Gene Symbol: Gja5
Description: gap junction protein, alpha 5
Alias: 5730555N10Rik, Cnx40, Cx40, Gja-5, gap junction alpha-5 protein, connexin-40, gap junction membrane channel protein alpha 5
Species: mouse
Products:     Gja5

Top Publications

  1. Butterweck A, Elfgang C, Willecke K, Traub O. Differential expression of the gap junction proteins connexin45, -43, -40, -31, and -26 in mouse skin. Eur J Cell Biol. 1994;65:152-63 pubmed
    ..and -31 were located similarly as in embryonic tissue, but Cx45 as well as Cx26 were not detected and in addition Cx40 was weakly expressed in the stratum basale...
  2. Bruneau B, Nemer G, Schmitt J, Charron F, Robitaille L, Caron S, et al. A murine model of Holt-Oram syndrome defines roles of the T-box transcription factor Tbx5 in cardiogenesis and disease. Cell. 2001;106:709-21 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, Tbx5 haploinsufficiency also markedly decreased atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and connexin 40 (cx40) transcription, implicating these as Tbx5 target genes and providing a mechanism by which 50% reduction ..
  3. Delorme B, Dahl E, Jarry Guichard T, Briand J, Willecke K, Gros D, et al. Expression pattern of connexin gene products at the early developmental stages of the mouse cardiovascular system. Circ Res. 1997;81:423-37 pubmed
    ..Products of several Cx genes have been identified in the mammalian heart (eg, Cx45, Cx43, Cx40, and Cx37), and their expression was shown to be regulated during the development of the myocardium...
  4. Simon A, Goodenough D, Paul D. Mice lacking connexin40 have cardiac conduction abnormalities characteristic of atrioventricular block and bundle branch block. Curr Biol. 1998;8:295-8 pubmed
    ..the expression of connexins - the family of proteins from which gap junctions are formed - reveal that connexin40 (Cx40) is prominent in the conduction system [4]...
  5. Alonso F, Boittin F, Beny J, Haefliger J. Loss of connexin40 is associated with decreased endothelium-dependent relaxations and eNOS levels in the mouse aorta. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010;299:H1365-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Endothelial cells of mouse aorta are interconnected by gap junctions made of connexin40 (Cx40) and connexin37 (Cx37), allowing the exchange of signaling molecules to coordinate their activity...
  6. Kumai M, Nishii K, Nakamura K, Takeda N, Suzuki M, Shibata Y. Loss of connexin45 causes a cushion defect in early cardiogenesis. Development. 2000;127:3501-12 pubmed
    ..These results indicate a requirement for gap junction channels during early cardiogenesis and hence implicate connexin45 in congenital heart diseases. http://www. biologists.com/Development/movies/dev4369.html ..
  7. Christoffels V, Keijser A, Houweling A, Clout D, Moorman A. Patterning the embryonic heart: identification of five mouse Iroquois homeobox genes in the developing heart. Dev Biol. 2000;224:263-74 pubmed
  8. Sedmera D, Reckova M, Dealmeida A, Coppen S, Kubalak S, Gourdie R, et al. Spatiotemporal pattern of commitment to slowed proliferation in the embryonic mouse heart indicates progressive differentiation of the cardiac conduction system. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2003;274:773-7 pubmed
    ..5-13.5. These patterns of slowed proliferation correlate well with those in other species, and can serve as a useful marker for the forming conduction system. ..
  9. Simon A, McWhorter A. Vascular abnormalities in mice lacking the endothelial gap junction proteins connexin37 and connexin40. Dev Biol. 2002;251:206-20 pubmed
    ..Mice lacking either connexin37 (Cx37) or connexin40 (Cx40), the predominant gap junction proteins present in vascular endothelium, are viable and exhibit phenotypes that are ..

More Information


  1. Chadjichristos C, Scheckenbach K, van Veen T, Richani Sarieddine M, de Wit C, Yang Z, et al. Endothelial-specific deletion of connexin40 promotes atherosclerosis by increasing CD73-dependent leukocyte adhesion. Circulation. 2010;121:123-31 pubmed publisher
    Endothelial dysfunction is the initiating event of atherosclerosis. The expression of connexin40 (Cx40), an endothelial gap junction protein, is decreased during atherogenesis...
  2. Miquerol L, Meysen S, Mangoni M, Bois P, van Rijen H, Abran P, et al. Architectural and functional asymmetry of the His-Purkinje system of the murine heart. Cardiovasc Res. 2004;63:77-86 pubmed
    ..A transgenic mouse line has been created in which EGFP is expressed under the control of the Cx40 gene...
