshida Araki K, et al. Abnormal angiogenesis in Foxo1 (Fkhr)-deficient mice. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:34741-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Foxo1 is essential to the ability of endothelial cells to respond properly to a high dose of VEGF, thereby playing a critical role in normal vascular development. ..
  25. Betsuyaku T, Nnebe N, Sundset R, Patibandla S, Krueger C, Yamada K. Overexpression of cardiac connexin45 increases susceptibility to ventricular tachyarrhythmias in vivo. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;290:H163-71 pubmed
    ..Recently, we showed that failing human hearts exhibit marked increases in connexin45 (Cx45) expression in addition to previously documented decreases in connexin43 (Cx43) expression...
  26. Cutts C, Eglen S. Detecting pairwise correlations in spike trains: an objective comparison of methods and application to the study of retinal waves. J Neurosci. 2014;34:14288-303 pubmed publisher
    ..It leads to better quantification of correlations and therefore better inference from the data. We hope that the proposed measure will have wide applications, and will help clarify the role of activity in retinotopic map formation. ..
  27. Majoul I, Gao L, Betzig E, Onichtchouk D, Butkevich E, Kozlov Y, et al. Fast structural responses of gap junction membrane domains to AB5 toxins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E4125-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate very fast dynamics (in the millisecond-to-second range) within GJ plaques, which previously were considered to be relatively stable, long-lived structures. ..
  28. Akopian A, Atlasz T, Pan F, Wong S, Zhang Y, Volgyi B, et al. Gap junction-mediated death of retinal neurons is connexin and insult specific: a potential target for neuroprotection. J Neurosci. 2014;34:10582-91 pubmed publisher
    ..deletion of the GJ subunit Cx36 increased cell survivability by ?50% under excitotoxic condition, cell loss in Cx45 knock-out mouse retinas was similar to that seen in wild-type mice...
  29. Desplantez T, Halliday D, Dupont E, Weingart R. Cardiac connexins Cx43 and Cx45: formation of diverse gap junction channels with diverse electrical properties. Pflugers Arch. 2004;448:363-75 pubmed
    HeLa cells expressing rat connexin43 (Cx43) and/or mouse Cx45 were studied with the dual voltage-clamp technique. Different types of cell pairs were established and their gap junction properties determined, i.e...
  30. Davies T, Barr K, Jones D, Zhu D, Kidder G. Multiple members of the connexin gene family participate in preimplantation development of the mouse. Dev Genet. 1996;18:234-43 pubmed
    ..They can be divided into two groups with respect to the timing of mRNA accumulation: Cx31, Cx43, and Cx45 mRNAs accumulate continuously from the two- or four-cell stage, whereas Cx30.3, Cx31...
  31. Blankenship A, Hamby A, Firl A, Vyas S, Maxeiner S, Willecke K, et al. The role of neuronal connexins 36 and 45 in shaping spontaneous firing patterns in the developing retina. J Neurosci. 2011;31:9998-10008 pubmed publisher
    ..During development, two connexin isoforms, connexin 36 (Cx36) and Cx45, are expressed in bipolar cells and RGCs, and therefore provide a potential substrate for coordinating network ..
  32. Kotsias B, Salim M, Peracchia L, Peracchia C. Interplay between cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator and gap junction channels made of connexins 45, 40, 32 and 50 expressed in oocytes. J Membr Biol. 2006;214:1-8 pubmed
    ..functional interaction between CFTR and gap junction channels, we coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes CFTR and either Cx45, Cx40, Cx32 or Cx50 and monitored junctional conductance (G (j)) and its sensitivity to transjunctional voltage (V (..
  33. Ya J, Erdtsieck Ernste E, de Boer P, van Kempen M, Jongsma H, Gros D, et al. Heart defects in connexin43-deficient mice. Circ Res. 1998;82:360-6 pubmed
  34. Gabriel H, Jung D, Bützler C, Temme A, Traub O, Winterhager E, et al. Transplacental uptake of glucose is decreased in embryonic lethal connexin26-deficient mice. J Cell Biol. 1998;140:1453-61 pubmed
  35. Grikscheit K, Thomas N, Bruce A, Rothery S, Chan J, Severs N, et al. Coexpression of connexin 45 with connexin 43 decreases gap junction size. Cell Commun Adhes. 2008;15:185-93 pubmed publisher
    In the human heart, ventricular myocytes express connexin 43 (Cx43) and traces of Cx45. In congestive heart failure, Cx43 levels decrease, Cx45 levels increase and gap junction size decreases...
  36. Gros D, Théveniau Ruissy M, Bernard M, Calmels T, Kober F, Sohl G, et al. Connexin 30 is expressed in the mouse sino-atrial node and modulates heart rate. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;85:45-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Cx30 is functionally expressed, in low abundance, in the SA node of the adult mouse heart where it participates in HR regulation. ..
