Gene Symbol: Gja4
Description: gap junction protein, alpha 4
Alias: AU020209, AW558810, Cnx37, Cx37, Gja-4, gap junction alpha-4 protein, connexin-37, gap junction membrane channel protein alpha 4
Species: mouse
Products:     Gja4

Top Publications

  1. Pfenniger A, Wong C, Sutter E, Cuhlmann S, Dunoyer Geindre S, Mach F, et al. Shear stress modulates the expression of the atheroprotective protein Cx37 in endothelial cells. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2012;53:299-309 pubmed publisher
    ..Connexin37 (Cx37) is highly expressed in endothelial cells (ECs) of healthy arteries, but not in ECs overlying atherosclerotic ..
  2. Duarte A, Hirashima M, Benedito R, Trindade A, Diniz P, Bekman E, et al. Dosage-sensitive requirement for mouse Dll4 in artery development. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2474-8 pubmed
    ..This implicates Dll4 as the specific mammalian endothelial ligand for autocrine endothelial Notch signaling, and suggests that Dll4 may be a suitable target for intervention in arterial angiogenesis. ..
  3. Wagner C, Kurtz L, Schweda F, Simon A, Kurtz A. Connexin 37 is dispensable for the control of the renin system and for positioning of renin-producing cells in the kidney. Pflugers Arch. 2009;459:151-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of Cx40 leads to strong hyperreninemia and ectopic localization of renin-producing cells; however, the relevance of Cx37 for the renin system in the kidney has not been investigated...
  4. Simon A, Goodenough D, Li E, Paul D. Female infertility in mice lacking connexin 37. Nature. 1997;385:525-9 pubmed
    ..Here we show that connexin 37 is present in gap junctions between oocyte and granulosa cells and that connexin 37-deficient mice lack mature (..
  5. Kang Y, Kim J, Anderson J, Wu J, Gleim S, Kundu R, et al. Apelin-APJ signaling is a critical regulator of endothelial MEF2 activation in cardiovascular development. Circ Res. 2013;113:22-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate a novel role for apelin-APJ signaling as a potent regulator of endothelial MEF2 function in the developing cardiovascular system. ..
  6. Simon A, McWhorter A. Decreased intercellular dye-transfer and downregulation of non-ablated connexins in aortic endothelium deficient in connexin37 or connexin40. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:2223-36 pubmed
    ..Connexin37 (Cx37) and connexin40 (Cx40) are the predominant gap-junction proteins present in mouse endothelium...
  7. Morioka T, Sakabe M, Ioka T, Iguchi T, Mizuta K, Hattammaru M, et al. An important role of endothelial hairy-related transcription factors in mouse vascular development. Genesis. 2014;52:897-906 pubmed publisher
  8. Kanady J, Munger S, Witte M, Simon A. Combining Foxc2 and Connexin37 deletions in mice leads to severe defects in lymphatic vascular growth and remodeling. Dev Biol. 2015;405:33-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell culture studies have shown that Cx37 is necessary for coordinated activation of the transcription factor NFATc1, which cooperates with Foxc2 (another ..
  9. Yin B, Zhang Y, Sun J, Li J, Ma Y. Connexin37 mRNA expression in in vivo and in vitro mouse oocyte. Zygote. 2009;17:163-8 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate gene expression of Connexin37 (Cx37) in oocytes from in vitro follicles at different stages, mouse preantral follicles were isolated and cultured for 12 days in vitro...

More Information


  1. Furuyama T, Kitayama K, Shimoda Y, Ogawa M, Sone K, Yoshida Araki K, et al. Abnormal angiogenesis in Foxo1 (Fkhr)-deficient mice. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:34741-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Foxo1 is essential to the ability of endothelial cells to respond properly to a high dose of VEGF, thereby playing a critical role in normal vascular development. ..
  2. Gabriel H, Jung D, Bützler C, Temme A, Traub O, Winterhager E, et al. Transplacental uptake of glucose is decreased in embryonic lethal connexin26-deficient mice. J Cell Biol. 1998;140:1453-61 pubmed
  3. Lanfear D, Marsh S, Cresci S, Shannon W, Spertus J, McLeod H. Genotypes associated with myocardial infarction risk are more common in African Americans than in European Americans. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;44:165-7 pubmed
    ..of two of the three "risk-associated" genotypes were significantly higher in the AA population: GJA4 C1019T T/T: AA, 20%, EA, 7% (p = 0.053); MMP3 -1171delA A/A: AA, 78%, EA, 24% (p < 0...