  3. Vaidya D, Tamaddon H, Lo C, Taffet S, Delmar M, Morley G, et al. Null mutation of connexin43 causes slow propagation of ventricular activation in the late stages of mouse embryonic development. Circ Res. 2001;88:1196-202 pubmed
    ..3 [7.8 to 8.9], and Cx43(-/-) 1.7 [1.3 to 2.1; P<0.005]) corresponding with the downregulation of Cx40. Cx40 and Cx45 mRNAs were detectable in ventricular homogenates even at 17...
  4. Boittin F, Alonso F, Le Gal L, Allagnat F, Beny J, Haefliger J. Connexins and M3 muscarinic receptors contribute to heterogeneous Ca(2+) signaling in mouse aortic endothelium. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2013;31:166-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Mouse endothelial cells are interconnected by gap junctions made of Connexin40 (Cx40) and Cx37, which allow the exchange of signaling molecules to coordinate their activity...
  5. Koshiba Takeuchi K, Takeuchi J, Arruda E, Kathiriya I, Mo R, Hui C, et al. Cooperative and antagonistic interactions between Sall4 and Tbx5 pattern the mouse limb and heart. Nat Genet. 2006;38:175-83 pubmed
    ..Thus, a positive and negative feed-forward circuit between Tbx5 and Sall4 ensures precise patterning of embryonic limb and heart and provides a unifying mechanism for heart/hand syndromes. ..
  6. Kirchhoff S, Kim J, Hagendorff A, Thönnissen E, Kruger O, Lamers W, et al. Abnormal cardiac conduction and morphogenesis in connexin40 and connexin43 double-deficient mice. Circ Res. 2000;87:399-405 pubmed
    Connexin40-deficient (Cx40(-/-)/Cx43(+/+)) and connexin43-heterozygous knockout mice (Cx40(+/+)/Cx43(+/-)) are viable but show cardiac conduction abnormalities...
  7. Christoffels V, Mommersteeg M, Trowe M, Prall O, de Gier de Vries C, Soufan A, et al. Formation of the venous pole of the heart from an Nkx2-5-negative precursor population requires Tbx18. Circ Res. 2006;98:1555-63 pubmed
  8. Mommersteeg M, Hoogaars W, Prall O, de Gier de Vries C, Wiese C, Clout D, et al. Molecular pathway for the localized formation of the sinoatrial node. Circ Res. 2007;100:354-62 pubmed
  9. Blaschke R, Hahurij N, Kuijper S, Just S, Wisse L, Deissler K, et al. Targeted mutation reveals essential functions of the homeodomain transcription factor Shox2 in sinoatrial and pacemaking development. Circulation. 2007;115:1830-8 pubmed
    ..We furthermore demonstrate aberrant expression of connexin 40 and connexin 43 and the transcription factor Nkx2...
  10. Domínguez J, de la Rosa A, Navarro F, Franco D, Aranega A. Tissue distribution and subcellular localization of the cardiac sodium channel during mouse heart development. Cardiovasc Res. 2008;78:45-52 pubmed publisher
    ..5, shows a dynamic expression pattern during mouse heart development, indicating that it could play an important role in the acquisition of a mature pattern of conduction and contraction during cardiogenesis. ..
  11. Jobs A, Schmidt K, Schmidt V, Lübkemeier I, van Veen T, Kurtz A, et al. Defective Cx40 maintains Cx37 expression but intact Cx40 is crucial for conducted dilations irrespective of hypertension. Hypertension. 2012;60:1422-9 pubmed publisher
    The gap junction channel protein connexin40 (Cx40) is crucial in vascular and renal physiology, because Cx40-deficient mice exhibit impaired conduction of endothelium-dependent dilations and pronounced hypertension...
  12. Kanady J, Dellinger M, Munger S, Witte M, Simon A. Connexin37 and Connexin43 deficiencies in mice disrupt lymphatic valve development and result in lymphatic disorders including lymphedema and chylothorax. Dev Biol. 2011;354:253-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that at least three Cxs are expressed in the developing lymphatic vasculature and, when defective, are associated with clinically manifest lymphatic disorders in mice and man...
  13. Lin X, Gemel J, Glass A, Zemlin C, Beyer E, Veenstra R. Connexin40 and connexin43 determine gating properties of atrial gap junction channels. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010;48:238-45 pubmed publisher
    While ventricular gap junctions contain only Cx43, atrial gap junctions contain both Cx40 and Cx43; yet the functional consequences of this co-expression remain poorly understood...