  37. Chaible L, Sanches D, Cogliati B, Mennecier G, Dagli M. Delayed osteoblastic differentiation and bone development in Cx43 knockout mice. Toxicol Pathol. 2011;39:1046-55 pubmed publisher
    ..associated with bone development, namely, osteocalcin, osteopontin, alkaline phosphatase, RUNX2, GJA1, GJC1 (Cx45), and GJA3 (Cx46)...
  38. Wörsdörfer P, Maxeiner S, Markopoulos C, Kirfel G, Wulf V, Auth T, et al. Connexin expression and functional analysis of gap junctional communication in mouse embryonic stem cells. Stem Cells. 2008;26:431-9 pubmed
    ..purpose, we have analyzed all known connexin genes in mouse ES cells but found only three of them, Cx31, Cx43, and Cx45, to be expressed as proteins...
  39. Coppen S, Severs N, Gourdie R. Connexin45 (alpha 6) expression delineates an extended conduction system in the embryonic and mature rodent heart. Dev Genet. 1999;24:82-90 pubmed
    We previously demonstrated that alpha 6 (Cx45), one of the three connexins of the mammalian myocardium, is preferentially expressed in the peripheral portion of the ventricular conduction system in rats and mice...
  40. Alcolea S, Théveniau Ruissy M, Jarry Guichard T, Marics I, Tzouanacou E, Chauvin J, et al. Downregulation of connexin 45 gene products during mouse heart development. Circ Res. 1999;84:1365-79 pubmed
    ..Three members of this family have been demonstrated to be synthesized in the cardiomyocytes: Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45. In addition, each of them has been shown to form channels with unique and specific electrophysiological properties...
  41. Khodosevich K, Zuccotti A, Kreuzberg M, Le Magueresse C, Frank M, Willecke K, et al. Connexin45 modulates the proliferation of transit-amplifying precursor cells in the mouse subventricular zone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:20107-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, overexpression of Cx45 by retroviral injections increased the proliferation of Mash-1-positive transit-amplifying precursor cells in the ..
  42. Sohl G, Guldenagel M, Traub O, Willecke K. Connexin expression in the retina. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2000;32:138-45 pubmed
    ..Cx36 and Cx45 immunoreactive signals were found in the inner and outer plexiform layer, both of which are known to show ..
  43. Theis M, Mas C, Döring B, Degen J, Brink C, Caille D, et al. Replacement by a lacZ reporter gene assigns mouse connexin36, 45 and 43 to distinct cell types in pancreatic islets. Exp Cell Res. 2004;294:18-29 pubmed
    Transcripts of three connexin isoforms (Cx36, Cx43 and Cx45) have been reported in rodent pancreatic islets, but the precise distribution of the cognate proteins is still unknown...
  44. Simon A, McWhorter A, Dones J, Jackson C, Chen H. Heart and head defects in mice lacking pairs of connexins. Dev Biol. 2004;265:369-83 pubmed
    ..four are expressed in developing heart: connexin37 (Cx37), connexin40 (Cx40), connexin43 (Cx43), and connexin45 (Cx45)...
  45. Baldridge D, Lecanda F, Shin C, Stains J, Civitelli R. Sequence and structure of the mouse connexin45 gene. Biosci Rep. 2001;21:683-9 pubmed
    The connexin45 (Cx45) gene was cloned from a mouse genomic Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library. Approximately 8.4 kb of the genomic DNA was sequenced, and the structure of the Cx45 gene was determined...
  46. Dedek K, Schultz K, Pieper M, Dirks P, Maxeiner S, Willecke K, et al. Localization of heterotypic gap junctions composed of connexin45 and connexin36 in the rod pathway of the mouse retina. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;24:1675-86 pubmed
    ..Two gap junctional proteins, connexin36 (Cx36) and connexin45 (Cx45), appear to play a pivotal role in this pathway because lack of either protein leads to an impairment of visual ..
  47. Krüger O, Maxeiner S, Kim J, van Rijen H, De Bakker J, Eckardt D, et al. Cardiac morphogenetic defects and conduction abnormalities in mice homozygously deficient for connexin40 and heterozygously deficient for connexin45. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2006;41:787-97 pubmed
    Connexin40 (Cx40) and connexin45 (Cx45) are involved in both cardiac morphogenesis and propagation of electrical activity...
