Ghrhr

Summary

Gene Symbol: Ghrhr
Description: growth hormone releasing hormone receptor
Alias: Ghrfr, lit, little, growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor, GHRH receptor, GRF receptor, GRFR, growth hormone-releasing factor receptor
Species: mouse
Products:     Ghrhr

Top Publications

  1. Lin S, Lin C, Gukovsky I, Lusis A, Sawchenko P, Rosenfeld M. Molecular basis of the little mouse phenotype and implications for cell type-specific growth. Nature. 1993;364:208-13 pubmed
    ..anterior pituitary gland, is the mutation of a single nucleotide that alters Asp 60 to Gly in the growth hormone releasing factor receptor. Detailed analysis of the lit mouse anterior pituitary reveals spatially distinct proliferative ..
  2. Greenhalgh C, Rico Bautista E, Lorentzon M, Thaus A, Morgan P, Willson T, et al. SOCS2 negatively regulates growth hormone action in vitro and in vivo. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:397-406 pubmed
    ..Together, the data provide clear evidence that SOCS2 is a negative regulator of GH signaling. ..
  3. Ishimori N, Li R, Walsh K, Korstanje R, Rollins J, Petkov P, et al. Quantitative trait loci that determine BMD in C57BL/6J and 129S1/SvImJ inbred mice. J Bone Miner Res. 2006;21:105-12 pubmed
    BMD is highly heritable; however, little is known about the genes. To identify loci controlling BMD, we conducted a QTL analysis in a (B6 x 129) F2 population of mice...
  4. Charlton H. Mouse mutants as models in endocrine research. Q J Exp Physiol. 1984;69:655-76 pubmed
    ..As new hormones are isolated and become available for study these mouse mutants may well be useful in delineating physiological functions for natural and pharmacological products.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  5. Cheng T, Beamer W, Phillips J, Bartke A, Mallonee R, Dowling C. Etiology of growth hormone deficiency in little, Ames, and Snell dwarf mice. Endocrinology. 1983;113:1669-78 pubmed
    There are three recessive genes (little, Snell, and Ames) which cause dwarfism and GH deficiency in mice...
  6. Vesper A, Raetzman L, Camper S. Role of prophet of Pit1 (PROP1) in gonadotrope differentiation and puberty. Endocrinology. 2006;147:1654-63 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that variation in PROP1 expression could affect the growth spurt and the onset of puberty in humans...
  7. Wilson D, Wyatt D. Growth hormone and prolactin immunoreactivity in the pituitary gland of postnatal little (lit) mice. Histol Histopathol. 1986;1:309-13 pubmed
    Homozygous little (lit/lit) mutant mice exhibit a growth lag which is manifested at approximately two weeks postnatally...
  8. Frohman L. Growth hormone physiology in health and disease: insights using genetic and transgenic models. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 1996;9 Suppl 3:233-6 pubmed
  9. Dickson S, Doutrelant Viltart O, Leng G. GH-deficient dw/dw rats and lit/lit mice show increased Fos expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus following systemic injection of GH-releasing peptide-6. J Endocrinol. 1995;146:519-26 pubmed
    ..administered GHRP-6 induces Fos expression in the arcuate nucleus of GH-deficient animals (dw/dw rats and lit/lit mice)...
  10. Brown Borg H. The somatotropic axis and longevity in mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2015;309:E503-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The somatotropic axis impacts several pathways that dictate insulin sensitivity, nutrient sensing, mitochondrial function, and stress resistance as well as others that are thought to be involved in lifespan regulation. ..

Detail Information

Publications80

  1. Lin S, Lin C, Gukovsky I, Lusis A, Sawchenko P, Rosenfeld M. Molecular basis of the little mouse phenotype and implications for cell type-specific growth. Nature. 1993;364:208-13 pubmed
    ..anterior pituitary gland, is the mutation of a single nucleotide that alters Asp 60 to Gly in the growth hormone releasing factor receptor. Detailed analysis of the lit mouse anterior pituitary reveals spatially distinct proliferative ..
  2. Greenhalgh C, Rico Bautista E, Lorentzon M, Thaus A, Morgan P, Willson T, et al. SOCS2 negatively regulates growth hormone action in vitro and in vivo. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:397-406 pubmed
    ..Together, the data provide clear evidence that SOCS2 is a negative regulator of GH signaling. ..