  14. Sankova B, Benes J, Krejci E, Dupays L, Théveniau Ruissy M, Miquerol L, et al. The effect of connexin40 deficiency on ventricular conduction system function during development. Cardiovasc Res. 2012;95:469-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantitative analysis of normal mouse embryonic ventricular conduction patterns will be useful for interpretation of effects of mutations affecting the function of the cardiac conduction system. ..
  15. de Wit C. Different pathways with distinct properties conduct dilations in the microcirculation in vivo. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;85:604-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, expression of connexin37 (Cx37) was not detected in Cx40-deficient arterioles, although abundantly expressed in endothelium of wild-type arterioles...
  16. Coppen S, Kaba R, Halliday D, Dupont E, Skepper J, Elneil S, et al. Comparison of connexin expression patterns in the developing mouse heart and human foetal heart. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003;242:121-7 pubmed
    ..The expression of the three major connexins (Cx43, Cx40 and Cx45) present in cardiac myocytes is known to be developmentally regulated but it is not clear how the patterns ..
  17. Nakashima Y, Yanez D, Touma M, Nakano H, Jaroszewicz A, Jordan M, et al. Nkx2-5 suppresses the proliferation of atrial myocytes and conduction system. Circ Res. 2014;114:1103-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that Nkx2-5 regulates the proliferation of atrial working and conduction myocardium in coordination with Notch pathway. ..
  18. Koibuchi N, Chin M. CHF1/Hey2 plays a pivotal role in left ventricular maturation through suppression of ectopic atrial gene expression. Circ Res. 2007;100:850-5 pubmed
    ..of the T-box transcription factor Tbx5, a known regulator of ANF, and an additional Tbx5-dependent gene, connexin 40 (Cx40), both of which share a similar expression pattern to ANF during development...
  19. Asai R, Kurihara Y, Fujisawa K, Sato T, Kawamura Y, Kokubo H, et al. Endothelin receptor type A expression defines a distinct cardiac subdomain within the heart field and is later implicated in chamber myocardium formation. Development. 2010;137:3823-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The present finding provides an insight into how subpopulations within the crescent-forming (first) heart field contribute to the coordination of heart morphogenesis through spatiotemporally defined cell movements. ..
  20. Kibschull M, Magin T, Traub O, Winterhager E. Cx31 and Cx43 double-deficient mice reveal independent functions in murine placental and skin development. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:853-63 pubmed
    ..Therefore, in epidermal and preimplantation development, gap junctional communication can probably be compensated by other isoforms coexpressed with Cx31 and Cx43. ..
  21. de Wit C, Roos F, Bolz S, Pohl U. Lack of vascular connexin 40 is associated with hypertension and irregular arteriolar vasomotion. Physiol Genomics. 2003;13:169-77 pubmed
    ..Gap junctions are formed by connexins 40 (Cx40), Cx43, Cx37, and Cx45 in the vasculature...
  22. Christoffels V, Hoogaars W, Tessari A, Clout D, Moorman A, Campione M. T-box transcription factor Tbx2 represses differentiation and formation of the cardiac chambers. Dev Dyn. 2004;229:763-70 pubmed
    ..protein expression in mouse hearts was found to be complementary to that of chamber myocardium-specific genes Nppa, Cx40, Cx43, and Chisel, and was conserved in human...
  23. Kirchhoff S, Nelles E, Hagendorff A, Kruger O, Traub O, Willecke K. Reduced cardiac conduction velocity and predisposition to arrhythmias in connexin40-deficient mice. Curr Biol. 1998;8:299-302 pubmed
    ..In the mouse, connexin40 (Cx40) protein has been detected in endothelial cells of lung and heart and in certain heart muscle cells: atrial ..
  24. van Veen T, van Rijen H, van Kempen M, Miquerol L, Opthof T, Gros D, et al. Discontinuous conduction in mouse bundle branches is caused by bundle-branch architecture. Circulation. 2005;112:2235-44 pubmed
    ..Premature stimulation was used to estimate CV restitution in the BBs. Expression/distribution of connexin40 (Cx40), Cx43, and Cx45 was determined...
  25. Nguyêñ Trân V, Kubalak S, Minamisawa S, Fiset C, Wollert K, Brown A, et al. A novel genetic pathway for sudden cardiac death via defects in the transition between ventricular and conduction system cell lineages. Cell. 2000;102:671-82 pubmed
    ..These studies identify a novel genetic pathway for sudden cardiac death via defects in the transition between ventricular and conduction system cell lineages. ..