  48. Buniello A, Montanaro D, Volinia S, Gasparini P, Marigo V. An expression atlas of connexin genes in the mouse. Genomics. 2004;83:812-20 pubmed
  49. del Castillo F, Cohen Salmon M, Charollais A, Caille D, Lampe P, Chavrier P, et al. Consortin, a trans-Golgi network cargo receptor for the plasma membrane targeting and recycling of connexins. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:262-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequence accession numbers. GenBank: Human CNST cDNA, NM_152609; mouse Cnst cDNA, NM_146105. ..
  50. Mahoney Z, Sammut B, Xavier R, Cunningham J, Go G, Brim K, et al. Discs-large homolog 1 regulates smooth muscle orientation in the mouse ureter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:19872-7 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that (i) besides its well documented role in regulating epithelial polarity, Dlgh1 also regulates smooth muscle orientation, and (ii) human DLG1 mutations may contribute to hereditary forms of hydronephrosis. ..
  51. Li J, Li C, Liang D, Lv F, Yuan T, The E, et al. LRP6 acts as a scaffold protein in cardiac gap junction assembly. Nat Commun. 2016;7:11775 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings uncover a distinct role of LRP6 as a platform for intracellular protein trafficking. ..
  52. Schwarz H, Chang Y, Hennemann H, Dahl E, Lalley P, Willecke K. Chromosomal assignments of mouse connexin genes, coding for gap junctional proteins, by somatic cell hybridization. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1992;18:351-9 pubmed
    The connexin genes Cx31 and Cx45 coding for proteins of gap junctional subunits have been assigned to mouse chromosomes 4 and 11 by Southern blot hybridization of specific gene probes to DNA from mouse x Chinese hamster somatic cell ..
  53. Wörsdörfer P, Bosen F, Gebhardt M, Russ N, Zimmermann K, Komla Kessie D, et al. Abrogation of Gap Junctional Communication in ES Cells Results in a Disruption of Primitive Endoderm Formation in Embryoid Bodies. Stem Cells. 2017;35:859-871 pubmed publisher
    ..Connexin (Cx) 43 and Cx45 are co-expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells, form gap junctions and are considered to exhibit adhesive function ..
  54. Nagy J, Rash J. Cx36, Cx43 and Cx45 in mouse and rat cerebellar cortex: species-specific expression, compensation in Cx36 null mice and co-localization in neurons vs. glia. Eur J Neurosci. 2017;46:1790-1804 pubmed publisher
    ..basket cells and between Golgi cells, and there is gene reporter-based evidence for the expression of connexin45 (Cx45) in the cerebellar molecular layer...
  55. Anderson C, Zundel M, Werner R. Variable promoter usage and alternative splicing in five mouse connexin genes. Genomics. 2005;85:238-44 pubmed
    ..embryo cDNA targeting five candidate genes, Cx31, Cx40, Cx45, Cx46, and Cx47 (approved gene symbols Gjb3, Gja5, Gja7, Gja3, and Gja12, respectively), revealed the existence of multiple previously unknown exons upstream of the coding ..
  56. Simon A, Goodenough D. Diverse functions of vertebrate gap junctions. Trends Cell Biol. 1998;8:477-83 pubmed
  57. Lin B, Jakobs T, Masland R. Different functional types of bipolar cells use different gap-junctional proteins. J Neurosci. 2005;25:6696-701 pubmed
    ..As reported previously (Maxeiner et al., 2005), Cx45 was found in some ON bipolar cells, but RT-PCR showed Cx36 and not Cx45 to be expressed by the type 357 bipolar ..
  58. Corvalán L, Araya R, Branes M, Sáez P, Kalergis A, Tobar J, et al. Injury of skeletal muscle and specific cytokines induce the expression of gap junction channels in mouse dendritic cells. J Cell Physiol. 2007;211:649-60 pubmed
    ..Increased levels of connexin43 and connexin45 protein and mRNA accompanied the appearance of cellular coupling. These studies provide demonstration of connexin expression and regulation by specific danger signals in DCs. ..
  59. Chen J, Murchison E, Tang R, Callis T, Tatsuguchi M, Deng Z, et al. Targeted deletion of Dicer in the heart leads to dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:2111-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our studies demonstrate essential roles for Dicer in cardiac contraction and indicate that miRNAs play critical roles in normal cardiac function and under pathological conditions. ..
  60. Kibschull M, Magin T, Traub O, Winterhager E. Cx31 and Cx43 double-deficient mice reveal independent functions in murine placental and skin development. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:853-63 pubmed
    ..Therefore, in epidermal and preimplantation development, gap junctional communication can probably be compensated by other isoforms coexpressed with Cx31 and Cx43. ..
  61. Yun S, Ryu J, Park J, Kim M, Lee J, Han H. Prostaglandin E? maintains mouse ESC undifferentiated state through regulation of connexin31, connexin43 and connexin45 expression: involvement of glycogen synthase kinase 3?/?-catenin. Biol Cell. 2012;104:378-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We have analysed 10 Cx genes, but found nine of them. PGE? (50??M) stimulated Cx31, Cx32, Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45 mRNA expression...
