Gene Symbol: Gh
Description: growth hormone
Alias: Gh1, Ghb1, somatotropin, growth hormone b1
Species: mouse
Products:     Gh

Top Publications

  1. Charles M, Suh H, Hjalt T, Drouin J, Camper S, Gage P. PITX genes are required for cell survival and Lhx3 activation. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:1893-903 pubmed
    ..Thus, the combined dosage of these PITX family members is vital for pituitary development, and their persistent coexpression in the adult pituitary suggests a continued role in maintenance of pituitary function. ..
  2. Fan Y, Menon R, Cohen P, Hwang D, Clemens T, DiGirolamo D, et al. Liver-specific deletion of the growth hormone receptor reveals essential role of growth hormone signaling in hepatic lipid metabolism. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:19937-44 pubmed publisher
    Growth hormone (GH) plays a pivotal role in growth and metabolism, with growth promotion mostly attributed to generation of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in liver or at local sites of GH action, whereas the metabolic effects of GH ..
  3. List E, Berryman D, Funk K, Gosney E, Jara A, Kelder B, et al. The role of GH in adipose tissue: lessons from adipose-specific GH receptor gene-disrupted mice. Mol Endocrinol. 2013;27:524-35 pubmed publisher
    b>GH receptor (GHR) gene-disrupted mice (GHR-/-) have provided countless discoveries as to the numerous actions of GH. Many of these discoveries highlight the importance of GH in adipose tissue...
  4. Barclay J, Nelson C, Ishikawa M, Murray L, Kerr L, McPhee T, et al. GH-dependent STAT5 signaling plays an important role in hepatic lipid metabolism. Endocrinology. 2011;152:181-92 pubmed publisher
    b>GH deficiency is known to be clinically associated with a high incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and this can be reversed by GH administration...
  5. Chen W, Hoo R, Konishi M, Itoh N, Lee P, Ye H, et al. Growth hormone induces hepatic production of fibroblast growth factor 21 through a mechanism dependent on lipolysis in adipocytes. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:34559-66 pubmed publisher
    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 and growth hormone (GH) are metabolic hormones that play important roles in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism...
  6. Ellsworth B, Egashira N, Haller J, Butts D, Cocquet J, Clay C, et al. FOXL2 in the pituitary: molecular, genetic, and developmental analysis. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:2796-805 pubmed
    ..These data place FOXL2 in the hierarchy of pituitary developmental control and suggest a role in regulation of Cga gene expression...
  7. Davis S, Camper S. Noggin regulates Bmp4 activity during pituitary induction. Dev Biol. 2007;305:145-60 pubmed
    ..This work demonstrates the importance of attenuating the activity of Bmp signaling during pituitary induction in order to maintain the proper balance of signaling factors necessary for pituitary organogenesis. ..
  8. Treier M, Gleiberman A, O Connell S, Szeto D, McMahon J, McMahon A, et al. Multistep signaling requirements for pituitary organogenesis in vivo. Genes Dev. 1998;12:1691-704 pubmed
  9. Bilodeau S, Roussel Gervais A, Drouin J. Distinct developmental roles of cell cycle inhibitors p57Kip2 and p27Kip1 distinguish pituitary progenitor cell cycle exit from cell cycle reentry of differentiated cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:1895-908 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Sheng H, Zhadanov A, Mosinger B, Fujii T, Bertuzzi S, Grinberg A, et al. Specification of pituitary cell lineages by the LIM homeobox gene Lhx3. Science. 1996;272:1004-7 pubmed
    ..The determination of all pituitary cell lineages, except the corticotrophs, was affected, suggesting that a distinct, Lhx3-independent ontogenetic pathway exists for the initial specification of this lineage. ..
  2. Zhao L, Zevallos S, Rizzoti K, Jeong Y, Lovell Badge R, Epstein D. Disruption of SoxB1-dependent Sonic hedgehog expression in the hypothalamus causes septo-optic dysplasia. Dev Cell. 2012;22:585-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that reduced levels of Shh expression in the hypothalamus cause SOD. ..