  26. Plum A, Hallas G, Magin T, Dombrowski F, Hagendorff A, Schumacher B, et al. Unique and shared functions of different connexins in mice. Curr Biol. 2000;10:1083-91 pubmed
    ..To discriminate between the unique and shared functions of Cx43, Cx40 and Cx32, we generated two 'knock-in' mouse lines, Cx43KI32 and Cx43KI40, in which the coding region of the Cx43 ..
  27. Yu G, Bolon M, Laird D, Tyml K. Hypoxia and reoxygenation-induced oxidant production increase in microvascular endothelial cells depends on connexin40. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;49:1008-13 pubmed publisher
    ..reactive oxygen species (ROS) in microvascular endothelial cells challenged by hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) requires Cx40, independent of GJIC...
  28. Mommersteeg M, Brown N, Prall O, de Gier de Vries C, Harvey R, Moorman A, et al. Pitx2c and Nkx2-5 are required for the formation and identity of the pulmonary myocardium. Circ Res. 2007;101:902-9 pubmed
    ..Nkx2-5 and its target gap-junction gene Cx40 are expressed in the atria and in the pulmonary myocardium but not in the systemic venous return, which expresses ..
  29. Dahl E, Winterhager E, Reuss B, Traub O, Butterweck A, Willecke K. Expression of the gap junction proteins connexin31 and connexin43 correlates with communication compartments in extraembryonic tissues and in the gastrulating mouse embryo, respectively. J Cell Sci. 1996;109 ( Pt 1):191-7 pubmed
    ..The communication boundary between those compartments may be due to incompatibility of connexin31 and connexin43 hemichannels, which do not communicate with each other in cell culture. ..
  30. Miquerol L, Bellon A, Moreno N, Beyer S, Meilhac S, Buckingham M, et al. Resolving cell lineage contributions to the ventricular conduction system with a Cx40-GFP allele: a dual contribution of the first and second heart fields. Dev Dyn. 2013;242:665-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The mammalian VCS is comprised of cells derived from two lineages, supporting a dual contribution of first and second heart field progenitor cells. ..
  31. de Lange F, Moorman A, Anderson R, Männer J, Soufan A, de Gier de Vries C, et al. Lineage and morphogenetic analysis of the cardiac valves. Circ Res. 2004;95:645-54 pubmed
    ..The tricuspid septal leaflet then delaminates from the muscular ventricular septum late in development. ..
  32. Krüger O, Beny J, Chabaud F, Traub O, Theis M, Brix K, et al. Altered dye diffusion and upregulation of connexin37 in mouse aortic endothelium deficient in connexin40. J Vasc Res. 2002;39:160-72 pubmed
    Connexin40 (Cx40), connexin37 (Cx37) and connexin43 (Cx43) are subunit proteins of gap junction channels in the vascular wall which are presumably involved in the propagation of vasomotor signals...
  33. Shiojiri N, Niwa T, Sugiyama Y, Koike T. Preferential expression of connexin37 and connexin40 in the endothelium of the portal veins during mouse liver development. Cell Tissue Res. 2006;324:547-52 pubmed
    ..The differentiation of each blood vessel in the hepatic vascular system may occur in early developmental stages, soon after hepatic primordium formation. ..
  34. Hagendorff A, Schumacher B, Kirchhoff S, Luderitz B, Willecke K. Conduction disturbances and increased atrial vulnerability in Connexin40-deficient mice analyzed by transesophageal stimulation. Circulation. 1999;99:1508-15 pubmed
    Recently, it has been reported that connexin40 (Cx40) deficiency in targeted mouse mutants is associated with a prolongation of P-wave and QRS complex duration on surface electrograms...
  35. Espinoza Lewis R, Liu H, Sun C, Chen C, Jiao K, Chen Y. Ectopic expression of Nkx2.5 suppresses the formation of the sinoatrial node in mice. Dev Biol. 2011;356:359-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results demonstrate that Shox2 downregulation of Nkx2.5 is essential for the proper development of the SAN and that Shox2 functions to shield the SAN from becoming working myocardium by acting upstream of Nkx2.5. ..
  36. Li J, Li C, Liang D, Lv F, Yuan T, The E, et al. LRP6 acts as a scaffold protein in cardiac gap junction assembly. Nat Commun. 2016;7:11775 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings uncover a distinct role of LRP6 as a platform for intracellular protein trafficking. ..
