Gene Symbol: Ggt1
Description: gamma-glutamyltransferase 1
Alias: CD224, GGT, GGT 1, GGT-1, Ggtp, dwg, glutathione hydrolase 1 proenzyme, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase 1, glutathione hydrolase 1, leukotriene-C4 hydrolase
Species: mouse
Products:     Ggt1

Top Publications

  1. Tsuji T, Yamada K, Kunieda T. Characterization of the dwg mutations: dwg and dwg(Bayer) are new mutant alleles of the Ggt1 gene. Mamm Genome. 2009;20:711-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The Ggt1 gene encodes gamma-glutamyltransferase 1 (GGT1), an extracellular membrane-bound enzyme that is critical for ..
  2. Harding C, Williams P, Wagner E, Chang D, Wild K, Colwell R, et al. Mice with genetic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase deficiency exhibit glutathionuria, severe growth failure, reduced life spans, and infertility. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:12560-7 pubmed
    ..The glutathionuric phenotype in these mice is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. This mouse mutant will be a useful animal model for the study of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase physiology and glutathione metabolism. ..
  3. Rojas E, Valverde M, Kala S, Kala G, Lieberman M. Accumulation of DNA damage in the organs of mice deficient in gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase. Mutat Res. 2000;447:305-16 pubmed
    ..The mice are homozygous null for gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), the enzyme responsible for initiating the catabolism of GSH, and paradoxically have reduced levels of GSH and ..
  4. Levasseur R, Barrios R, Elefteriou F, Glass D, Lieberman M, Karsenty G. Reversible skeletal abnormalities in gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-deficient mice. Endocrinology. 2003;144:2761-4 pubmed
    Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is a widely distributed ectopeptidase responsible for the degradation of glutathione in the gamma-glutamyl cycle...
  5. Lieberman M, Wiseman A, Shi Z, Carter B, Barrios R, Ou C, et al. Growth retardation and cysteine deficiency in gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:7923-6 pubmed
    gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is an ectoenzyme that catalyzes the first step in the cleavage of glutathione (GSH) and plays an essential role in the metabolism of GSH and GSH conjugates of carcinogens, toxins, and eicosanoids...
  6. Chevez Barrios P, Wiseman A, Rojas E, Ou C, Lieberman M. Cataract development in gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-deficient mice. Exp Eye Res. 2000;71:575-82 pubmed
    ..of lens glutathione (GSH) and light to cataract development in mice deficient in gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). These mice have reduced levels of cysteine and GSH in the eye and develop cataracts...
  7. Will Y, Fischer K, Horton R, Kaetzel R, Brown M, Hedstrom O, et al. gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase-deficient knockout mice as a model to study the relationship between glutathione status, mitochondrial function, and cellular function. Hepatology. 2000;32:740-9 pubmed
    gamma-Glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT)-deficient mice (GGT(-/-)) display chronic glutathione (GSH) deficiency, growth retardation, and die at a young age (<20 weeks)...
  8. Jean J, Harding C, Oakes S, Yu Q, Held P, Joyce Brady M. gamma-Glutamyl transferase (GGT) deficiency in the GGTenu1 mouse results from a single point mutation that leads to a stop codon in the first coding exon of GGT mRNA. Mutagenesis. 1999;14:31-6 pubmed
    GGTenul, a recently described genetic murine model of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) deficiency, was induced by the point mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea and is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait...
  9. Curto K, Sweeney W, Avner E, Piesco N, Curthoys N. Immunocytochemical localization of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase during fetal development of mouse kidney. J Histochem Cytochem. 1988;36:159-66 pubmed
    ..Induction of proximal tubular cyst formation had no effect on the increase in transpeptidase activity that occurred during organotypic nephrogenesis. ..