  3. Huang E, Zhu G, Jiang W, Yang K, Gao Y, Luo Q, et al. Growth hormone synergizes with BMP9 in osteogenic differentiation by activating the JAK/STAT/IGF1 pathway in murine multilineage cells. J Bone Miner Res. 2012;27:1566-75 pubmed publisher
    Growth hormone (GH) is usually released by somatotrophs in the anterior pituitary in response to the GH-releasing hormone and plays an important role in skeleton development and postnatal growth...
  4. Brinkmeier M, Potok M, Cha K, Gridley T, Stifani S, Meeldijk J, et al. TCF and Groucho-related genes influence pituitary growth and development. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:2152-61 pubmed
    ..Thus, we demonstrate that Tcf4 and Aes influence pituitary growth and development, and place Tcf4 and Tle3 in the genetic hierarchy with Prop1. ..
  5. Wang Y, Martin J, Bai C. Direct and indirect requirements of Shh/Gli signaling in early pituitary development. Dev Biol. 2010;348:199-209 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results therefore suggest both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous requirements for Gli2 in regulation of pituitary progenitor specification, proliferation and differentiation. ..
  6. Blaas L, Kornfeld J, Schramek D, Musteanu M, Zollner G, Gumhold J, et al. Disruption of the growth hormone--signal transducer and activator of transcription 5--insulinlike growth factor 1 axis severely aggravates liver fibrosis in a mouse model of cholestasis. Hepatology. 2010;51:1319-26 pubmed publisher
    Growth hormone (GH) resistance and low serum levels of insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are common features in human liver fibrosis and cirrhosis...
  7. Japón M, Rubinstein M, Low M. In situ hybridization analysis of anterior pituitary hormone gene expression during fetal mouse development. J Histochem Cytochem. 1994;42:1117-25 pubmed
    ..The expression of both growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) started coincidentally on Day E15.5...
  8. DiGirolamo D, Mukherjee A, Fulzele K, Gan Y, Cao X, Frank S, et al. Mode of growth hormone action in osteoblasts. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:31666-74 pubmed
    Growth hormone (GH) affects bone size and mass in part through stimulating insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1) production in liver and bone. Whether GH acts independent of IGF-1 in bone remains unclear...
  9. Meyer R, Laz E, Su T, Waxman D. Male-specific hepatic Bcl6: growth hormone-induced block of transcription elongation in females and binding to target genes inversely coordinated with STAT5. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:1914-26 pubmed publisher
    The transcriptional repressor Bcl6 is a male-specific rat liver gene product and one of 24 early GH-response genes encoding DNA-binding proteins...
  10. Cooke N, Szpirer C, Levan G. The related genes encoding growth hormone and prolactin have been dispersed to chromosomes 10 and 17 in the rat. Endocrinology. 1986;119:2451-4 pubmed
    We have assigned the rat GH gene to chromosome 10 and the rat PRL gene to chromosome 17...
  11. Pulichino A, Vallette Kasic S, Tsai J, Couture C, Gauthier Y, Drouin J. Tpit determines alternate fates during pituitary cell differentiation. Genes Dev. 2003;17:738-47 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that antagonism between Tpit and SF1 may play a role in establishment of POMC and gonadotroph lineages and that these lineages may arise from common precursors. ..
  12. Chien C, Lee M, Liou H, Liou H, Fu W. Growth hormone is increased in the lungs and enhances experimental lung metastasis of melanoma in DJ-1 KO mice. BMC Cancer. 2016;16:871 pubmed
    Growth hormone (GH) mainly serves an endocrine function to regulate somatic growth, but also serves an autocrine function in lung growth and pulmonary function...
  13. Kioussi C, Briata P, Baek S, Rose D, Hamblet N, Herman T, et al. Identification of a Wnt/Dvl/beta-Catenin --> Pitx2 pathway mediating cell-type-specific proliferation during development. Cell. 2002;111:673-85 pubmed
  14. Wong J, Dukes J, Levy R, Sos B, Mason S, Fong T, et al. Sex differences in thrombosis in mice are mediated by sex-specific growth hormone secretion patterns. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:2969-78 pubmed publisher the liver, and liver gene expression is sex specific and depends on sex differences in growth hormone (GH) secretion--males secrete GH in a pulsatile fashion, while females secrete GH continuously...