  37. Bolon M, Peng T, Kidder G, Tyml K. Lipopolysaccharide plus hypoxia and reoxygenation synergistically reduce electrical coupling between microvascular endothelial cells by dephosphorylating connexin40. J Cell Physiol. 2008;217:350-9 pubmed publisher
    ..electrical coupling between microvascular endothelial cells by targeting the gap junction protein connexin40 (Cx40), tyrosine kinase-, ERK1/2-, and PKA-dependently...
  38. Guo R, Si R, Scott B, Makino A. Mitochondrial connexin40 regulates mitochondrial calcium uptake in coronary endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2017;312:C398-C406 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cx40 is predominantly expressed in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and plays an important role in the electrical ..
  39. Dupays L, Jarry Guichard T, Mazurais D, Calmels T, Izumo S, Gros D, et al. Dysregulation of connexins and inactivation of NFATc1 in the cardiovascular system of Nkx2-5 null mutants. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2005;38:787-98 pubmed
    ..In the mutant embryos the aorta is collapsed, and the vascular endothelial Cxs, Cx40 and Cx37, are no longer expressed in its posterior region...
  40. Srinivasan R, Geng X, Yang Y, Wang Y, Mukatira S, Studer M, et al. The nuclear hormone receptor Coup-TFII is required for the initiation and early maintenance of Prox1 expression in lymphatic endothelial cells. Genes Dev. 2010;24:696-707 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we show that the direct interaction between nuclear hormone receptors and Prox1 is also necessary for the maintenance of Prox1 expression during early stages of LEC specification and differentiation. ..
  41. Liang X, Wang G, Lin L, Lowe J, Zhang Q, Bu L, et al. HCN4 dynamically marks the first heart field and conduction system precursors. Circ Res. 2013;113:399-407 pubmed publisher
  42. Chong D, Koo Y, Xu K, Fu S, Cleaver O. Stepwise arteriovenous fate acquisition during mammalian vasculogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:2153-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results provide a first spatiotemporal analysis of mammalian AV cell fate establishment and anatomy, as well as a delineation of a molecular toolkit for analysis of arteries and veins during early vessel development. ..
  43. Harrelson Z, Kelly R, Goldin S, Gibson Brown J, Bollag R, Silver L, et al. Tbx2 is essential for patterning the atrioventricular canal and for morphogenesis of the outflow tract during heart development. Development. 2004;131:5041-52 pubmed
  44. Makino A, Platoshyn O, Suarez J, Yuan J, Dillmann W. Downregulation of connexin40 is associated with coronary endothelial cell dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;295:C221-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Coronary ECs isolated from diabetic mice exhibit lowered protein levels of Cx37 and Cx40 (but not Cx43) and a loss of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC)...
  45. Rignault S, Haefliger J, Waeber B, Liaudet L, Feihl F. Acute inflammation decreases the expression of connexin 40 in mouse lung. Shock. 2007;28:78-85 pubmed
    ..b>Connexin 40 (Cx40) is a gap junctional protein abundantly present in the lung, notably in vascular endothelium...
  46. Fang J, Angelov S, Simon A, Burt J. Compromised regulation of tissue perfusion and arteriogenesis limit, in an AT1R-independent fashion, recovery of ischemic tissue in Cx40(-/-) mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2013;304:H816-27 pubmed publisher
    ..hindlimb was reduced, inflammatory response increased, and survival of distal limb tissue compromised in connexin 40 (Cx40)-deficient (Cx40(-/-)) mice...
  47. Luxan G, Casanova J, Martínez Poveda B, Prados B, D Amato G, MacGrogan D, et al. Mutations in the NOTCH pathway regulator MIB1 cause left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy. Nat Med. 2013;19:193-201 pubmed publisher
    ..These results implicate NOTCH signaling in LVNC and indicate that MIB1 mutations arrest chamber myocardium development, preventing trabecular maturation and compaction. ..
  48. Forge A, Becker D, Casalotti S, Edwards J, Marziano N, Nevill G. Gap junctions in the inner ear: comparison of distribution patterns in different vertebrates and assessement of connexin composition in mammals. J Comp Neurol. 2003;467:207-31 pubmed
    ..Heteromeric cx26/cx30 connexons may be unique to the inner ear, which could be one factor underlying the non-syndromic character of the deafness caused by mutations in cx26. ..
  49. Miquerol L, Dupays L, Théveniau Ruissy M, Alcolea S, Jarry Guichard T, Abran P, et al. Gap junctional connexins in the developing mouse cardiac conduction system. Novartis Found Symp. 2003;250:80-98; discussion 98-109, 276-9 pubmed
    ..the conductive myocytes; Cx45 is weakly expressed in all conductive myocytes, including those of the nodal tissues; Cx40 expression is restricted to the atria and ventricular conduction system...
