Ghrl

Summary

Gene Symbol: Ghrl
Description: ghrelin
Alias: 2210006E23Rik, Ghr, MTLRP, MTLRPAP, m46, appetite-regulating hormone, growth hormone secretagogue, growth hormone-releasing peptide, motilin-related peptide, preproghrelin, proghrelin
Species: mouse
Products:     Ghrl

Top Publications

  1. Doyle M, Loomis Z, Sussel L. Nkx2.2-repressor activity is sufficient to specify alpha-cells and a small number of beta-cells in the pancreatic islet. Development. 2007;134:515-23 pubmed
    ..2 through its TN domain. These studies suggest that Nkx2.2 functions predominantly as a transcriptional repressor during specification of endocrine cell types in the pancreas. ..
  2. CHAO C, Loomis Z, Lee J, Sussel L. Genetic identification of a novel NeuroD1 function in the early differentiation of islet alpha, PP and epsilon cells. Dev Biol. 2007;312:523-32 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, this study reveals a previously unappreciated early function of NeuroD1 in regulating the specification of alpha, PP and epsilon cells. ..
  3. Anderson K, Torres C, Solomon K, Becker T, Newgard C, Wright C, et al. Cooperative transcriptional regulation of the essential pancreatic islet gene NeuroD1 (beta2) by Nkx2.2 and neurogenin 3. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:31236-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings further define the conserved regulatory networks involved in islet beta cell formation and function. ..
  4. Andrews Z, Erion D, Beiler R, Liu Z, Abizaid A, Zigman J, et al. Ghrelin promotes and protects nigrostriatal dopamine function via a UCP2-dependent mitochondrial mechanism. J Neurosci. 2009;29:14057-65 pubmed publisher
    Ghrelin targets the hypothalamus to regulate food intake and adiposity. Endogenous ghrelin receptors [growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)] are also present in extrahypothalamic sites where they promote circuit activity associated ..
  5. Kordowich S, Collombat P, Mansouri A, Serup P. Arx and Nkx2.2 compound deficiency redirects pancreatic alpha- and beta-cell differentiation to a somatostatin/ghrelin co-expressing cell lineage. BMC Dev Biol. 2011;11:52 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis also suggests that one of the coupled functions of Nkx2.2 and Pax4 is to counteract Arx gene activity in early committed beta-cells. ..
  6. Verhulst P, De Smet B, Saels I, Thijs T, Ver Donck L, Moechars D, et al. Role of ghrelin in the relationship between hyperphagia and accelerated gastric emptying in diabetic mice. Gastroenterology. 2008;135:1267-76 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the causative role of ghrelin herein by comparing changes in ghrelin receptor knockout (growth hormone secretagogue receptor [GHS-R](-/-)) and wild-type (GHS-R(+/+)) mice with STZ-induced diabetes...
  7. Kirchner H, Gutierrez J, Solenberg P, Pfluger P, Czyzyk T, Willency J, et al. GOAT links dietary lipids with the endocrine control of energy balance. Nat Med. 2009;15:741-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These data implicate the ghrelin-GOAT system as a signaling pathway that alerts the central nervous system to the presence of dietary calories, rather than to their absence as is commonly accepted. ..
  8. Asakawa A, Inui A, Fujimiya M, Sakamaki R, Shinfuku N, Ueta Y, et al. Stomach regulates energy balance via acylated ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin. Gut. 2005;54:18-24 pubmed
    ..The effect is mediated via the hypothalamus. Although derived from the same precursor, the inverse effects of these two peptides suggest that the stomach might be involved as an endocrine organ in the regulation of the energy balance. ..
  9. Luque R, Gahete M, Hochgeschwender U, Kineman R. Evidence that endogenous SST inhibits ACTH and ghrelin expression by independent pathways. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;291:E395-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus endogenous SST exerts an inhibitory effect on ghrelin synthesis and on the adrenal axis through independent pathways...