  15. Aujla P, Bogdanovic V, Naratadam G, Raetzman L. Persistent expression of activated notch in the developing hypothalamus affects survival of pituitary progenitors and alters pituitary structure. Dev Dyn. 2015;244:921-34 pubmed publisher
  16. Xie T, Ngo S, Veldhuis J, Jeffery P, Chopin L, Tschöp M, et al. Effect of Deletion of Ghrelin-O-Acyltransferase on the Pulsatile Release of Growth Hormone in Mice. J Neuroendocrinol. 2015;27:872-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Within the growth hormone (GH) axis, the biological activity of ghrelin requires octanoylation by ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT), conferring ..
  17. Cheung L, Okano H, Camper S. Sox21 deletion in mice causes postnatal growth deficiency without physiological disruption of hypothalamic-pituitary endocrine axes. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017;439:213-223 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, despite changes in pituitary hormone expression, hypothalamic-pituitary axes appear to be functional. Therefore, SOX21 variants may be a cause of non-endocrine short stature in humans. ..
  18. Tseng K, Goldstein S. Systemic over-secretion of growth hormone in transgenic mice results in a specific pattern of skeletal modeling and adaptation. J Bone Miner Res. 1998;13:706-15 pubmed
    The effects of growth hormone (GH) over-secretion on bone modeling and remodeling in transgenic mice were investigated using systematic and hierarchical methods...
  19. Sakatani S, Takahashi R, Okuda Y, Aizawa A, Otsuka A, Komatsu A, et al. Structure, expression, and conserved physical linkage of mouse testicular cell adhesion molecule-1 (TCAM-1) gene. Genome. 2000;43:957-62 pubmed
    ..TCAM-1 gene and the region linking it to growth hormone (GH) gene located downstream from the TCAM-1 gene were then analyzed. The mouse TCAM-1 gene was 11...
  20. Holly J, Gunnell D, Davey Smith G. Growth hormone, IGF-I and cancer. Less intervention to avoid cancer? More intervention to prevent cancer?. J Endocrinol. 1999;162:321-30 pubmed
    The GH/IGF-I axis has a clearly established role in somatic growth regulation and there is much evidence suggesting that it can play a contributing role in neoplastic tissue growth; a number of recent epidemiological reports indicate that ..
  21. Clarkson R, Chen C, Harrison S, Wells C, Muscat G, Waters M. Early responses of trans-activating factors to growth hormone in preadipocytes: differential regulation of CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-beta (C/EBP beta) and C/EBP delta. Mol Endocrinol. 1995;9:108-20 pubmed
    Using the 3T3-F442A preadipocyte line as a model of GH-dependent differentiation, early changes in the DNA-binding affinity of transcription factors in response to GH addition were investigated...
  22. Buckwalter M, Katz R, Camper S. Localization of the panhypopituitary dwarf mutation (df) on mouse chromosome 11 in an intersubspecific backcross. Genomics. 1991;10:515-26 pubmed
    ..The localization of the alpha 1 adrenergic receptor, Adra-1, extends a known region of synteny conservation between mouse chromosome 11 and human chromosome 5, and suggests that a human counterpart to df would map to human chromosome 5. ..
  23. Chuzhanova N, Krawczak M, Nemytikova L, Gusev V, Cooper D. Promoter shuffling has occurred during the evolution of the vertebrate growth hormone gene. Gene. 2000;254:9-18 pubmed using the novel technique of complexity analysis to identify modular components ('blocks') in the growth hormone (GH) gene promoter sequences of some 22 vertebrate species, from salmon to human...
  24. Sagazio A, Xiao X, Wang Z, Martari M, Salvatori R. A single injection of double-stranded adeno-associated viral vector expressing GH normalizes growth in GH-deficient mice. J Endocrinol. 2008;196:79-88 pubmed publisher
    b>GH is secreted by the somatotropic cells of the pituitary gland, and its deficiency (GHD) impairs longitudinal growth. Due to its short half-life, GH therapy needs administration of GH injections daily...