  4. Tong D, Gittens J, Kidder G, Bai D. Patch-clamp study reveals that the importance of connexin43-mediated gap junctional communication for ovarian folliculogenesis is strain specific in the mouse. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2006;290:C290-7 pubmed
    Genetic ablation of connexin37 (Cx37) or connexin43 (Cx43), the two gap junction proteins expressed by mouse ovarian granulosa cells, has been shown to result in impaired follicle development...
  5. Yang Y, Chen J, Wu H, Pei X, Chang Q, Ma W, et al. The Increased Expression of Connexin and VEGF in Mouse Ovarian Tissue Vitrification by Follicle Stimulating Hormone. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:397264 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggested that the expressions of Cx37, Cx43, apoptotic molecular caspase-3, and angiogenesis molecular VEGF were confirmed using immunohistochemistry, ..
  6. Sabine A, Bovay E, Demir C, Kimura W, Jaquet M, Agalarov Y, et al. FOXC2 and fluid shear stress stabilize postnatal lymphatic vasculature. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:3861-77 pubmed publisher
    ..As FOXC2 is mutated in lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome, our data also underscore the role of impaired mechanotransduction in the pathology of this hereditary human disease. ..
  7. Davies T, Barr K, Jones D, Zhu D, Kidder G. Multiple members of the connexin gene family participate in preimplantation development of the mouse. Dev Genet. 1996;18:234-43 pubmed
    ..The expression of multiple connexin genes during this early period of embryogenesis (when there are only two distinct cell types) raises questions about the functional significance of connexin diversity in this context. ..
  8. Whitaker T, Steinbrecher K, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Cohen M. The uroguanylin gene (Guca1b) is linked to guanylin (Guca2) on mouse chromosome 4. Genomics. 1997;45:348-54 pubmed
    ..It is likely that uroguanylin and guanylin represent gene duplications that have evolved to allow overlapping and complementary patterns of expression in the intestine. ..
  9. Geng X, Cha B, Mahamud M, Lim K, Silasi Mansat R, Uddin M, et al. Multiple mouse models of primary lymphedema exhibit distinct defects in lymphovenous valve development. Dev Biol. 2016;409:218-233 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we have provided the first and the most comprehensive analysis of LVV development. Furthermore, our work suggests that aberrant LVVs contribute to lymphedema. ..
  10. White T, Paul D. Genetic diseases and gene knockouts reveal diverse connexin functions. Annu Rev Physiol. 1999;61:283-310 pubmed
    ..In addition, gene targeting of connexins in mice has provided new insights into connexin function and the significance of connexin diversity. ..
  11. DiLeone R, King J, Storm E, Copeland N, Jenkins N, Kingsley D. The Bmp8 gene is expressed in developing skeletal tissue and maps near the Achondroplasia locus on mouse chromosome 4. Genomics. 1997;40:196-8 pubmed
  12. Lai L, Bohnsack B, Niederreither K, Hirschi K. Retinoic acid regulates endothelial cell proliferation during vasculogenesis. Development. 2003;130:6465-74 pubmed
    ..Thus, these data indicate that RA plays a crucial role in mammalian vascular development; it is required to control endothelial cell proliferation and vascular remodeling during vasculogenesis. ..
  13. Wong C, Christen T, Roth I, Chadjichristos C, Derouette J, Foglia B, et al. Connexin37 protects against atherosclerosis by regulating monocyte adhesion. Nat Med. 2006;12:950-4 pubmed
    A genetic polymorphism in the human gene encoding connexin37 (CX37, encoded by GJA4, also known as CX37) has been reported as a potential prognostic marker for atherosclerosis...
  14. Grootegoed J, Baarends W, Roest H, Hoeijmakers J. Knockout mouse model and gametogenic failure. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1998;145:161-6 pubmed
    ..The focus will be on the mHR6B gene knockout mouse, which shows male infertility. The mHR6B gene encodes an ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, and the data point to an important role of the ubiquitin pathway in gametogenesis. ..