More Information

Publications77

  1. Reed J, Benoit S, Pfluger P, Tschop M, D Alessio D, Seeley R. Mice with chronically increased circulating ghrelin develop age-related glucose intolerance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;294:E752-60 pubmed publisher
    ..was overexpressed in neurons using the neuron-specific enolase (NSE) promoter sequences and mouse ghrelin cDNA (NSE-Ghr). Ghrelin expression in NSE-Ghr brain tissues was increased compared with wild-type mice...
  2. Sun Y, Ahmed S, Smith R. Deletion of ghrelin impairs neither growth nor appetite. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:7973-81 pubmed
    ..Therefore, antagonists of ghrelin are unlikely to have broad utility as antiobesity agents. ..
  3. Kang K, Zmuda E, Sleeman M. Physiological role of ghrelin as revealed by the ghrelin and GOAT knockout mice. Peptides. 2011;32:2236-41 pubmed publisher
  4. Hashimoto H, Fujihara H, Kawasaki M, Saito T, Shibata M, Otsubo H, et al. Centrally and peripherally administered ghrelin potently inhibits water intake in rats. Endocrinology. 2007;148:1638-47 pubmed
    ..The present study convincingly showed that ghrelin is a potent antidisogenic peptide in rats. ..
  5. Ariyasu H, Takaya K, Iwakura H, Hosoda H, Akamizu T, Arai Y, et al. Transgenic mice overexpressing des-acyl ghrelin show small phenotype. Endocrinology. 2005;146:355-64 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we generated two lines of transgenic mice bearing the preproghrelin gene under the control of chicken beta-actin promoter...
  6. Porteiro B, Diaz Ruiz A, Martinez G, Senra A, Vidal A, Serrano M, et al. Ghrelin requires p53 to stimulate lipid storage in fat and liver. Endocrinology. 2013;154:3671-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results show that p53 is necessary for the actions of ghrelin on WAT and liver, leading to changes in expression levels of lipogenic and adipogenic genes, and modifying body weight. ..
  7. Tsubone T, Masaki T, Katsuragi I, Tanaka K, Kakuma T, Yoshimatsu H. Ghrelin regulates adiposity in white adipose tissue and UCP1 mRNA expression in brown adipose tissue in mice. Regul Pept. 2005;130:97-103 pubmed
    ..The present results provide evidence for a new regulatory loop involving ghrelin and UCP, and add novel insights into the regulatory mechanisms of obesity. ..
  8. Sun Y, Butte N, Garcia J, Smith R. Characterization of adult ghrelin and ghrelin receptor knockout mice under positive and negative energy balance. Endocrinology. 2008;149:843-50 pubmed
    ..These results support our hypothesis that the primary metabolic function of ghrelin in adult mice is to modulate glucose sensing and insulin sensitivity, rather than directly regulate energy intake and energy expenditure. ..
  9. Pfluger P, Kirchner H, Günnel S, Schrott B, Perez Tilve D, Fu S, et al. Simultaneous deletion of ghrelin and its receptor increases motor activity and energy expenditure. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;294:G610-8 pubmed
    ..Mice deficient for either Ghr or its receptor (the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, GHS-R1a) seem to exhibit enhanced protection against high-fat diet-induced obesity but do not ..
  10. Theil M, Miyake S, Mizuno M, Tomi C, Croxford J, Hosoda H, et al. Suppression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by ghrelin. J Immunol. 2009;183:2859-66 pubmed publisher
    ..identified gastric hormone that displays strong growth hormone-releasing activity mediated by the growth hormone secretagogue receptor...
  11. Decker K, Goldman D, Grasch C, Sussel L. Gata6 is an important regulator of mouse pancreas development. Dev Biol. 2006;298:415-29 pubmed
    ..Conversely, the majority of transgenic Gata4-Engrailed embryos do not have a pancreatic phenotype. This study suggests that Gata6 is an important regulator of pancreas specification. ..
  12. Arnés L, Hill J, Gross S, Magnuson M, Sussel L. Ghrelin expression in the mouse pancreas defines a unique multipotent progenitor population. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52026 pubmed publisher
  13. Hill J, CHAO C, Anderson K, Kaufman F, Johnson C, Sussel L. Nkx2.2 activates the ghrelin promoter in pancreatic islet cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:381-90 pubmed publisher
    ..2-null mice is not due to loss of repression of the ghrelin promoter in the nonghrelin islet populations. Furthermore, Nkx2.2 may contribute to the activation of ghrelin in mature islet epsilon-cells. ..