  3. Ishimori N, Li R, Walsh K, Korstanje R, Rollins J, Petkov P, et al. Quantitative trait loci that determine BMD in C57BL/6J and 129S1/SvImJ inbred mice. J Bone Miner Res. 2006;21:105-12 pubmed
    BMD is highly heritable; however, little is known about the genes. To identify loci controlling BMD, we conducted a QTL analysis in a (B6 x 129) F2 population of mice...
  4. Charlton H. Mouse mutants as models in endocrine research. Q J Exp Physiol. 1984;69:655-76 pubmed
    ..As new hormones are isolated and become available for study these mouse mutants may well be useful in delineating physiological functions for natural and pharmacological products.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  5. Cheng T, Beamer W, Phillips J, Bartke A, Mallonee R, Dowling C. Etiology of growth hormone deficiency in little, Ames, and Snell dwarf mice. Endocrinology. 1983;113:1669-78 pubmed
    There are three recessive genes (little, Snell, and Ames) which cause dwarfism and GH deficiency in mice...
  6. Vesper A, Raetzman L, Camper S. Role of prophet of Pit1 (PROP1) in gonadotrope differentiation and puberty. Endocrinology. 2006;147:1654-63 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that variation in PROP1 expression could affect the growth spurt and the onset of puberty in humans...
  7. Wilson D, Wyatt D. Growth hormone and prolactin immunoreactivity in the pituitary gland of postnatal little (lit) mice. Histol Histopathol. 1986;1:309-13 pubmed
    Homozygous little (lit/lit) mutant mice exhibit a growth lag which is manifested at approximately two weeks postnatally...
  8. Frohman L. Growth hormone physiology in health and disease: insights using genetic and transgenic models. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 1996;9 Suppl 3:233-6 pubmed
  9. Dickson S, Doutrelant Viltart O, Leng G. GH-deficient dw/dw rats and lit/lit mice show increased Fos expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus following systemic injection of GH-releasing peptide-6. J Endocrinol. 1995;146:519-26 pubmed
    ..administered GHRP-6 induces Fos expression in the arcuate nucleus of GH-deficient animals (dw/dw rats and lit/lit mice)...
  10. Brown Borg H. The somatotropic axis and longevity in mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2015;309:E503-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The somatotropic axis impacts several pathways that dictate insulin sensitivity, nutrient sensing, mitochondrial function, and stress resistance as well as others that are thought to be involved in lifespan regulation. ..
  11. Christensen E, Wilson D. Fine structure of somatotrophs and mammotrophs in the pituitary pars distalis of the little (lit) mutant mouse. Virchows Arch B Cell Pathol Incl Mol Pathol. 1981;37:89-96 pubmed
    The cellular pathology and postnatal differentiation of somatotrophs and mammotrophs in the pars distalis of little (lit/lit) and normal (+/+; lit/+) mice were studied by means of electron microscopy...
  12. Menagh P, Turner R, Jump D, Wong C, Lowry M, Yakar S, et al. Growth hormone regulates the balance between bone formation and bone marrow adiposity. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25:757-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Rather, GH enhances adipocyte as well as osteoblast precursor pool size. However, GH increases osteoblast differentiation while suppressing bone marrow lipid accumulation. ..
  13. Barger J, Walford R, Weindruch R. The retardation of aging by caloric restriction: its significance in the transgenic era. Exp Gerontol. 2003;38:1343-51 pubmed
    ..In contrast, for nearly all of the genetically abnormal models of lifespan extension, such data are minimal and often unconvincing; additional studies will be required to validate these strains as suitable models for aging research. ..
  14. Fleenor D, Oden J, Kelly P, Mohan S, Alliouachene S, Pende M, et al. Roles of the lactogens and somatogens in perinatal and postnatal metabolism and growth: studies of a novel mouse model combining lactogen resistance and growth hormone deficiency. Endocrinology. 2005;146:103-12 pubmed
    ..The model was created by breeding PRL receptor (PRLR)-deficient (knockout) males with GH-deficient (little) females...
  15. Tyler A, Donahue L, Churchill G, Carter G. Weak Epistasis Generally Stabilizes Phenotypes in a Mouse Intercross. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1005805 pubmed publisher
    ..weight, body fat percentage, femoral density, and femoral circumference--in a large F2 intercross of B6-lit/lit and C3.B6-lit/lit mice...