  25. Qi X, Reed J, Englander E, Chandrashekar V, Bartke A, Greeley G. Evidence that growth hormone exerts a feedback effect on stomach ghrelin production and secretion. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2003;228:1028-32 pubmed
    Ghrelin is a recently discovered stomach hormone that stimulates pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion potently...
  26. Bartke A. Can growth hormone (GH) accelerate aging? Evidence from GH-transgenic mice. Neuroendocrinology. 2003;78:210-6 pubmed
    Overexpression of heterologous growth hormone (GH) in transgenic mice results in numerous phenotypic effects, including a drastically shortened life span...
  27. Wilson D, Wyatt D. Immunocytochemistry of ambiguous cells in adult and embryonic dwarf (dw) mouse pituitaries. Anat Rec. 1993;236:671-8 pubmed
    ..embryonic dwarf (dw/dw) mutant mice, ambiguous cells exhibiting ultrastructural features common to growth hormone (GH) cells and prolactin (Prl) cells were analyzed by means of colloidal gold ultrastructural immunocytochemistry in ..
  28. Hoeflich A, Nedbal S, Blum W, Erhard M, Lahm H, Brem G, et al. Growth inhibition in giant growth hormone transgenic mice by overexpression of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-2. Endocrinology. 2001;142:1889-98 pubmed
    ..hemizygous CMV-IGFBP-2 transgenic mice with hemizygous PEPCK-bGH transgenic mice, which are characterized by serum GH levels in the range of 2 microgram/ml...
  29. Gao Z, Lee P, Stafford J, von Schimmelmann M, Schaefer A, Reinberg D. An AUTS2-Polycomb complex activates gene expression in the CNS. Nature. 2014;516:349-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a natural means of subverting PRC1 activity, linking key epigenetic modulators with neuronal functions and diseases. ..
  30. Hassouna R, Zizzari P, Tomasetto C, Veldhuis J, Fiquet O, Labarthe A, et al. An early reduction in GH peak amplitude in preproghrelin-deficient male mice has a minor impact on linear growth. Endocrinology. 2014;155:3561-71 pubmed publisher
    Ghrelin is a gut hormone processed from the proghrelin peptide acting as the endogenous ligand of the GH secretagogue receptor 1a. The regulatory role of endogenous ghrelin on pulsatile GH secretion and linear growth had to be established...
  31. Yao W, Bethin K, Yang X, Zhong J, Lee W. Role of the GH/IGF-I axis in the growth retardation of weaver mice. Endocrine. 2007;32:227-34 pubmed
    IGF-I is a well-established anabolic growth factor essential for growth and development. Although the role of the GH/IGF-I axis is established for normal postnatal growth, its functional state in neurodegenerative diseases is not fully ..
  32. Lin S, Lin C, Gukovsky I, Lusis A, Sawchenko P, Rosenfeld M. Molecular basis of the little mouse phenotype and implications for cell type-specific growth. Nature. 1993;364:208-13 pubmed
    ..This sequential growth factor requirement for a specific cell type may exemplify a common strategy for regulating cellular proliferation in other mammalian organs. ..
  33. Cordoba Chacon J, Gahete M, Pozo Salas A, Martinez Fuentes A, de Lecea L, Gracia Navarro F, et al. Cortistatin is not a somatostatin analogue but stimulates prolactin release and inhibits GH and ACTH in a gender-dependent fashion: potential role of ghrelin. Endocrinology. 2011;152:4800-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, CST inhibited GH and adrenocorticotropin-hormone axes in a gender-dependent fashion...
  34. Roy S, Martel J, Tenenhouse H. Growth hormone normalizes renal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-24-hydroxylase gene expression but not Na+-phosphate cotransporter (Npt2) mRNA in phosphate-deprived Hyp mice. J Bone Miner Res. 1997;12:1672-80 pubmed
    ..Because growth hormone (GH) enhances renal Na+-Pi cotransport and permits the adaptive 1,25(OH)2D response in Pi-deprived hypophysectomized ..
  35. Zearfoss N, Alarcon J, Trifilieff P, Kandel E, Richter J. A molecular circuit composed of CPEB-1 and c-Jun controls growth hormone-mediated synaptic plasticity in the mouse hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2008;28:8502-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Growth hormone (GH) was reduced in the KO hippocampus, as were the GH signaling molecules phospho-JAK2 and phospho-STAT3...