  15. Liu F, Li D, Yu Y, Kang I, Cha M, Kim J, et al. Induction of hematopoietic and endothelial cell program orchestrated by ETS transcription factor ER71/ETV2. EMBO Rep. 2015;16:654-69 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings highlight the critical role that transient ETV2 expression plays in the regulation of hematopoietic and endothelial cell lineage specification and stability. ..
  16. Cina C, Bechberger J, Ozog M, Naus C. Expression of connexins in embryonic mouse neocortical development. J Comp Neurol. 2007;504:298-313 pubmed
    ..blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry, we found that among the family of gap junction proteins, Cx26, Cx36, Cx37, Cx43, and Cx45 were expressed in the developing cortex of mice, Cx30 and Cx32 were absent, while Cx40 was ..
  17. Angelillo Scherrer A, Fontana P, Burnier L, Roth I, Sugamele R, Brisset A, et al. Connexin 37 limits thrombus propensity by downregulating platelet reactivity. Circulation. 2011;124:930-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we show that megakaryocytes and platelets express connexin 37 (Cx37). Deletion of the Cx37 gene in mice shortens bleeding time and increases thrombus propensity...
  18. Li T, Colley D, Barr K, Yee S, Kidder G. Rescue of oogenesis in Cx37-null mutant mice by oocyte-specific replacement with Cx43. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:4117-25 pubmed
    ..In growing follicles of the mouse, gap junctions between oocytes and granulosa cells are assembled from connexin 37 (Cx37, encoded by Gja4), whereas those between granulosa cells are assembled from connexin 43 (Cx43, encoded by ..
  19. Dominguez Rieg J, Burt J, Ruth P, Rieg T. P2Yâ‚‚ receptor activation decreases blood pressure via intermediate conductance potassium channels and connexin 37. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2015;213:628-41 pubmed publisher
    ..1, expressed in smooth muscle cells) as well as components of the myoendothelial gap junction, connexins 37 and 40 (Cx37, Cx40), all hypothesized to be part of the EDH response...
  20. Dahl E, Winterhager E, Reuss B, Traub O, Butterweck A, Willecke K. Expression of the gap junction proteins connexin31 and connexin43 correlates with communication compartments in extraembryonic tissues and in the gastrulating mouse embryo, respectively. J Cell Sci. 1996;109 ( Pt 1):191-7 pubmed
    ..The communication boundary between those compartments may be due to incompatibility of connexin31 and connexin43 hemichannels, which do not communicate with each other in cell culture. ..
  21. Guo R, Si R, Scott B, Makino A. Mitochondrial connexin40 regulates mitochondrial calcium uptake in coronary endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2017;312:C398-C406 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that mitochondrial Cx40 contributes to the regulation of mitochondrial calcium homeostasis. ..
  22. von Maltzahn J, Euwens C, Willecke K, Sohl G. The novel mouse connexin39 gene is expressed in developing striated muscle fibers. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:5381-92 pubmed
    ..As expression of no other known connexin could be verified in these cells, intercellular dye transfer might result from functional expression of Cx39 in developing striated muscle fibers. ..
  23. Mandelboim O, Berke G, Fridkin M, Feldman M, Eisenstein M, Eisenbach L. CTL induction by a tumour-associated antigen octapeptide derived from a murine lung carcinoma. Nature. 1994;369:67-71 pubmed
    ..to isolate and sequence Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL)-specific peptide(s), which shows sequence homology to the connexin 37 protein...
  24. Pogoda K, Mannell H, Blodow S, Schneider H, Schubert K, Qiu J, et al. NO Augments Endothelial Reactivity by Reducing Myoendothelial Calcium Signal Spreading: A Novel Role for Cx37 (Connexin 37) and the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase SHP-2. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:2280-2290 pubmed publisher
    Because of its strategic position between endothelial and smooth muscle cells in microvessels, Cx37 (Connexin 37) plays an important role in myoendothelial gap junctional intercellular communication...
  25. Munger S, Kanady J, Simon A. Absence of venous valves in mice lacking Connexin37. Dev Biol. 2013;373:338-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that in valved veins of the mouse, three gap junction proteins (Connexins, Cxs), Cx37, Cx43, and Cx47, are expressed exclusively in the valves in a highly polarized fashion, with Cx43 on the upstream ..