  16. Godfrey P, Rahal J, Beamer W, Copeland N, Jenkins N, Mayo K. GHRH receptor of little mice contains a missense mutation in the extracellular domain that disrupts receptor function. Nat Genet. 1993;4:227-32 pubmed
    ..We report that the Ghrhr gene is located in the middle of mouse chromosome 6 in the same region as the little mutation. Mice homozygous for this mutation have reduced GH secretion and a dwarf phenotype...
  17. Briquet Laugier V, Xia Y, Rooke K, Mehrabian M, Lusis A, Doolittle M. Mapping of three members of the mouse protein disulfide isomerase family. Mamm Genome. 1998;9:176-7 pubmed
  18. Amador Noguez D, Dean A, Huang W, Setchell K, Moore D, Darlington G. Alterations in xenobiotic metabolism in the long-lived Little mice. Aging Cell. 2007;6:453-70 pubmed
    Our previous microarray expression analysis of the long-lived Little mice (Ghrhr(lit/lit)) showed a concerted up-regulation of xenobiotic detoxification genes...
  19. Swindell W. Accelerated failure time models provide a useful statistical framework for aging research. Exp Gerontol. 2009;44:190-200 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, from the standpoint of aging research, these statistical approaches have appealing properties and provide valuable tools for the analysis of survivorship data. ..
  20. Puche R, Alloatti R, Chapo G. Growth and development of male "little" mice assessed with Parks' theory of feeding and growth. Growth Dev Aging. 2002;66:71-8 pubmed
    This work was designed to characterize the appetite kinetics and growth of male C57BL/6J (lit) mice. Those variables were assessed with Parks' function of ad libitum feeding and growth...
  21. Kiaris H, Schally A, Busto R, Halmos G, Artavanis Tsakonas S, Varga J. Expression of a splice variant of the receptor for GHRH in 3T3 fibroblasts activates cell proliferation responses to GHRH analogs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:196-200 pubmed
    ..SV1 exhibits the greatest similarity to the pituitary GHRH receptor and is most likely to be functional...
  22. Foster M, Jensen E, Montecino Rodriguez E, Leathers H, Horseman N, Dorshkind K. Humoral and cell-mediated immunity in mice with genetic deficiencies of prolactin, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I, and thyroid hormone. Clin Immunol. 2000;96:140-9 pubmed
    ..When considered in this context, it is possible to reconcile the contradictory data. ..
  23. Fang S, Steinmetz R, Walker King D, Zeng P, Vogelweid C, Cooper S, et al. Development of a transgenic mouse that overexpresses a novel product of the growth hormone-releasing hormone gene. Endocrinology. 2000;141:1377-83 pubmed
  24. Eicher E, Beamer W. Inherited ateliotic dwarfism in mice. Characteristics of the mutation, little, on chromosome 6. J Hered. 1976;67:87-91 pubmed
    A new autosomal recessive mutation in the mouse, little (lit), has been shown to be located on Chromosome 6. The mutation in the homozygous state causes ateliotic dwarfism that is first detected at 15 days of age by decreased body weight...
  25. Donahue L, Watson G, Beamer W. Regulation of metabolic water and protein compartments by insulin-like growth factor-I and testosterone in growth hormone-deficient lit/lit mice. J Endocrinol. 1993;139:431-9 pubmed
    ..We chose genetically GH-deficient little (lit/lit) mice to test whether these anabolic hormones act independently or in concert with each other to ..
  26. Chua S, Hennessey K, Zeitler P, Leibel R. The little (lit) mutation cosegregates with the growth hormone releasing factor receptor on mouse chromosome 6. Mamm Genome. 1993;4:555-9 pubmed
    ..mRNA by reverse transcription coupled to the polymerase chain reaction showed a greatly diminished level of GRF receptor mRNA in the pituitaries of lit/lit mice as compared with lit/ + controls...
  27. Frohman L. New insights into the regulation of somatotrope function using genetic and transgenic models. Metabolism. 1996;45:1-3 pubmed
    ..Genetic models of impaired GH secretion include the little (lit) mouse, the dwarf (dw) rat, the fatty (fa) rat, and the high-growth (hg) mouse...
  28. Beamer W, Eicher E. Stimulation of growth in the little mouse. J Endocrinol. 1976;71:37-45 pubmed
    The new mouse mutation little (lit) in the homozygous state causes a pituitary deficiency involving at least growth hormone (GH) and prolactin...