  36. Luque R, Kineman R. Impact of obesity on the growth hormone axis: evidence for a direct inhibitory effect of hyperinsulinemia on pituitary function. Endocrinology. 2006;147:2754-63 pubmed
    There is a negative relationship between obesity and GH. However, it is not known how metabolic changes, associated with obesity, lead to a reduction in GH output...
  37. Nordstrom S, Tran J, Sos B, Wagner K, Weiss E. Disruption of JAK2 in adipocytes impairs lipolysis and improves fatty liver in mice with elevated GH. Mol Endocrinol. 2013;27:1333-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The pleiotropic hormone, GH, has been associated with an increased risk of NAFLD in humans and mice...
  38. Chandrasekhar S, Moorthy B, Xie R, Topp E. Thiol-Disulfide Exchange in Human Growth Hormone. Pharm Res. 2016;33:1370-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Reduction of disulfide bonds in hGH did not affect higher order structure as measured by CD and HDX-MS. ..
  39. Linzer D, Talamantes F. Nucleotide sequence of mouse prolactin and growth hormone mRNAs and expression of these mRNAs during pregnancy. J Biol Chem. 1985;260:9574-9 pubmed
    ..Levels of prolactin and growth hormone mRNAs during pregnancy have been monitored by hybridization to the cloned cDNA probes. We find the levels of these mRNAs to remain nearly constant during mid-to-late gestation. ..
  40. Suh H, Gage P, Drouin J, Camper S. Pitx2 is required at multiple stages of pituitary organogenesis: pituitary primordium formation and cell specification. Development. 2002;129:329-37 pubmed
    ..The model developed for PITX gene function in pituitary development provides a better understanding of the etiology of Rieger syndrome and may extend to other PITX-sensitive developmental processes. ..
  41. Yevtodiyenko A, Schmidt J. Dlk1 expression marks developing endothelium and sites of branching morphogenesis in the mouse embryo and placenta. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:1115-23 pubmed
    ..This pattern is distinct from that seen in the human placenta and suggests a role for Dlk1 in regulating maternal-fetal interactions. ..
  42. Gonzalez L, Díaz M, Miquet J, Sotelo A, Fernandez D, Dominici F, et al. GH modulates hepatic epidermal growth factor signaling in the mouse. J Endocrinol. 2010;204:299-309 pubmed publisher binding of the specific ligand but also by transactivation triggered by different growth factors including GH. Chronically, elevated GH levels have been associated with the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma...
  43. Romero C, Pine Twaddell E, Sima D, Miller R, He L, Wondisford F, et al. Insulin-like growth factor 1 mediates negative feedback to somatotroph GH expression via POU1F1/CREB binding protein interactions. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:4258-69 pubmed publisher
    ..insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been shown to act as a negative feedback regulator of growth hormone (GH) gene expression; however, the mechanism of this negative feedback is poorly understood...
  44. Burrows H, Birkmeier T, Seasholtz A, Camper S. Targeted ablation of cells in the pituitary primordia of transgenic mice. Mol Endocrinol. 1996;10:1467-77 pubmed
    ..TSH beta-subunit transcripts appear several days later but precede transcription of the GH and FSH beta and LH beta-subunit genes...
  45. Kioussi C, O Connell S, St Onge L, Treier M, Gleiberman A, Gruss P, et al. Pax6 is essential for establishing ventral-dorsal cell boundaries in pituitary gland development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:14378-82 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the transient dorsal expression of Pax6 is essential for establishing a sharp boundary between dorsal and ventral cell types, based on the inhibition of Shh ventral signals. ..
  46. Sajedi E, Gaston Massuet C, Signore M, Andoniadou C, Kelberman D, Castro S, et al. Analysis of mouse models carrying the I26T and R160C substitutions in the transcriptional repressor HESX1 as models for septo-optic dysplasia and hypopituitarism. Dis Model Mech. 2008;1:241-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that the I26T mutation yields a hypomorphic allele, whereas R160C produces a null allele and, consequently, a more severe phenotype in both mice and humans...