  14. Yang J, Brown M, Liang G, Grishin N, Goldstein J. Identification of the acyltransferase that octanoylates ghrelin, an appetite-stimulating peptide hormone. Cell. 2008;132:387-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification of GOAT will facilitate the search for inhibitors that reduce appetite and diminish obesity in humans. ..
  15. Seymour P, Freude K, Dubois C, Shih H, Patel N, Sander M. A dosage-dependent requirement for Sox9 in pancreatic endocrine cell formation. Dev Biol. 2008;323:19-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings therefore suggest that defective endocrine specification might underlie the pancreatic phenotype of individuals with CD. ..
  16. Du A, McCracken K, Walp E, Terry N, Klein T, Han A, et al. Arx is required for normal enteroendocrine cell development in mice and humans. Dev Biol. 2012;365:175-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings uncover a novel and conserved role of Arx in mammalian endocrine cell development and provide a potential cause for the chronic diarrhea seen in both humans and mice carrying Arx mutations. ..
  17. Nishi Y, Hiejima H, Hosoda H, Kaiya H, Mori K, Fukue Y, et al. Ingested medium-chain fatty acids are directly utilized for the acyl modification of ghrelin. Endocrinology. 2005;146:2255-64 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that ingested medium-chain fatty acids are directly used for the acylation of ghrelin. ..
  18. Chacko S, Haymond M, Sun Y, Marini J, Sauer P, Ma X, et al. Effect of ghrelin on glucose regulation in mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;302:E1055-62 pubmed publisher
    ..and gluconeogenesis were measured in wild-type (WT), ghrelin knockout (ghrelin(-/-)), and growth hormone secretagogue receptor knockout (Ghsr(-/-)) mice in the postabsorptive state...
  19. Davis J, Perello M, Choi D, Magrisso I, Kirchner H, Pfluger P, et al. GOAT induced ghrelin acylation regulates hedonic feeding. Horm Behav. 2012;62:598-604 pubmed publisher
    ..These data highlight the significance of the GOAT-ghrelin system for the mediation of food motivation and hedonic feeding. ..
  20. Kokubu H, Ohtsuka T, Kageyama R. Mash1 is required for neuroendocrine cell development in the glandular stomach. Genes Cells. 2008;13:41-51 pubmed publisher
  21. Zhang J, Jahr H, Luo C, Klein C, Van Kolen K, Ver Donck L, et al. Obestatin induction of early-response gene expression in gastrointestinal and adipose tissues and the mediatory role of G protein-coupled receptor, GPR39. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:1464-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings indicate that obestatin is a metabolic hormone capable of binding to GPR39 to regulate the functions of diverse gastrointestinal and adipose tissues. ..
  22. Filigheddu N, Gnocchi V, Coscia M, Cappelli M, Porporato P, Taulli R, et al. Ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin promote differentiation and fusion of C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:986-94 pubmed
    ..and hypothalamus to stimulate appetite, adiposity, and growth hormone release, through activation of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)-1a receptor...
  23. Ma X, Lin L, Qin G, Lu X, FIOROTTO M, Dixit V, et al. Ablations of ghrelin and ghrelin receptor exhibit differential metabolic phenotypes and thermogenic capacity during aging. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16391 pubmed publisher
    ..Ghrelin (Ghrl), via its receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor, GHS-R), is shown to stimulate GH secretion and appetite...
  24. Velásquez D, Martinez G, Romero A, Vazquez M, Boit K, Dopeso Reyes I, et al. The central Sirtuin 1/p53 pathway is essential for the orexigenic action of ghrelin. Diabetes. 2011;60:1177-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Ghrelin specifically triggers a central SIRT1/p53 pathway that is essential for its orexigenic action, but not for the release of growth hormone. ..