  29. Ikushima H, Kanaoka M, Kojima S. Cutting edge: Requirement for growth hormone-releasing hormone in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 2003;171:2769-72 pubmed
    ..Although GHRH and its receptor (GHRHR) are expressed in leukocytes, physiological function of GHRH in the immune system remains unclear...
  30. Sos B, Harris C, Nordstrom S, Tran J, Balazs M, Caplazi P, et al. Abrogation of growth hormone secretion rescues fatty liver in mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of JAK2. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:1412-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Because GH is known to promote lipolysis, we crossed GH-deficient little mice to JAK2L mice, and this rescued the FL phenotype...
  31. Gaylinn B, DeAlmeida V, Lyons C, Wu K, Mayo K, Thorner M. The mutant growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor of the little mouse does not bind GHRH. Endocrinology. 1999;140:5066-74 pubmed
    ..The defect has been mapped to a missense mutation in the GHRH receptor gene that abolishes the function of the receptor, but the mechanism of this inactivation is unknown...
  32. Sharma Y, Flurkey K, Astle C, Harrison D. Mice severely deficient in growth hormone have normal hematopoiesis. Exp Hematol. 2005;33:776-83 pubmed
    ..Analyses were conducted on blood and bone marrow to compare GH-deficient C57BL/6J-Ghrhr(lit) / Ghrhr(lit) (lit/lit) mice with their normal (lit/+) littermates...
  33. Jansson J, Downs T, Beamer W, Frohman L. Receptor-associated resistance to growth hormone-releasing factor in dwarf "little" mice. Science. 1986;232:511-2 pubmed
    Anterior pituitaries from the dwarf mouse strain "little" did not release growth hormone or accumulate adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) in response to human and rat growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF)...
  34. Lin C, Lin S, Chang C, Rosenfeld M. Pit-1-dependent expression of the receptor for growth hormone releasing factor mediates pituitary cell growth. Nature. 1992;360:765-8 pubmed
    ..The pituitary hypoplasia in these mice thus appears to be due, at least in part, to the absence of GRF receptor, which is in turn due to the absence of functional Pit-1.
  35. Bugni J, Poole T, Drinkwater N. The little mutation suppresses DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice and abrogates genetic and hormonal modulation of susceptibility. Carcinogenesis. 2001;22:1853-62 pubmed
    ..We bred the little mutation onto the more susceptible C57BR/cdJ (BR) and C3H/HeJ (C3H) strains to assess the effect of growth hormone ..
  36. Toth L, Williams R. A quantitative genetic analysis of slow-wave sleep in influenza-infected CXB recombinant inbred mice. Behav Genet. 1999;29:339-48 pubmed
    ..Candidate genes for mediation of this phenotype include Ghrhr (growth hormone releasing hormone receptor), Crhr2 (corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2), and Cd8a (an epitope on cytotoxic T ..
  37. Iida K, del Rincon J, Kim D, Itoh E, Nass R, Coschigano K, et al. Tissue-specific regulation of growth hormone (GH) receptor and insulin-like growth factor-I gene expression in the pituitary and liver of GH-deficient (lit/lit) mice and transgenic mice that overexpress bovine GH (bGH) or a bGH antagonist. Endocrinology. 2004;145:1564-70 pubmed
    ..gland and compared the levels with those derived from liver of bovine GH transgenic, GH antagonist transgenic, lit/lit mice, and their respective controls using real-time RT-PCR...
  38. Cheng X, Klaassen C. Hormonal and chemical regulation of paraoxonases in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012;342:688-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Male-pattern growth hormone (GH) administration in hypophysectomized and lit/lit mice decreased Pon1 expression...
  39. Santhanam M, Chia D. Hepatic-specific accessibility of Igf1 gene enhancers is independent of growth hormone signaling. Mol Endocrinol. 2013;27:2080-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, studies with Ghrhr(lit/lit) mice reveal that prior GH exposure is not necessary to establish open chromatin at these domains...
  40. Richards R, Klotz D, Walker M, DiAugustine R. Mammary gland branching morphogenesis is diminished in mice with a deficiency of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), but not in mice with a liver-specific deletion of IGF-I. Endocrinology. 2004;145:3106-10 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these findings, we propose that paracrine, not endocrine, IGF-I is important for mammary branching morphogenesis. ..