  50. Houghton F, Barr K, Walter G, Gabriel H, Grummer R, Traub O, et al. Functional significance of gap junctional coupling in preimplantation development. Biol Reprod. 2002;66:1403-12 pubmed
    ..New evidence of this diversification is presented using rat blastocyst outgrowths. ..
  51. Boogerd K, Wong L, Christoffels V, Klarenbeek M, Ruijter J, Moorman A, et al. Msx1 and Msx2 are functional interacting partners of T-box factors in the regulation of Connexin43. Cardiovasc Res. 2008;78:485-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Msx1 and Msx2 can function in concert with the T-box proteins to suppress Cx43 and other working myocardial genes. ..
  52. Willecke K, Hennemann H, Dahl E, Jungbluth S, Heynkes R. The diversity of connexin genes encoding gap junctional proteins. Eur J Cell Biol. 1991;56:1-7 pubmed
    ..The structural diversity of the connexin genes suggests that they fulfill different functions coordinated with, and perhaps required for, different programs of cellular differentiation. ..
  53. Furtado M, Wilmanns J, Chandran A, Tonta M, Biben C, Eichenlaub M, et al. A novel conditional mouse model for Nkx2-5 reveals transcriptional regulation of cardiac ion channels. Differentiation. 2016;91:29-41 pubmed publisher
  54. Gemel J, Su Z, Gileles Hillel A, Khalyfa A, Gozal D, Beyer E. Intermittent hypoxia causes NOX2-dependent remodeling of atrial connexins. BMC Cell Biol. 2017;18:7 pubmed publisher
    ..arrhythmias, we examined the abundance and distributions of the major cardiac gap junction proteins, connexin40 (Cx40) and connexin43 (Cx43) in mice treated with sleep fragmentation or intermittent hypoxia (IH) as animal models of ..
  55. Kurtz L, Janssen Bienhold U, Kurtz A, Wagner C. Connexin expression in renin-producing cells. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20:506-12 pubmed publisher
    Absence of connexin 40 (Cx40) leads to ectopic juxtaglomerular renin expression and abrogates recruitment of renin-expressing cells in the adult kidney but does not disturb renin expression during kidney development...
  56. Saito M, Sasaki T, Matsuoka H. Vitamin B(12) promotes Cx40 and HCN4 gene expression at an early stage of cardiomyocyte differentiation. Exp Anim. 2009;58:57-60 pubmed
    ..When VB(12) (0.5 mM) was added to the medium on day 3 of culture, the levels of Cx40 and HCN4 expression increased over those in the control, 2 to 3 days before the start of cardiomyocyte beating...
  57. Rothnagel J, Longley M, Bundman D, Naylor S, Lalley P, Jenkins N, et al. Characterization of the mouse loricrin gene: linkage with profilaggrin and the flaky tail and soft coat mutant loci on chromosome 3. Genomics. 1994;23:450-6 pubmed
    ..These mouse mutants exhibit a number of changes in their integument, suggesting that abnormalities in these genes may contribute to the mutant phenotype. ..
  58. Isakson B, Damon D, Day K, Liao Y, Duling B. Connexin40 and connexin43 in mouse aortic endothelium: evidence for coordinated regulation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;290:H1199-205 pubmed
    ..To reveal a possible interaction between connexin40 (Cx40) and connexin43 (Cx43) in endothelium, we studied their distribution in vessels from C57Bl/6 and Cx40 knockout mice ..
  59. Stoykov I, Zandieh Doulabi B, Moorman A, Christoffels V, Wiersinga W, Bakker O. Expression pattern and ontogenesis of thyroid hormone receptor isoforms in the mouse heart. J Endocrinol. 2006;189:231-45 pubmed
  60. Tessarollo L, Tsoulfas P, Martin Zanca D, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Copeland N, et al. trkC, a receptor for neurotrophin-3, is widely expressed in the developing nervous system and in non-neuronal tissues. Development. 1993;118:463-75 pubmed
    ..Alignment with available chromosomal maps identify possible linkage between the Trk genes and known neurological mutations. ..
  61. Gkatzis K, Thalgott J, Dos Santos Luis D, Martin S, Lamandé N, Carette M, et al. Interaction Between ALK1 Signaling and Connexin40 in the Development of Arteriovenous Malformations. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2016;36:707-17 pubmed publisher
    To determine the role of Gja5 that encodes for the gap junction protein connexin40 in the generation of arteriovenous malformations in the hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2 (HHT2) mouse model...