  25. Jeffery P, Duncan R, Yeh A, Jaskolski R, Hammond D, Herington A, et al. Expression of the ghrelin axis in the mouse: an exon 4-deleted mouse proghrelin variant encodes a novel C terminal peptide. Endocrinology. 2005;146:432-40 pubmed
    ..RT-PCR with primers specific for mouse ghrelin was used to demonstrate the mRNA expression of the full preproghrelin transcript and the exon 4-deleted variant in multiple mouse tissues...
  26. Kola B, Farkas I, Christ Crain M, Wittmann G, Lolli F, Amin F, et al. The orexigenic effect of ghrelin is mediated through central activation of the endogenous cannabinoid system. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1797 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, an intact cannabinoid signaling pathway is necessary for the stimulatory effects of ghrelin on AMPK activity and food intake, and for the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on paraventricular neurons. ..
  27. Lynn F, Skewes Cox P, Kosaka Y, McManus M, Harfe B, German M. MicroRNA expression is required for pancreatic islet cell genesis in the mouse. Diabetes. 2007;56:2938-45 pubmed
    ..The expression of a unique profile of miRNAs is required during pancreas development and is necessary for beta-cell formation. ..
  28. Szentirmai E, Kapas L, Sun Y, Smith R, Krueger J. The preproghrelin gene is required for the normal integration of thermoregulation and sleep in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14069-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that mice lacking the preproghrelin gene, but not those lacking the ghrelin receptor, have impaired abilities to manifest and integrate normal ..
  29. Nishimura W, Rowan S, Salameh T, Maas R, Bonner Weir S, Sell S, et al. Preferential reduction of beta cells derived from Pax6-MafB pathway in MafB deficient mice. Dev Biol. 2008;314:443-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Pax6 acts upstream of MafB, which in turn may trigger the expression of insulin and regulate the PDX-1 and MafA expression required for beta-cell maturation. ..
  30. Wortley K, Anderson K, Garcia K, Murray J, Malinova L, Liu R, et al. Genetic deletion of ghrelin does not decrease food intake but influences metabolic fuel preference. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:8227-32 pubmed
    ..study the role of endogenous ghrelin in appetite and body weight regulation, we generated ghrelin-deficient (ghrl(-/-)) mice, in which the ghrelin gene was precisely replaced with a lacZ reporter gene...
  31. Kojima M, Hosoda H, Matsuo H, Kangawa K. Ghrelin: discovery of the natural endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2001;12:118-22 pubmed
    ..The discovery of ghrelin indicates that the release of GH from the pituitary might be regulated not only by hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone, but also by ghrelin derived from the stomach and hypothalamus. ..
  32. Prado C, Pugh Bernard A, Elghazi L, Sosa Pineda B, Sussel L. Ghrelin cells replace insulin-producing beta cells in two mouse models of pancreas development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:2924-9 pubmed
    ..2 and Pax4 are required to specify or maintain differentiation of the beta cell fate. This finding also suggests that there is a genetic component underlying the balance between insulin and ghrelin in regulating glucose metabolism. ..
  33. Zhu X, Cao Y, Voogd K, Voodg K, Steiner D. On the processing of proghrelin to ghrelin. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:38867-70 pubmed
    ..In this report, we have studied the endoproteolytic processing of this molecule from its precursor (proghrelin) into mature ghrelin in various prohormone convertase null mouse strains generated in our laboratory and have ..
  34. Zigman J, Nakano Y, Coppari R, Balthasar N, Marcus J, Lee C, et al. Mice lacking ghrelin receptors resist the development of diet-induced obesity. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:3564-72 pubmed
    Ghrelin is the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR; ghrelin receptor)...
  35. Wortley K, Del Rincon J, Murray J, Garcia K, Iida K, Thorner M, et al. Absence of ghrelin protects against early-onset obesity. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:3573-8 pubmed
    The gut peptide ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has been implicated not only in the regulation of pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion but in a number of endocrine and nonendocrine ..
  36. Nekrep N, Wang J, Miyatsuka T, German M. Signals from the neural crest regulate beta-cell mass in the pancreas. Development. 2008;135:2151-60 pubmed publisher
    ..2 form a non-cell-autonomous feedback loop that links the neural crest with the pancreatic epithelium, regulates the size of the beta-cell population, and thereby impacts insulin-secretory capacity and energy homeostasis. ..