  41. Iida K, del Rincon J, Kim D, Itoh E, Coschigano K, Kopchick J, et al. Regulation of full-length and truncated growth hormone (GH) receptor by GH in tissues of lit/lit or bovine GH transgenic mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;287:E566-73 pubmed
    ..The lit/lit mice showed a significant decrease of mGHR-fl in liver, no difference of mGHR-fl in muscle, and a significant ..
  42. Bunger L, Hill W. Role of growth hormone in the genetic change of mice divergently selected for body weight and fatness. Genet Res. 1999;74:351-60 pubmed
    ..GH deficiency was achieved by repeated backcrossing into each line a recessive mutant gene (lit) which has a defective GH releasing factor receptor...
  43. Woodall S, Breier B, O Sullivan U, Gluckman P. The effect of the frequency of subcutaneous insulin-like growth factor-1 administration on weight gain in growth hormone deficient mice. Horm Metab Res. 1991;23:581-4 pubmed
    ..of subcutaneous IGF-1 administration necessary to promote growth we examined the weight gain of male homozygous lit/lit mice in response to either sc. IGF-1 or bovine GH administration...
  44. Wong J, Dukes J, Levy R, Sos B, Mason S, Fong T, et al. Sex differences in thrombosis in mice are mediated by sex-specific growth hormone secretion patterns. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:2969-78 pubmed publisher
    ..GH-deficient little (lit) mice were protected from thrombosis, and pulsatile GH given to lit mice restored the male clotting phenotype...
  45. Wajnrajch M, Gertner J, Harbison M, Chua S, Leibel R. Nonsense mutation in the human growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor causes growth failure analogous to the little (lit) mouse. Nat Genet. 1996;12:88-90 pubmed
  46. Cao Y, Wagner J, Hindmarsh P, Eble A, Mullis P. Isolated growth hormone deficiency: testing the little mouse hypothesis in man and exclusion of mutations within the extracellular domain of the growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor. Pediatr Res. 1995;38:962-6 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the GHRH receptor is a reasonable candidate gene for causing IGHD in humans...
  47. Wang W, Grimmer J, Van De Water T, Lufkin T. Hmx2 and Hmx3 homeobox genes direct development of the murine inner ear and hypothalamus and can be functionally replaced by Drosophila Hmx. Dev Cell. 2004;7:439-53 pubmed
  48. Frohman M, Downs T, Chomczynski P, Frohman L. Cloning and characterization of mouse growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) complementary DNA: increased GRH messenger RNA levels in the growth hormone-deficient lit/lit mouse. Mol Endocrinol. 1989;3:1529-36 pubmed
    ..Differences between mouse and rat GRH were also found in the amino acid cleavage sites at the 5' and 3' ends of the mature peptide and at the polyadenylation signal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  49. Nissley S, Knazek R, Wolff G. Somatomedin activity in sera of genetically small mice. Horm Metab Res. 1980;12:158-64 pubmed
    ..Somatomedin activity was low in the sera from growth hormone deficient mice [Snell (dw/dw), Ames (df/df), and little (lit/lit)] whereas somatomedin activity was normal in serum from the pygmy (pg/pg)) mouse, a mutant proposed as a ..
  50. Donahue L, Beamer W. Growth hormone deficiency in 'little' mice results in aberrant body composition, reduced insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), but does not affect IGFBP-2, -1 or -4. J Endocrinol. 1993;136:91-104 pubmed
    ..We used a genetic model of GH deficiency, the 'little' (gene symbol lit) mouse, to determine the GH regulation of IGF-I and its insulin-like growth factor-binding ..
  51. Del Rincon J, Iida K, Gaylinn B, McCurdy C, Leitner J, Barbour L, et al. Growth hormone regulation of p85alpha expression and phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity in adipose tissue: mechanism for growth hormone-mediated insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2007;56:1638-46 pubmed
  52. Eleswarapu S, Gu Z, Jiang H. Growth hormone regulation of insulin-like growth factor-I gene expression may be mediated by multiple distal signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 binding sites. Endocrinology. 2008;149:2230-40 pubmed publisher
  53. Wilson D, Wyatt D. Histopathology of the pituitary gland in neonatal little (lit) mutant mice. Histol Histopathol. 1992;7:451-5 pubmed
    The pituitary gland in the little (lit) mutant mouse was analyzed with respect to the cytoarchitecture of the pars distalis and the volumetric density of immunoreactive growth hormone (GH) cell granules in neonatal lit/lit and normal ..