  26. Alaynick W, Kondo R, Xie W, He W, Dufour C, Downes M, et al. ERRgamma directs and maintains the transition to oxidative metabolism in the postnatal heart. Cell Metab. 2007;6:13-24 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal an unexpected and essential molecular genetic component of the oxidative metabolic gene program in the heart and highlight ERRgamma in the study of cardiac hypertrophy and failure. ..
  27. Kanady J, Dellinger M, Munger S, Witte M, Simon A. Connexin37 and Connexin43 deficiencies in mice disrupt lymphatic valve development and result in lymphatic disorders including lymphedema and chylothorax. Dev Biol. 2011;354:253-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that gap junction proteins, or connexins (Cxs), are required for lymphatic valvulogenesis. Cx37 and Cx43 are expressed early in mouse lymphatic development in the jugular lymph sacs, and later in development ..
  28. Kurtz L, Janssen Bienhold U, Kurtz A, Wagner C. Connexin expression in renin-producing cells. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20:506-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In the adult kidney, juxtaglomerular epithelioid cells expressed Cx40 and lesser amounts of Cx37 and Cx43 but not Cx45, which localized to arteriolar smooth muscle cells...
  29. Kibschull M, Magin T, Traub O, Winterhager E. Cx31 and Cx43 double-deficient mice reveal independent functions in murine placental and skin development. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:853-63 pubmed
    ..Therefore, in epidermal and preimplantation development, gap junctional communication can probably be compensated by other isoforms coexpressed with Cx31 and Cx43. ..
  30. Delorme B, Dahl E, Jarry Guichard T, Briand J, Willecke K, Gros D, et al. Expression pattern of connexin gene products at the early developmental stages of the mouse cardiovascular system. Circ Res. 1997;81:423-37 pubmed
    ..Products of several Cx genes have been identified in the mammalian heart (eg, Cx45, Cx43, Cx40, and Cx37), and their expression was shown to be regulated during the development of the myocardium...
  31. Lo C. Genes, gene knockouts, and mutations in the analysis of gap junctions. Dev Genet. 1999;24:1-4 pubmed
    ..It may be timely to form a Nomenclature Committee to establish a uniform classification scheme for naming gap junction proteins. ..
  32. Simon A, McWhorter A. Vascular abnormalities in mice lacking the endothelial gap junction proteins connexin37 and connexin40. Dev Biol. 2002;251:206-20 pubmed
    ..Mice lacking either connexin37 (Cx37) or connexin40 (Cx40), the predominant gap junction proteins present in vascular endothelium, are viable and ..
  33. Liebl J, Zhang S, Moser M, Agalarov Y, Demir C, Hager B, et al. Cdk5 controls lymphatic vessel development and function by phosphorylation of Foxc2. Nat Commun. 2015;6:7274 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings show that Cdk5-Foxc2 interaction represents a critical regulator of lymphatic vessel development and the transcriptional network underlying lymphatic vascular remodeling. ..
  34. Shin D, Anderson D. Isolation of arterial-specific genes by subtractive hybridization reveals molecular heterogeneity among arterial endothelial cells. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:1589-604 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data reveal unanticipated temporal and spatial heterogeneity among arterial endothelial cells of various tissues and organs, raising new questions regarding the functional significance of this diversity. ..
  35. Pfenniger A, Meens M, Pedrigi R, Foglia B, Sutter E, Pelli G, et al. Shear stress-induced atherosclerotic plaque composition in ApoE(-/-) mice is modulated by connexin37. Atherosclerosis. 2015;243:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Endothelial connexin37 (Cx37) expression is also regulated by shear stress, which may contribute to localization of atherosclerotic disease...
  36. Janardhan H, Milstone Z, Shin M, Lawson N, Keaney J, Trivedi C. Hdac3 regulates lymphovenous and lymphatic valve formation. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:4193-4206 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results identify Hdac3 as a key epigenetic modifier that maintains blood-lymph separation and integrates both extrinsic forces and intrinsic cues to regulate lymphatic valve development. ..
  37. Derouette J, Wong C, Burnier L, Morel S, Sutter E, Galan K, et al. Molecular role of Cx37 in advanced atherosclerosis: a micro-array study. Atherosclerosis. 2009;206:69-76 pubmed publisher
    Recently, we showed that connexin37 (Cx37) protects against early atherosclerotic lesion development by regulating monocyte adhesion...