  62. Alcoléa S, Jarry Guichard T, de Bakker J, Gonzalez D, Lamers W, Coppen S, et al. Replacement of connexin40 by connexin45 in the mouse: impact on cardiac electrical conduction. Circ Res. 2004;94:100-9 pubmed
    ..Cx43, Cx40, and Cx45 are synthesized in the cardiomyocytes, and each of them has a unique cardiac expression pattern...
  63. Kaba R, Coppen S, Dupont E, Skepper J, Elneil S, Haw M, et al. Comparison of connexin 43, 40 and 45 expression patterns in the developing human and mouse hearts. Cell Commun Adhes. 2001;8:339-43 pubmed
    ..In general, these dynamic changes of connexins 43, 40 and 45 during mouse cardiac development appear to be mirrored in the human. ..
  64. Laing J, Manley Markowski R, Koval M, Civitelli R, Steinberg T. Connexin45 interacts with zonula occludens-1 in osteoblastic cells. Cell Commun Adhes. 2001;8:209-12 pubmed
    Connexin43 (Cx43) and Cx45 are co-expressed in a number of different tissues...
  65. Brunskill E, Witte D, Yutzey K, Potter S. Novel cell lines promote the discovery of genes involved in early heart development. Dev Biol. 2001;235:507-20 pubmed
    ..The results show that the 1H and ECL-2 cell lines can be used to discover novel genes expressed in the early cardiomyocyte. ..
  66. Vaidya D, Tamaddon H, Lo C, Taffet S, Delmar M, Morley G, et al. Null mutation of connexin43 causes slow propagation of ventricular activation in the late stages of mouse embryonic development. Circ Res. 2001;88:1196-202 pubmed
    ..3 [7.8 to 8.9], and Cx43(-/-) 1.7 [1.3 to 2.1; P<0.005]) corresponding with the downregulation of Cx40. Cx40 and Cx45 mRNAs were detectable in ventricular homogenates even at 17...
  67. Jalife J, Morley G, Vaidya D. Connexins and impulse propagation in the mouse heart. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1999;10:1649-63 pubmed
    ..Three gap junction proteins, known as connexins, are expressed in the heart: Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45. Each of these proteins forms channels with unique biophysical and electrophysiologic properties, as well as ..
  68. Bao M, Kanter E, Huang R, Maxeiner S, Frank M, Zhang Y, et al. Residual Cx45 and its relationship to Cx43 in murine ventricular myocardium. Channels (Austin). 2011;5:489-99 pubmed publisher
    ..known about expression patterns and remodeling of cardiac connexin(Cx)43, little is known about the less abundant Cx45, which is required for embryonic development and viability, is downregulated in adult hearts, and is ..
  69. Chapman R, Lall V, Maxeiner S, Willecke K, Deuchars J, King A. Localization of neurones expressing the gap junction protein Connexin45 within the adult spinal dorsal horn: a study using Cx45-eGFP reporter mice. Brain Struct Funct. 2013;218:751-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, a Cx45 reporter mouse model in which the Cx45 coding sequence is substituted for enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) ..
  70. Dupays L, Jarry Guichard T, Mazurais D, Calmels T, Izumo S, Gros D, et al. Dysregulation of connexins and inactivation of NFATc1 in the cardiovascular system of Nkx2-5 null mutants. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2005;38:787-98 pubmed
    ..due in part to the poor development of the ventricular trabecular network, as well as specific downregulation of Cx45 gene expression...
  71. Frank M, Eiberger B, Janssen Bienhold U, de Sevilla Müller L, Tjarks A, Kim J, et al. Neuronal connexin-36 can functionally replace connexin-45 in mouse retina but not in the developing heart. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:3605-15 pubmed publisher
    The gap junction protein connexin-45 (Cx45) is expressed in the conduction system of the heart and in certain neurons of the retina and brain...
  72. Li D, Sekhon P, Barr K, Marquez Rosado L, Lampe P, Kidder G. Connexins and steroidogenesis in mouse Leydig cells. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013;91:157-64 pubmed publisher
    ..It was concluded that connexin36, connexin43, and connexin45 are coexpressed in Leydig cells with connexins 36 and 43 contributing to gap junctions. The role of connexin45 remains to be elucidated. ..
  73. Sohl G, Eiberger J, Jung Y, Kozak C, Willecke K. The mouse gap junction gene connexin29 is highly expressed in sciatic nerve and regulated during brain development. Biol Chem. 2001;382:973-8 pubmed
    ..Our expression data suggest that the new connexin gene is active in myelin-forming glial cells. ..