  47. Chen H, Zhang L, Xu B, Kang L, Yang S, Zeng H, et al. Nitric oxide stimulates embryonic somatotroph differentiation and growth hormone mRNA and protein expression through a cyclic guanosine monophosphate-independent mechanism. Tissue Cell. 2009;41:133-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Many reports have shown that NO can modulate the growth hormone (GH) secretion. However, its role on mice embryo GH regulation remains unclear...
  48. Zhao Y, Mailloux C, Hermesz E, Palkóvits M, Westphal H. A role of the LIM-homeobox gene Lhx2 in the regulation of pituitary development. Dev Biol. 2010;337:313-23 pubmed publisher
  49. Koroleva I, Malchenko S, Brusgaard K, Khlebodarova T, Rubtsov N, Zakian S. Chromosome localization of the genes for growth hormone, somatostatin peptide, ornithine transcarbamylase, and prion protein in silver fox (Vulpes fulvus). Mamm Genome. 1996;7:860-2 pubmed
  50. Bogazzi F, Raggi F, Ultimieri F, Russo D, Manariti A, D Alessio A, et al. Cardiac expression of adenine nucleotide translocase-1 in transgenic mice overexpressing bovine GH. J Endocrinol. 2007;194:521-7 pubmed
    Heart hypertrophy is a common finding of acromegaly, a syndrome due to GH excess. Impairment of adenine nucleotide translocase-1 (ANT-1) gene, the main mitochondrial ADP/ATP exchanger, leads to cardiac hypertrophy...
  51. Bogazzi F, Raggi F, Russo D, Bohlooly Y M, Sardella C, Urbani C, et al. Growth hormone is necessary for the p53-mediated, obesity-induced insulin resistance in male C57BL/6J x CBA mice. Endocrinology. 2013;154:4226-36 pubmed publisher
    Insulin resistance is a key marker of both obesity and GH excess. The purpose of the study was to assess the role of GH on p53-mediated insulin resistance of male mice with obesity due to a high-fat diet...
  52. Palmer A, Chung M, List E, Walker J, Okada S, Kopchick J, et al. Age-related changes in body composition of bovine growth hormone transgenic mice. Endocrinology. 2009;150:1353-60 pubmed publisher
    b>GH has a significant impact on body composition due to distinct anabolic and catabolic effects on lean and fat mass, respectively. Several studies have assessed body composition in mice expressing a GH transgene...
  53. Cordoba Chacon J, Majumdar N, List E, Diaz Ruiz A, Frank S, Manzano A, et al. Growth Hormone Inhibits Hepatic De Novo Lipogenesis in Adult Mice. Diabetes. 2015;64:3093-103 pubmed publisher
    Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are reported to have low growth hormone (GH) production and/or hepatic GH resistance...
  54. Friedbichler K, Themanns M, Mueller K, Schlederer M, Kornfeld J, Terracciano L, et al. Growth-hormone-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 signaling causes gigantism, inflammation, and premature death but protects mice from aggressive liver cancer. Hepatology. 2012;55:941-52 pubmed publisher
    Persistently high levels of growth hormone (GH) can cause liver cancer...
  55. Nguyen A, Chandorkar A, Gupta C. The role of growth hormone in fetal mouse reproductive tract differentiation. Endocrinology. 1996;137:3659-66 pubmed
    Although GH plays a key role in postnatal growth and differentiation, its role in fetal differentiation is not clear at the present...
  56. Yoshihara S, Tatsumi K. Involvement of growth hormone as a regulating factor in sex differences of mouse hepatic aldehyde oxidase. Biochem Pharmacol. 1997;53:1099-105 pubmed
    The participation of circulating growth hormone (GH) as a regulator of sex differences in hepatic aldehyde oxidase (AO) activity in ddy mice was examined...
  57. Kapali J, Kabat B, Schmidt K, Stallings C, Tippy M, Jung D, et al. Foxo1 Is Required for Normal Somatotrope Differentiation. Endocrinology. 2016;157:4351-4363 pubmed
    ..embryonic mice exhibit delayed somatotrope differentiation as evidenced by an almost complete absence of GH immunoreactivity at e16.5 and reduced expression of Gh at e18.5 and postnatal day (P) 3...