  37. Sun Y, Wang P, Zheng H, Smith R. Ghrelin stimulation of growth hormone release and appetite is mediated through the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:4679-84 pubmed
    Synthetic agonists of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) rejuvenate the pulsatile pattern of GH-release in the elderly, and increase lean but not fat mass in obese subjects...
  38. Mastracci T, Wilcox C, Arnés L, Panea C, Golden J, MAY C, et al. Nkx2.2 and Arx genetically interact to regulate pancreatic endocrine cell development and endocrine hormone expression. Dev Biol. 2011;359:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these experiments identify novel genetic interactions between Nkx2.2 and Arx within the endocrine progenitor cells that ensure the correct specification and regulation of endocrine hormone-producing cells. ..
  39. Smith S, Qu H, Taleb N, Kishimoto N, Scheel D, Lu Y, et al. Rfx6 directs islet formation and insulin production in mice and humans. Nature. 2010;463:775-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate a unique position for Rfx6 in the hierarchy of factors that coordinate pancreatic islet development in both mice and humans. Rfx6 could prove useful in efforts to generate beta-cells for patients with diabetes. ..
  40. Szentirmai E, Kapas L, Sun Y, Smith R, Krueger J. Restricted feeding-induced sleep, activity, and body temperature changes in normal and preproghrelin-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;298:R467-77 pubmed publisher
    ..if intact ghrelin signaling is required for FEO function by studying food anticipatory activity (FAA) in preproghrelin knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice...
  41. Desgraz R, Herrera P. Pancreatic neurogenin 3-expressing cells are unipotent islet precursors. Development. 2009;136:3567-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model whereby Ngn3(+) cells are monotypic (i.e. unipotent) precursors, and use this paradigm to refocus ideas on how cell number and type must be regulated in building complete islets of Langerhans. ..
  42. Zhu C, Zhang H, Zhang J, Li Z, Zhao J, Li W, et al. Inhibition of ghrelin signaling improves the reproductive phenotype of male ob/ob mouse. Fertil Steril. 2013;99:918-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Ghrelin, as an antagonistic partner of leptin in the endocrinic/paracrine circuit, may be involved in the pathogenesis of male factor infertility induced by leptin deficiency. ..
  43. Kineman R, Gahete M, Luque R. Identification of a mouse ghrelin gene transcript that contains intron 2 and is regulated in the pituitary and hypothalamus in response to metabolic stress. J Mol Endocrinol. 2007;38:511-21 pubmed
    ..The fact that In2-ghrelin variant mRNA levels are dependent on energy intake in the PIT and HPT suggests that this transcript may encode a peptide important in coordinating the neuroendocrine response to metabolic stress. ..
  44. Bando M, Iwakura H, Ariyasu H, Hosoda H, Yamada G, Hosoda K, et al. Transgenic overexpression of intraislet ghrelin does not affect insulin secretion or glucose metabolism in vivo. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;302:E403-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that intraislet ghrelin does not play a major role in the regulation of insulin secretion in vivo. ..
  45. Dezaki K, Hosoda H, Kakei M, Hashiguchi S, Watanabe M, Kangawa K, et al. Endogenous ghrelin in pancreatic islets restricts insulin release by attenuating Ca2+ signaling in beta-cells: implication in the glycemic control in rodents. Diabetes. 2004;53:3142-51 pubmed
    ..This function of ghrelin, together with inducing GH release and feeding, suggests that ghrelin underlies the integrative regulation of energy homeostasis. ..
  46. Heller R, Stoffers D, Liu A, Schedl A, Crenshaw E, Madsen O, et al. The role of Brn4/Pou3f4 and Pax6 in forming the pancreatic glucagon cell identity. Dev Biol. 2004;268:123-34 pubmed
    ..2 cells. The pancreatic phenotype of the pax6 mutants can be rescued with a YAC clone containing the human Pax6 gene. ..