  38. Ratchford A, Esguerra C, Moley K. Decreased oocyte-granulosa cell gap junction communication and connexin expression in a type 1 diabetic mouse model. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:2643-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Real-time RT-PCR analyses confirmed the presence of Cx26, Cx37, and Cx57 mRNA and revealed a significant decrease in Cx37 mRNA expression in oocytes from diabetic mice compared ..
  39. Burt J, Nelson T, Simon A, Fang J. Connexin 37 profoundly slows cell cycle progression in rat insulinoma cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;295:C1103-12 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess its potential growth-suppressive function, we stably introduced connexin 37 (Cx37) into connexin-deficient, tumorigenic rat insulinoma (Rin) cells under the control of an inducible ..
  40. Sabine A, Agalarov Y, Maby El Hajjami H, Jaquet M, Hägerling R, Pollmann C, et al. Mechanotransduction, PROX1, and FOXC2 cooperate to control connexin37 and calcineurin during lymphatic-valve formation. Dev Cell. 2012;22:430-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also provide molecular insights into the role of endothelial cell identity in the regulation of vascular mechanotransduction. ..
  41. Seul K, Beyer E. Mouse connexin37: gene structure and promoter analysis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1492:499-504 pubmed
    Connexin37 (Cx37) is a subunit gap junction protein which exhibits limited expression in only a few cell types, predominantly in endothelial cells and in the lung. To begin to analyze Cx37 expression, we isolated a 1...
  42. Vaiyapuri S, Jones C, Sasikumar P, Moraes L, Munger S, Wright J, et al. Gap junctions and connexin hemichannels underpin hemostasis and thrombosis. Circulation. 2012;125:2479-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of the Cx37 gene (Gja4) in transgenic mice reduced platelet aggregation, fibrinogen binding, granule secretion, and clot retraction, ..
  43. Teilmann S. Differential expression and localisation of connexin-37 and connexin-43 in follicles of different stages in the 4-week-old mouse ovary. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2005;234:27-35 pubmed
    ..membrane-bound, aqueous channels that couple adjacent cells ionically and gap junction proteins, connexin-37 (Cx37) and connexin-43 (Cx43) both participate in sustaining proper growth and maturation of the oocyte...
  44. McKinnon R, Lidington D, Bolon M, Ouellette Y, Kidder G, Tyml K. Reduced arteriolar conducted vasoconstriction in septic mouse cremaster muscle is mediated by nNOS-derived NO. Cardiovasc Res. 2006;69:236-44 pubmed
    ..oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms account for this deficit, and (iii) to examine the potential role of connexin37 (Cx37, a hypothesized signaling target of NO) in arteriolar conduction...
  45. Dupays L, Jarry Guichard T, Mazurais D, Calmels T, Izumo S, Gros D, et al. Dysregulation of connexins and inactivation of NFATc1 in the cardiovascular system of Nkx2-5 null mutants. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2005;38:787-98 pubmed
    ..In the mutant embryos the aorta is collapsed, and the vascular endothelial Cxs, Cx40 and Cx37, are no longer expressed in its posterior region...
  46. Kauffenstein G, Tamareille S, Prunier F, Roy C, Ayer A, Toutain B, et al. Central Role of P2Y6 UDP Receptor in Arteriolar Myogenic Tone. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2016;36:1598-606 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism encompasses the release of nucleotides coupled to specific autocrine/paracrine activation of the uracil nucleotide P2Y6 receptor and may contribute to impaired tissue perfusion in cardiovascular diseases. ..
  47. Gittens J, Kidder G. Differential contributions of connexin37 and connexin43 to oogenesis revealed in chimeric reaggregated mouse ovaries. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:5071-8 pubmed
  48. Shiojiri N, Niwa T, Sugiyama Y, Koike T. Preferential expression of connexin37 and connexin40 in the endothelium of the portal veins during mouse liver development. Cell Tissue Res. 2006;324:547-52 pubmed
    ..The differentiation of each blood vessel in the hepatic vascular system may occur in early developmental stages, soon after hepatic primordium formation. ..
  49. Hamada K, Sasaki T, Koni P, Natsui M, Kishimoto H, Sasaki J, et al. The PTEN/PI3K pathway governs normal vascular development and tumor angiogenesis. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2054-65 pubmed
    ..Pten is thus indispensable for normal cardiovascular morphogenesis and post-natal angiogenesis, including tumor angiogenesis. ..