  54. Phelps C. Pituitary hormones as neurotrophic signals: anomalous hypophysiotrophic neuron differentiation in hypopituitary dwarf mice. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1994;206:6-23 pubmed
    ..The collective observations indicate that GH and PRL may be regarded as neurotrophic factors for their respective regulatory neurons in the hypothalamus. ..
  55. Flurkey K, Papaconstantinou J, Miller R, Harrison D. Lifespan extension and delayed immune and collagen aging in mutant mice with defects in growth hormone production. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:6736-41 pubmed
    ..In contrast, homozygosity for the Ghrhr(lit) mutation, which like the Pit1(dw) mutation lowers plasma growth hormone levels, does lead to a significant ..
  56. Lehman D, Hale D, Cody J, Harrison J, Leach R. Molecular, morphometric and functional analyses demonstrate that the growth hormone deficient little mouse is not hypomyelinated. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1999;116:191-9 pubmed
    ..occurring growth hormone deficiency type I on CNS myelination, we compared the myelination of brains from little and wild-type littermate mice using molecular, histological, morphometric, and functional analyses...
  57. Phelps C, Hurley D. Pituitary hormones as neurotrophic signals: update on hypothalamic differentiation in genetic models of altered feedback. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1999;222:39-58 pubmed
    ..New transgenic models of altered GH, PRL, or receptor expression offer further study of neurotrophic effects. ..
  58. Liang H, Masoro E, Nelson J, Strong R, McMahan C, Richardson A. Genetic mouse models of extended lifespan. Exp Gerontol. 2003;38:1353-64 pubmed
    ..1996, seven genetic mouse models have been reported to show increased lifespan: Ames and Snell dwarf mice, the 'little mouse' (Ghrhr(lit/lit)), mice null for either growth hormone receptor/binding protein (GHR/BP(-/-)) or p66(shc) (..
  59. Obal F, Alt J, Taishi P, Gardi J, Krueger J. Sleep in mice with nonfunctional growth hormone-releasing hormone receptors. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003;284:R131-9 pubmed
    The role of the somatotropic axis in sleep regulation was studied by using the lit/lit mouse with nonfunctional growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptors (GHRH-Rs) and control heterozygous C57BL/6J mice, which have a normal ..
  60. Beamer W, Shultz K, Tennent B, Shultz L. Granulosa cell tumorigenesis in genetically hypogonadal-immunodeficient mice grafted with ovaries from tumor-susceptible donors. Cancer Res. 1993;53:3741-6 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that ovarian androgens synthesized in response to normal gonadotropin stimulation initiate spontaneous tumorigenesis in the genetically susceptible ovary. ..
  61. Schneider P, Stauber M, Voide R, Stampanoni M, Donahue L, Muller R. Ultrastructural properties in cortical bone vary greatly in two inbred strains of mice as assessed by synchrotron light based micro- and nano-CT. J Bone Miner Res. 2007;22:1557-70 pubmed
    ..Results in two different mouse strains, C57BL/6J-Ghrhr(lit)/J and C3...
  62. Mohan S, Baylink D, Srivastava A. A chemical mutagenesis screen to identify modifier genes that interact with growth hormone and TGF-beta signaling pathways. Bone. 2008;42:388-95 pubmed
    ..We utilized two mutant mouse models: 1) mice carrying a mutation in growth hormone releasing hormone receptor (Ghrhr) (denoted 'lit' allele, Ghrhr(lit)), which results in GH deficiency; and 2) mice lacking ..
  63. Sharma M, Agrawal A, Sharma M, Shapiro B. Interactions of gender, growth hormone, and phenobarbital induction on murine Cyp2b expression. Biochem Pharmacol. 1998;56:1251-8 pubmed
    ..induction on Cyp2b expression were examined in phenotypically normal (lit/+) and growth-hormone deficient "little" (lit/lit) mice...
  64. Kapali J, Kabat B, Schmidt K, Stallings C, Tippy M, Jung D, et al. Foxo1 Is Required for Normal Somatotrope Differentiation. Endocrinology. 2016;157:4351-4363 pubmed
    ..5 and postnatal day (P) 3. Consistent with this conclusion, expression of GHRH receptor, a marker of terminally differentiated somatotropes, is significantly reduced at e18...