  47. Wang Q, Elghazi L, Martin S, Martins I, Srinivasan R, Geng X, et al. Ghrelin is a novel target of Pax4 in endocrine progenitors of the pancreas and duodenum. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:51-61 pubmed
    ..Together, our data further support the notion that Pax4 activity is necessary to establish appropriate patterns of gene expression in endocrine progenitors of the digestive tract. ..
  48. LeSauter J, Hoque N, Weintraub M, Pfaff D, Silver R. Stomach ghrelin-secreting cells as food-entrainable circadian clocks. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:13582-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It is likely that other FEOs also produce humoral signals that modulate FAA. ..
  49. Sun Y, Asnicar M, Saha P, Chan L, Smith R. Ablation of ghrelin improves the diabetic but not obese phenotype of ob/ob mice. Cell Metab. 2006;3:379-86 pubmed
    ..Hence, chronically, ghrelin controls glucose homeostasis by regulating pancreatic Ucp2 expression and insulin sensitivity. ..
  50. Hill J, Mastracci T, Vinton C, Doyle M, Anderson K, Loomis Z, et al. Ghrelin is dispensable for embryonic pancreatic islet development and differentiation. Regul Pept. 2009;157:51-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we have also determined that in the absence of insulin, ghrelin cells form in their normal numbers and ghrelin is expressed at wild type levels. ..
  51. Jenny M, Uhl C, Roche C, Duluc I, Guillermin V, Guillemot F, et al. Neurogenin3 is differentially required for endocrine cell fate specification in the intestinal and gastric epithelium. EMBO J. 2002;21:6338-47 pubmed
    ..Thus, ngn3 is strictly required for endocrine cell fate specification in multipotent intestinal progenitor cells, whereas gastric endocrine development is both ngn3 dependent and independent. ..
  52. Szentirmai E, Kapas L, Sun Y, Smith R, Krueger J. Spontaneous sleep and homeostatic sleep regulation in ghrelin knockout mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;293:R510-7 pubmed
    ..It is possible that redundancy in the arousal systems of the brain or activation of compensatory mechanisms during development allow for normal sleep-wake regulation in ghrelin KO mice. ..
  53. Zhang W, Chai B, Li J, Wang H, Mulholland M. Effect of des-acyl ghrelin on adiposity and glucose metabolism. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4710-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study demonstrates that overexpression of ghrelin from the FABP4 promoter impairs the development of white adipose tissues, and alters glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mice. ..
  54. Dezaki K, Sone H, Koizumi M, Nakata M, Kakei M, Nagai H, et al. Blockade of pancreatic islet-derived ghrelin enhances insulin secretion to prevent high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance. Diabetes. 2006;55:3486-93 pubmed
    The gastric hormone ghrelin and its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), are expressed in pancreas. Here, we report that ghrelin is released from pancreatic islets to regulate glucose-induced insulin release...
  55. Iwakura H, Hosoda K, Son C, Fujikura J, Tomita T, Noguchi M, et al. Analysis of rat insulin II promoter-ghrelin transgenic mice and rat glucagon promoter-ghrelin transgenic mice. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:15247-56 pubmed
    ..The present study raises the possibility that desacyl ghrelin may have influence on glucose metabolism. ..
  56. Lee C, Sund N, Behr R, Herrera P, Kaestner K. Foxa2 is required for the differentiation of pancreatic alpha-cells. Dev Biol. 2005;278:484-95 pubmed
    ..By marker gene analysis, we show that the expression of the alpha-cell transcription factors Arx, Pax6, and Brn4 does not require Foxa2 in the transcriptional hierarchy governing alpha-cell differentiation. ..
  57. Shin Y, Martin B, Kim W, White C, Ji S, Sun Y, et al. Ghrelin is produced in taste cells and ghrelin receptor null mice show reduced taste responsivity to salty (NaCl) and sour (citric acid) tastants. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12729 pubmed publisher
    ..The exact mechanisms that fine tune taste sensitivity are currently poorly defined, but it is clear that numerous factors such as efferent input and specific signal transduction cascades are involved...