  58. Yakar S, Setser J, Zhao H, Stannard B, Haluzik M, Glatt V, et al. Inhibition of growth hormone action improves insulin sensitivity in liver IGF-1-deficient mice. J Clin Invest. 2004;113:96-105 pubmed
    ..LID) mice have a 75% reduction in circulating IGF-1 levels and, as a result, a fourfold increase in growth hormone (GH) secretion. To block GH action, LID mice were crossed with GH antagonist (GHa) transgenic mice...
  59. Takahara K, Ibuki N, Ghaffari M, Tearle H, Ong C, Azuma H, et al. The influence of growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor deficiency on prostatic dysplasia in pbARR2-Cre, PTEN knockout mice. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2013;16:239-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The impact of suppressed growth hormone (GH)/IGF-I levels on neoplastic initiation of PTEN-deficient prostate epithelia was assessed histologically and by ..
  60. Qi Y, Ranish J, Zhu X, Krones A, Zhang J, Aebersold R, et al. Atbf1 is required for the Pit1 gene early activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:2481-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A transcription factor belonging to the "giant, multiple-homeodomain and zinc finger family," Atbf1, serves as a novel pituitary regulator for one of the two required enhancers as shown by genetic and in vitro analysis. ..
  61. Bartke A, Chandrashekar V, Turyn D, Steger R, Debeljuk L, Winters T, et al. Effects of growth hormone overexpression and growth hormone resistance on neuroendocrine and reproductive functions in transgenic and knock-out mice. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1999;222:113-23 pubmed
    Transgenic mice overexpressing growth hormone (GH) exhibit alterations in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and the H-P-adrenal axis...
  62. Zhao T, Liang G, Li R, Xie X, Sleeman M, Murphy A, et al. Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is essential for growth hormone-mediated survival of calorie-restricted mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:7467-72 pubmed publisher
    ..which is processed to ghrelin, an octanoylated peptide hormone that stimulates release of growth hormone (GH) from pituitary cells...
  63. Scully K, Skowronska Krawczyk D, Krawczyk M, Merkurjev D, Taylor H, Livolsi A, et al. Epithelial cell integrin β1 is required for developmental angiogenesis in the pituitary gland. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:13408-13413 pubmed
  64. Foucher I, Volovitch M, Frain M, Kim J, Souberbielle J, Gan L, et al. Hoxa5 overexpression correlates with IGFBP1 upregulation and postnatal dwarfism: evidence for an interaction between Hoxa5 and Forkhead box transcription factors. Development. 2002;129:4065-74 pubmed
  65. Gahete M, Cordoba Chacon J, Anadumaka C, Lin Q, Bruning J, Kahn C, et al. Elevated GH/IGF-I, due to somatotrope-specific loss of both IGF-I and insulin receptors, alters glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in a diet-dependent manner. Endocrinology. 2011;152:4825-37 pubmed publisher
    A unique mouse model was developed with elevated endogenous GH (2- to 3-fold) and IGF-I (1.2- to 1...
  66. Thomas A, Murray J, Famula T, Oberbauer A. Growth hormone and fertility in oMt1a-oGH transgenic mice. Reproduction. 2001;122:537-44 pubmed
    ..Increased plasma corticosterone concentrations may interfere with implantation as well as potentiate leptin resistance, which has been reported previously in studies with these mice. ..
  67. Huang Y, Kim S, Yang N, Jiang J, Frank S. Physical and functional interaction of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I signaling elements. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:1471-85 pubmed
    b>GH and IGF-I are critical regulators of growth and metabolism...
  68. Rieusset J, Seydoux J, Anghel S, Escher P, Michalik L, Soon Tan N, et al. Altered growth in male peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) heterozygous mice: involvement of PPARgamma in a negative feedback regulation of growth hormone action. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:2363-77 pubmed
    ..The levels of circulating GH and that of its downstream effector, IGF-I, are not altered in mutant mice...