  62. Le Gal L, Alonso F, Wagner C, Germain S, Nardelli Haefliger D, Meda P, et al. Restoration of connexin 40 (Cx40) in Renin-producing cells reduces the hypertension of Cx40 null mice. Hypertension. 2014;63:1198-204 pubmed publisher
    b>Connexin 40 (Cx40) is expressed by the renin-producing cells (RSCs) of the kidneys and the endothelial cells of blood vessels...
  63. De La Rosa A, Domínguez J, Sedmera D, Sankova B, Hove Madsen L, Franco D, et al. Functional suppression of Kcnq1 leads to early sodium channel remodelling and cardiac conduction system dysmorphogenesis. Cardiovasc Res. 2013;98:504-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Morphological analysis of LQTS transgenic mice in a Cx40(GFP/+)background demonstrated VCS dysmorphogenesis during heart development...
  64. Coppen S, Severs N, Gourdie R. Connexin45 (alpha 6) expression delineates an extended conduction system in the embryonic and mature rodent heart. Dev Genet. 1999;24:82-90 pubmed
    ..expressed by conduction tissues, and may thus account for the recently reported viability of the alpha 5 (Cx40) knockout mouse...
  65. Louault C, Benamer N, Faivre J, Potreau D, Bescond J. Implication of connexins 40 and 43 in functional coupling between mouse cardiac fibroblasts in primary culture. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1778:2097-104 pubmed publisher
    ..It should then be interesting to study the conditions to improve efficiency of this coupling in pathological conditions. ..
  66. Beyer S, Kelly R, Miquerol L. Inducible Cx40-Cre expression in the cardiac conduction system and arterial endothelial cells. Genesis. 2011;49:83-91 pubmed publisher
    The Connexin-40 (Cx40) gene encodes a gap junction protein that plays an important role in cell-cell communication in cardiomyocytes of the atria and cardiac conduction system and endothelial cells of large arteries...
  67. Xin M, Small E, van Rooij E, Qi X, Richardson J, Srivastava D, et al. Essential roles of the bHLH transcription factor Hrt2 in repression of atrial gene expression and maintenance of postnatal cardiac function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:7975-80 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal a ventricular myocardial cell-autonomous function for Hrt2 in the suppression of atrial cell identity and the maintenance of postnatal cardiac function. ..
  68. Toma I, Bansal E, Meer E, Kang J, Vargas S, Peti Peterdi J. Connexin 40 and ATP-dependent intercellular calcium wave in renal glomerular endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;294:R1769-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, the gap junction uncoupler alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid or knockdown of connexin 40 (Cx40) by transfecting GENCs with Cx40 short interfering RNA (siRNA) almost completely eliminated Delta[Ca(2+)](..
  69. Shekhar A, Lin X, Liu F, Zhang J, Mo H, Bastarache L, et al. Transcription factor ETV1 is essential for rapid conduction in the heart. J Clin Invest. 2016;126:4444-4459 pubmed publisher
    ..Etv1 was highly expressed in murine PAM and VCS cardiomyocytes, where it regulates expression of Nkx2-5, Gja5, and Scn5a, key cardiac genes required for rapid conduction...
  70. Lübkemeier I, Andrié R, Lickfett L, Bosen F, Stöckigt F, Dobrowolski R, et al. The Connexin40A96S mutation from a patient with atrial fibrillation causes decreased atrial conduction velocities and sustained episodes of induced atrial fibrillation in mice. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2013;65:19-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In the mammalian heart the gap junction proteins connexin40 (Cx40) and connexin43 (Cx43) are strongly expressed in the atrial myocardium mediating effective propagation of ..
  71. Tamaddon H, Vaidya D, Simon A, Paul D, Jalife J, Morley G. High-resolution optical mapping of the right bundle branch in connexin40 knockout mice reveals slow conduction in the specialized conduction system. Circ Res. 2000;87:929-36 pubmed
    Connexin40 (Cx40) is a major gap junction protein that is expressed in the His-Purkinje system and thought to be a critical determinant of cell-to-cell communication and conduction of electrical impulses...
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  74. Chaston D, Baillie B, Grayson T, Courjaret R, Heisler J, Lau K, et al. Polymorphism in endothelial connexin40 enhances sensitivity to intraluminal pressure and increases arterial stiffness. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:962-70 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether impairment of endothelial connexin40 (Cx40), an effect that can occur in hypertension and aging, contributes to the arterial dysfunction and stiffening in these conditions...