  58. Edfalk S, Steneberg P, Edlund H. Gpr40 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells and mediates free fatty acid stimulation of incretin secretion. Diabetes. 2008;57:2280-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our data suggest a conserved role for Ipf1/Pdx1 and Gpr40 in FFA-mediated secretion of hormones that regulate glucose and overall energy homeostasis. ..
  59. Dezaki K, Kakei M, Yada T. Ghrelin uses Galphai2 and activates voltage-dependent K+ channels to attenuate glucose-induced Ca2+ signaling and insulin release in islet beta-cells: novel signal transduction of ghrelin. Diabetes. 2007;56:2319-27 pubmed
    ..Islets were isolated from rats, ghrelin-knockout (Ghr-KO) mice, and wild-type mice by collagenase digestion, and insulin release was determined by ELISA...
  60. Ariyasu H, Takaya K, Hosoda H, Iwakura H, Ebihara K, Mori K, et al. Delayed short-term secretory regulation of ghrelin in obese animals: evidenced by a specific RIA for the active form of ghrelin. Endocrinology. 2002;143:3341-50 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the short-term secretory regulation of total ghrelin and the active form of ghrelin is delayed in obese animals and that blood glucose levels may be involved in the delayed regulation. ..
  61. Sakata I, Yang J, Lee C, Osborne Lawrence S, Rovinsky S, Elmquist J, et al. Colocalization of ghrelin O-acyltransferase and ghrelin in gastric mucosal cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;297:E134-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We also demonstrate that GOAT is the only member of the MBOAT family whose expression is highly enriched within gastric ghrelin cells and whose whole body distribution mirrors that of ghrelin. ..
  62. Diano S, Farr S, Benoit S, McNay E, da Silva I, Horvath B, et al. Ghrelin controls hippocampal spine synapse density and memory performance. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9:381-8 pubmed
    ..Our observations reveal an endogenous function of ghrelin that links metabolic control with higher brain functions and suggest novel therapeutic strategies to enhance learning and memory processes. ..
  63. Zhao T, Sakata I, Li R, Liang G, Richardson J, Brown M, et al. Ghrelin secretion stimulated by {beta}1-adrenergic receptors in cultured ghrelinoma cells and in fasted mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:15868-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that ghrelin secretion during fasting is induced by adrenergic agents released by sympathetic neurons and acting directly on beta(1) receptors on the ghrelin-secreting cells of the stomach. ..
  64. Granata R, Gallo D, Luque R, Baragli A, Scarlatti F, Grande C, et al. Obestatin regulates adipocyte function and protects against diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammation. FASEB J. 2012;26:3393-411 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide evidence of a novel role for obestatin in adipocyte function and glucose metabolism and suggest potential therapeutic perspectives in insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunctions...
  65. Jiang H, Betancourt L, Smith R. Ghrelin amplifies dopamine signaling by cross talk involving formation of growth hormone secretagogue receptor/dopamine receptor subtype 1 heterodimers. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:1772-85 pubmed
    ..Most importantly, these results indicate that ghrelin has the potential to amplify dopamine signaling selectively in neurons that coexpress D1R and GHS-R. ..
  66. Andrews Z, Liu Z, Walllingford N, Erion D, Borok E, Friedman J, et al. UCP2 mediates ghrelin's action on NPY/AgRP neurons by lowering free radicals. Nature. 2008;454:846-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a signalling modality connecting mitochondria-mediated effects of G-protein-coupled receptors on neuronal function and associated behaviour. ..
  67. Ma X, Lin Y, Lin L, Qin G, Pereira F, Haymond M, et al. Ablation of ghrelin receptor in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice has paradoxical effects on glucose homeostasis when compared with ablation of ghrelin in ob/ob mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;303:E422-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The physiologically relevant ghrelin receptor is the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), and GHS-R antagonists are thought to be an effective strategy for treating diabetes...
  68. Henseleit K, Nelson S, Kuhlbrodt K, Hennings J, Ericson J, Sander M. NKX6 transcription factor activity is required for alpha- and beta-cell development in the pancreas. Development. 2005;132:3139-49 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that expression of Myt1 depends on overall Nkx6 gene dose, and therefore identify Myt1 as a possible downstream target of Nkx6 genes in the endocrine differentiation pathway. ..