  69. Vesper A, Raetzman L, Camper S. Role of prophet of Pit1 (PROP1) in gonadotrope differentiation and puberty. Endocrinology. 2006;147:1654-63 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that variation in PROP1 expression could affect the growth spurt and the onset of puberty in humans...
  70. Roller M, Lossie A, Koken M, Smit E, Hagemeijer A, Camper S. Localization of sequences related to the human RAD6 DNA repair gene on mouse chromosomes 11 and 13. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:305-6 pubmed
  71. Raetzman L, Cai J, Camper S. Hes1 is required for pituitary growth and melanotrope specification. Dev Biol. 2007;304:455-66 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that Notch signaling plays multiple roles in pituitary development, influencing precursor number, organ size, cell differentiation and ultimately cell fate. ..
  72. Gonzalez L, Sotelo A, Bartke A, Turyn D. Up-regulation of GH-binding protein by mouse GH in transgenic mice overexpressing GH-releasing hormone. J Endocrinol. 1999;163:299-307 pubmed
    To study the effects of homologous mouse GH (mGH) on the presence and characteristics of serum GH-binding protein (GHBP) we have used transgenic mice expressing GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) as a model...
  73. Mortensen A, Schade V, Lamonerie T, Camper S. Deletion of OTX2 in neural ectoderm delays anterior pituitary development. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:939-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Otx2 expression early in head development is important for establishing normal craniofacial features including development of the brain, eyes and pituitary gland. ..
  74. Deiner M, Sretavan D. Altered midline axon pathways and ectopic neurons in the developing hypothalamus of netrin-1- and DCC-deficient mice. J Neurosci. 1999;19:9900-12 pubmed
    ..Netrin protein localization also indicates that unlike in more caudal CNS, guidance about the hypothalamic ventral midline does not require midline expression of netrin. ..
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    b>GH/STAT5 signaling is desensitized in the liver in adult transgenic mice overexpressing GH; however, these animals present greater body size...
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    ..Taken together, Cdk4 is dispensable for prenatal development of the pituitary or proliferation of other non-endocrine tissues but indispensable specifically for postnatal proliferation of somato/lactotrophs. ..
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    b>GH has physiological functions in many tissues, but the cellular targets for direct effects of GH remain ill defined in complex tissues such as the growth plate in which the contribution of direct vs...
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    ..Our research has revealed a role for Six3 in normal pituitary development, which has likely been conserved during evolution as SIX3 is also expressed in the pituitary gland of the human embryo. ..
  80. List E, Berryman D, Funk K, Jara A, Kelder B, Wang F, et al. Liver-specific GH receptor gene-disrupted (LiGHRKO) mice have decreased endocrine IGF-I, increased local IGF-I, and altered body size, body composition, and adipokine profiles. Endocrinology. 2014;155:1793-805 pubmed publisher
    b>GH is an important regulator of body growth and composition as well as numerous other metabolic processes...
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    The expression of mRNA of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and the common glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit (alphaGSU) was studied by means of single cell reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction ..
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    ..5 embryos suggesting there may be subtle changes in pituitary proliferation not detected with our proliferation makers. Consistent with this, Foxm1 null mice have reductions in both the somatotrope and gonadotrope cell populations. ..
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    ..Our data reveal important overlapping functions of Hes1 and Prop1 in cell differentiation and movement that are critical for pituitary organogenesis. ..
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    ..Thus, Lhx3 and Lhx4 dictate pituitary organ identity by controlling developmental decisions at multiple stages of organogenesis. ..
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    ..In addition, ZBTB20 overexpression enhances the transcriptional activity of Prl promoter in vitro. In conclusion, our findings point to ZBTB20 as a critical regulator of anterior pituitary development and lactotrope specification. ..
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    ..These results provide evidence that Mf3 is required for normal hypothalamus development and suggest that Mf3 may play a role in postnatal growth and lactation. ..
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    ..These results demonstrate that Dmbx1 is required for postnatal survival, growth, and brain development. ..
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    The GH1 genes of probands of two families with familial isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) were sequenced...
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    ..Unexpectedly, Notch activity appears normal in conditional knockout mice. Thus, Numb is critical for maintaining cell-cell interactions in the pituitary intermediate lobe that are essential for proper cell placement. ..