  65. Florea V, Majid S, Kanashiro Takeuchi R, Cai R, Block N, Schally A, et al. Agonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone stimulate self-renewal of cardiac stem cells and promote their survival. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:17260-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the therapeutic use of GHRH-R agonists for stimulating endogenous mechanisms for myocardial repair or for preconditioning of stem cells before transplantation. ..
  66. Nordstrom S, Holliday B, Sos B, Smyth J, Levy R, Dukes J, et al. Increased thrombosis susceptibility and altered fibrin formation in STAT5-deficient mice. Blood. 2010;116:5724-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This ultimately resulted in accelerated fibrin polymerization and greater thrombosis susceptibility in STAT5-deficient animals. ..
  67. Wilson D, Wyatt D. Adrenocorticotropic cell distribution in adult and embryonic pituitaries of the little (lit) mutant mouse. Anat Embryol (Berl). 1992;186:347-53 pubmed
    ..ACTH) cells and their ultrastructural relationship with growth hormone (GH) cells in adult and 17-day embryonic little (lit/lit) mice that exhibit GH cell defects...
  68. Reue K, Xia Y, Shi V, Cohen R, Welch C, Lusis A. Localization of mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma on chromosome 6. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:390-1 pubmed
  69. Halmos G, Schally A, Bernardino A, Varga J. Characterization of receptors for growth hormone-releasing hormone in human osteosarcomas and Ewing's sarcomas. Int J Oncol. 2006;29:463-9 pubmed
    ..04 nM. The presence of GH-RH receptors in human bone tumors provides a rationale for new approaches to the therapy of this malignancy based on GH-RH antagonists. ..
  70. Herington A, Harrison D, Graystone J. Hepatic binding of human and bovine growth hormones and ovine prolactin in the dwarf "little" mouse. Endocrinology. 1983;112:2032-8 pubmed
    ..hGH) and bovine (bGH) GH and ovine PRL (oPRL) has been compared in liver membranes from GH-deficient dwarf "little" mice (lit/lit) and their normal-sized littermates (lit/+)...
  71. Phillips J, Beamer W, Bartke A. Analysis of growth hormone genes in mice with genetic defects of growth hormone expression. J Endocrinol. 1982;92:405-7 pubmed
    Restriction endonuclease analysis of genomic DNA was carried out for three types of dwarf mice (Little, Ames dwarf and Snell dwarf) that have genetic defects in GH expression...
  72. Kasukawa Y, Baylink D, Guo R, Mohan S. Evidence that sensitivity to growth hormone (GH) is growth period and tissue type dependent: studies in GH-deficient lit/lit mice. Endocrinology. 2003;144:3950-7 pubmed
    ..To test the hypothesis that the sensitivity to GH is growth period dependent, we treated GH-deficient lit/lit mice with GH (4 mg/kg body weight...
  73. Pati D, Zhang N, Plon S. Linking sister chromatid cohesion and apoptosis: role of Rad21. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:8267-77 pubmed
  74. Sakic B, Szechtman H, Denburg S, Carbotte R, Denburg J. Spatial learning during the course of autoimmune disease in MRL mice. Behav Brain Res. 1993;54:57-66 pubmed
  75. Montecino Rodriguez E, Clark R, Powell Braxton L, Dorshkind K. Primary B cell development is impaired in mice with defects of the pituitary/thyroid axis. J Immunol. 1997;159:2712-9 pubmed
    ..B cell development was normal in Little and IGF-I knockout animals, which have defects in the production of growth hormone and/or insulin-like growth ..
  76. Luque R, Kineman R. Impact of obesity on the growth hormone axis: evidence for a direct inhibitory effect of hyperinsulinemia on pituitary function. Endocrinology. 2006;147:2754-63 pubmed
    ..expression of GH as well as reduced expression of pituitary receptors important for GH synthesis and release [GHRH receptor (DIO only) and the ghrelin receptor (ob/ob and DIO)]...
  77. Murao S, Sato M, Tamaki M, Niimi M, Ishida T, Takahara J. Gene expression of hypothalamic growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone and somatostatin does not correlate with pulsatile secretion of GH in the adult mouse. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 1995;89:269-77 pubmed
    ..This result suggests that changes in GHRH and SRIH secretion have little association with changes in the synthesis of these peptides at the hypothalamus in the male mouse.