  75. Spörle R. Epaxial-adaxial-hypaxial regionalisation of the vertebrate somite: evidence for a somitic organiser and a mirror-image duplication. Dev Genes Evol. 2001;211:198-217 pubmed
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    ..hypertension is proposed as a forerunner to clinical hypertension, we hypothesized that endothelial disruption of Cx40 function in mice may create an animal model of this condition...
  77. Hwa J, Beckouche N, Huang L, Kram Y, Lindskog H, Wang R. Abnormal arterial-venous fusions and fate specification in mouse embryos lacking blood flow. Sci Rep. 2017;7:11965 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a molecular mechanism by which blood flow mediates DA and CV morphogenesis, by regulating arterial-venous specification of DA ECs to ensure proper separation of the developing DA and CV. ..
  78. Alonso F, Domingos Pereira S, Le Gal L, Derré L, Meda P, Jichlinski P, et al. Targeting endothelial connexin40 inhibits tumor growth by reducing angiogenesis and improving vessel perfusion. Oncotarget. 2016;7:14015-28 pubmed publisher
    Endothelial connexin40 (Cx40) contributes to regulate the structure and function of vessels...
  79. Morel S, Braunersreuther V, Chanson M, Bouïs D, Rochemont V, Foglia B, et al. Endothelial Cx40 limits myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury in mice. Cardiovasc Res. 2014;102:329-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of the endothelial connexins, i.e. Cx40 and Cx37, in cardiac IR injury is, however, not known...
  80. Seidl S, Braun U, Roos N, Li S, Lüdtke T, Kispert A, et al. Phenotypical analysis of atypical PKCs in vivo function display a compensatory system at mouse embryonic day 7.5. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62756 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a compensatory function of PKC? at E7.5, rescuing the phenotype. Furthermore, this study indicates at least one specific, yet unknown, PKC? function that cannot be compensated by the overexpression of PKC? at E9.5. ..
  81. McFadden D, Barbosa A, Richardson J, Schneider M, Srivastava D, Olson E. The Hand1 and Hand2 transcription factors regulate expansion of the embryonic cardiac ventricles in a gene dosage-dependent manner. Development. 2005;132:189-201 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that Hand factors play pivotal and partially redundant roles in cardiac morphogenesis, cardiomyocyte differentiation and cardiac-specific transcription. ..
  82. Bakker M, Boukens B, Mommersteeg M, Brons J, Wakker V, Moorman A, et al. Transcription factor Tbx3 is required for the specification of the atrioventricular conduction system. Circ Res. 2008;102:1340-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cx40 was precociously upregulated in the atrioventricular bundle of Tbx3 mutants...
  83. Fang J, Angelov S, Simon A, Burt J. Cx40 is required for, and cx37 limits, postischemic hindlimb perfusion, survival and recovery. J Vasc Res. 2012;49:2-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Vascular endothelium predominantly expresses two connexin (Cx) isoforms: Cx37 and Cx40. The relevance of these Cxs to postischemic limb recovery remains unclear.
  84. Krattinger N, Alonso F, Capponi A, Mazzolai L, Nicod P, Meda P, et al. Increased expression of renal cyclooxygenase-2 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in hypertensive Cx40-deficient mice. J Vasc Res. 2009;46:188-98 pubmed publisher
    b>Cx40-deficient mice (Cx40-/-) are hypertensive due to increased renin secretion. We evaluated the renal expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and cyclooxygenases COX-1 and COX-2, three macula densa enzymes...
  85. Théveniau Ruissy M, Pérez Pomares J, Parisot P, Baldini A, Miquerol L, Kelly R. Coronary stem development in wild-type and Tbx1 null mouse hearts. Dev Dyn. 2016;245:445-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular differences associated with left and right CA stems provide new insights into the etiology of CA patterning defects. ..
  86. Oppermann M, Carota I, Schiessl I, Eisner C, Castrop H, Schnermann J. Direct assessment of tubuloglomerular feedback responsiveness in connexin 40-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013;304:F1181-6 pubmed publisher
    Participation of connexin 40 (Cx40) in the regulation of renin secretion and in the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) component of renal autoregulation suggests that gap junctional coupling through Cx40 contributes to the function of the ..
  87. Ludwig T, Ruther U, Metzger R, Copeland N, Jenkins N, Lobel P, et al. Gene and pseudogene of the mouse cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor. Genomic organization, expression, and chromosomal localization. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:12211-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it may represent an additional exon of the functional gene. These two features of the pseudogene suggest that expression of the CD-MPR gene may be regulated by use of different promoters and/or alternative splicing. ..