  50. Yamasaki H, Krutovskikh V, Mesnil M, Tanaka T, Zaidan Dagli M, Omori Y. Role of connexin (gap junction) genes in cell growth control and carcinogenesis. C R Acad Sci III. 1999;322:151-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, connexin genes can exert dual effects in tumour control: tumour suppression and a bystander effect for cancer therapy...
  51. Fang J, Angelov S, Simon A, Burt J. Cx37 deletion enhances vascular growth and facilitates ischemic limb recovery. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;301:H1872-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently reported that Cx37-deficient (Cx37(-/-)) animals recovered ischemic hindlimb function more quickly and to a greater extent than wild-..
  52. Willecke K, Heynkes R, Dahl E, Stutenkemper R, Hennemann H, Jungbluth S, et al. Mouse connexin37: cloning and functional expression of a gap junction gene highly expressed in lung. J Cell Biol. 1991;114:1049-57 pubmed
    The coding sequence (333 amino acids) of a new connexin protein, designated mouse connexin37 (Cx37 or Cx37.6) due to the deduced theoretical molecular mass of 37.600 kD, has been determined from cDNA and genomic clones...
  53. Van Camp G, Coucke P, Speleman F, van Roy N, Beyer E, Oostra B, et al. The gene for human gap junction protein connexin37 (GJA4) maps to chromosome 1p35.1, in the vicinity of D1S195. Genomics. 1995;30:402-3 pubmed
  54. Munger S, Davis M, Simon A. Defective lymphatic valve development and chylothorax in mice with a lymphatic-specific deletion of Connexin43. Dev Biol. 2017;421:204-218 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that the expression of Cx43 is specifically required in LECs for normal development of LVs. ..
  55. Ya J, Erdtsieck Ernste E, de Boer P, van Kempen M, Jongsma H, Gros D, et al. Heart defects in connexin43-deficient mice. Circ Res. 1998;82:360-6 pubmed
  56. Munger S, Geng X, Srinivasan R, Witte M, Paul D, Simon A. Segregated Foxc2, NFATc1 and Connexin expression at normal developing venous valves, and Connexin-specific differences in the valve phenotypes of Cx37, Cx43, and Cx47 knockout mice. Dev Biol. 2016;412:173-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Three gap junction proteins (Connexins), Cx37, Cx43, and Cx47, are specifically expressed at VVs in a highly polarized fashion...
  57. Sohl G, Guldenagel M, Traub O, Willecke K. Connexin expression in the retina. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2000;32:138-45 pubmed
    ..b>Cx37 was expressed in retinal endothelial cells...
  58. Maeda Y, Funata N, Takahama S, Sugata Y, Yonekawa H. Two interactive genes responsible for a new inherited cataract (RCT) in the mouse. Mamm Genome. 2001;12:278-83 pubmed
    ..The rct locus essential for the onset of the cataract was tightly linked to D4Mit278 on Chromosome (Chr) 4 with no recombination. The mrct locus was closely linked to D5Mit239 (chi2 = 66.3, P < 0.00001) on Chr 5. ..
  59. Krüger O, Beny J, Chabaud F, Traub O, Theis M, Brix K, et al. Altered dye diffusion and upregulation of connexin37 in mouse aortic endothelium deficient in connexin40. J Vasc Res. 2002;39:160-72 pubmed
    Connexin40 (Cx40), connexin37 (Cx37) and connexin43 (Cx43) are subunit proteins of gap junction channels in the vascular wall which are presumably involved in the propagation of vasomotor signals...
  60. Veitch G, Gittens J, Shao Q, Laird D, Kidder G. Selective assembly of connexin37 into heterocellular gap junctions at the oocyte/granulosa cell interface. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:2699-707 pubmed
    ..of mice with targeted disruptions of specific connexin genes have revealed that at least two connexins, connexin37 (Cx37) and connexin43 (Cx43), play essential roles in ovarian follicle development...
  61. Carabatsos M, Sellitto C, Goodenough D, Albertini D. Oocyte-granulosa cell heterologous gap junctions are required for the coordination of nuclear and cytoplasmic meiotic competence. Dev Biol. 2000;226:167-79 pubmed
    ..in juvenile mice deficient in heterologous oocyte-granulosa cell gap junctions due to targeted deletion of Gja4, the gene encoding connexin-37...
  62. Haefliger J, Polikar R, Schnyder G, Burdet M, Sutter E, Pexieder T, et al. Connexin37 in normal and pathological development of mouse heart and great arteries. Dev Dyn. 2000;218:331-44 pubmed
    b>Cx37 is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins, whose distribution in heart remains controversial...
  63. Buniello A, Montanaro D, Volinia S, Gasparini P, Marigo V. An expression atlas of connexin genes in the mouse. Genomics. 2004;83:812-20 pubmed
  64. Schwarz H, Chang Y, Hennemann H, Dahl E, Lalley P, Willecke K. Chromosomal assignments of mouse connexin genes, coding for gap junctional proteins, by somatic cell hybridization. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1992;18:351-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, our results confirm the recent assignment of mouse connexin genes Cx26, Cx32, Cx37, Cx40, Cx43, and Cx46 to mouse chromosomes 14, X, 4, 3, 10, and 14, respectively, by analysis of interspecific ..
  65. Trindade A, Kumar S, Scehnet J, Lopes da Costa L, Becker J, Jiang W, et al. Overexpression of delta-like 4 induces arterialization and attenuates vessel formation in developing mouse embryos. Blood. 2008;112:1720-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish the role of Dll4 in arterial identity determination, and regulation of angiogenesis subject to dose and location. ..
  66. Fang J, Angelov S, Simon A, Burt J. Cx40 is required for, and cx37 limits, postischemic hindlimb perfusion, survival and recovery. J Vasc Res. 2012;49:2-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Vascular endothelium predominantly expresses two connexin (Cx) isoforms: Cx37 and Cx40. The relevance of these Cxs to postischemic limb recovery remains unclear.
  67. Allagnat F, Dubuis C, Lambelet M, Le Gal L, Alonso F, Corpataux J, et al. Connexin37 reduces smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal hyperplasia in a mouse model of carotid artery ligation. Cardiovasc Res. 2017;113:805-816 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the participation of another Cx, namely Cx37, in the formation of the neointima layer...
  68. Willecke K, Jungbluth S, Dahl E, Hennemann H, Heynkes R, Grzeschik K. Six genes of the human connexin gene family coding for gap junctional proteins are assigned to four different human chromosomes. Eur J Cell Biol. 1990;53:275-80 pubmed
    ..From our results subchromosomal assignments can be deduced for the human cx32 gene to Xq13-p11, the human cx37 gene as well as the human cx40 gene to 1pter-q12, and the human cx43 gene to 6q14-qter...
  69. Benedito R, Trindade A, Hirashima M, Henrique D, da Costa L, Rossant J, et al. Loss of Notch signalling induced by Dll4 causes arterial calibre reduction by increasing endothelial cell response to angiogenic stimuli. BMC Dev Biol. 2008;8:117 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results strongly suggest that Notch signalling can increase arterial stability and calibre by decreasing the response of arterial endothelial cells to local gradients of pro-angiogenic factors like VEGF. ..
  70. Sohl G, Willecke K. An update on connexin genes and their nomenclature in mouse and man. Cell Commun Adhes. 2003;10:173-80 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, this short review contains an update on phenotypic correlations between connexin deficient mice and patients bearing mutations in their orthologous connexin genes. ..
  71. Meens M, Alonso F, Le Gal L, Kwak B, Haefliger J. Endothelial Connexin37 and Connexin40 participate in basal but not agonist-induced NO release. Cell Commun Signal. 2015;13:34 pubmed publisher
    Connexin37 (Cx37) and Cx40 are crucial for endothelial cell-cell communication and homeostasis. Both connexins interact with endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)...
  72. Morel S, Braunersreuther V, Chanson M, Bouïs D, Rochemont V, Foglia B, et al. Endothelial Cx40 limits myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury in mice. Cardiovasc Res. 2014;102:329-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of the endothelial connexins, i.e. Cx40 and Cx37, in cardiac IR injury is, however, not known...
  73. Simon A, Goodenough D. Diverse functions of vertebrate gap junctions. Trends Cell Biol. 1998;8:477-83 pubmed
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    ..Thus, our work reveals that mechanical stimulation is a critical regulator of lymphatic vascular development via activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling and, in turn, FOXC2. ..