More Information


  1. Ohnishi T, Yamada K, Watanabe A, Ohba H, Sakaguchi T, Honma Y, et al. Ablation of Mrds1/Ofcc1 induces hyper-?-glutamyl transpeptidasemia without abnormal head development and schizophrenia-relevant behaviors in mice. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e29499 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the mutant mice showed a marked increase in serum ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), a marker for liver damage, but no abnormalities in other liver-related measurements...
  2. Long Y, Jia D, Wei L, Yang Y, Tian H, Chen T. Liver-Specific Overexpression of Gamma-Glutamyltransferase Ameliorates Insulin Sensitivity of Male C57BL/6 Mice. J Diabetes Res. 2017;2017:2654520 pubmed publisher
    ..The serum GGT activity was significantly increased after 7 days of pLIVE-GGT1 vector delivery and lasted for about 3 weeks...
  3. Moriwaki S, Into T, Suzuki K, Miyauchi M, Takata T, Shibayama K, et al. γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase is an endogenous activator of Toll-like receptor 4-mediated osteoclastogenesis. Sci Rep. 2016;6:35930 pubmed publisher
    ..We showed previously that γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), an enzyme involved in glutathione metabolism, acts as an endogenous activator of such pathological ..
  4. Tuzova M, Jean J, Hughey R, Brown L, Cruikshank W, Hiratake J, et al. Inhibiting lung lining fluid glutathione metabolism with GGsTop as a novel treatment for asthma. Front Pharmacol. 2014;5:179 pubmed publisher
    ..LLF glutathione metabolism is regulated by ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT)...
  5. Tomizawa M, Toyama Y, Ito C, Toshimori K, Iwase K, Takiguchi M, et al. Hepatoblast-like cells enriched from mouse embryonic stem cells in medium without glucose, pyruvate, arginine, and tyrosine. Cell Tissue Res. 2008;333:17-27 pubmed publisher
    ..5 days of gestation) and expression of C/EBPbeta at a similar level to that of fetal liver. These data support our conclusion that HSM allows the selection of hepatoblast-like cells. ..
  6. Pardo A, Ruiz V, Arreola J, Ramirez R, Cisneros Lira J, Gaxiola M, et al. Bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis is attenuated in gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-deficient mice. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003;167:925-32 pubmed mechanisms in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, we used mice deficient in gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT-/-), a key enzyme in glutathione (GSH) and cysteine metabolism. Seventy-two hours after bleomycin (0...
  7. Shi Z, Han B, Habib G, Matzuk M, Lieberman M. Disruption of gamma-glutamyl leukotrienase results in disruption of leukotriene D(4) synthesis in vivo and attenuation of the acute inflammatory response. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:5389-95 pubmed
    ..the function of gamma-glutamyl leukotrienase (GGL), a newly identified member of the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) family, we generated null mutations in GGL (GGL(tm1)) and in both GGL and GGT (GGL(tm1)-GGT(tm1)) by a serial ..
  8. Chikhi N, Holic N, Guellaen G, Laperche Y. Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase gene organization and expression: a comparative analysis in rat, mouse, pig and human species. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 1999;122:367-80 pubmed
    Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is an enzyme located at the external surface of epithelial cells...
  9. Lieberman M, Barrios R, Carter B, Habib G, Lebovitz R, Rajagopalan S, et al. gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase. What does the organization and expression of a multipromoter gene tell us about its functions?. Am J Pathol. 1995;147:1175-85 pubmed
    ..Studies that combine analyses of cellular processes with a knowledge of gene structure and expression hold promise for unravelling how these two different levels of function are integrated. ..
  10. Carter B, Habib G, Sepulveda A, Barrios R, Wan D, Lebovitz R, et al. Type VI RNA is the major gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase RNA in the mouse small intestine. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:24581-5 pubmed
    ..Regulation of gamma GT expression in the small intestine is complex and involves at least three previously described promoters, alternative splicing, and a previously undescribed exonic sequence (Type VII RNA) 5' of promoter VI. ..
  11. Rajagopalan S, Wan D, Habib G, Sepulveda A, McLeod M, Lebovitz R, et al. Six mRNAs with different 5' ends are encoded by a single gamma-glutamyltransferase gene in mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:6179-83 pubmed
    ..Although the heterogeneity of the 5' ends of gamma GT RNAs may be explained in part by alternative splicing, it is likely that multiple promoters are involved in their generation. ..
  12. Gattone V, Andrews G, Niu F, Chadwick L, Klein R, Calvet J. Defective epidermal growth factor gene expression in mice with polycystic kidney disease. Dev Biol. 1990;138:225-30 pubmed
  13. Lawrence B, Will Y, Reed D, Kerkvliet N. Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase knockout mice as a model for understanding the consequences of diminished glutathione on T cell-dependent immune responses. Eur J Immunol. 2000;30:1902-10 pubmed
    Gamma-Glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) catalyzes the first step in the extracellular hydrolysis of glutathione (GSH) and plays a critical role in GSH recycling; however, little is known about the impact of diminished GGT activity on immune ..
  14. Yamada K, Tsuji T, Kunieda T. Phenotypic characterization of Ggt1(dwg/dwg) mice,a mouse model for hereditary ?-glutamyltransferase deficiency. Exp Anim. 2013;62:151-7 pubmed
    b>Ggt1(dwg/dwg) mice are spontaneous mutant mice with a nucleotide deletion in the Ggt1 gene. They are characterized by dwarfism, cataract, and coat color abnormality...
  15. Sepulveda A, Habib G, Damjanov A, Matacic S, Damjanov I, Lebovitz R, et al. Expression of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in midgestation mouse yolk sac and mouse visceral yolk sac carcinoma cells. Exp Cell Res. 1995;219:494-8 pubmed
    ..Expression of gamma GT in yolk sac follows a pattern seen in many tissues in which one or two gamma GT RNA types dominate the expression profile; however, the reason for this tissue specificity is unknown. ..
  16. West M, Segu Z, Feasley C, Kang P, Klouckova I, Li C, et al. Analysis of site-specific glycosylation of renal and hepatic ?-glutamyl transpeptidase from normal human tissue. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:29511-24 pubmed publisher
    The cell surface glycoprotein ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) was isolated from healthy human kidney and liver to characterize its glycosylation in normal human tissue in vivo. GGT is expressed by a single cell type in the kidney...
  17. Heisterkamp N, Groffen J, Warburton D, Sneddon T. The human gamma-glutamyltransferase gene family. Hum Genet. 2008;123:321-32 pubmed publisher
    Assays for gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT1, EC activity in blood are widely used in a clinical setting to measure tissue damage...
  18. Hiramatsu K, Asaba Y, Takeshita S, Nimura Y, Tatsumi S, Katagiri N, et al. Overexpression of gamma-glutamyltransferase in transgenic mice accelerates bone resorption and causes osteoporosis. Endocrinology. 2007;148:2708-15 pubmed
    We previously identified gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) by expression cloning as a factor inducing osteoclast formation in vitro...
  19. Meechan D, Maynard T, Wu Y, Gopalakrishna D, Lieberman J, LaMantia A. Gene dosage in the developing and adult brain in a mouse model of 22q11 deletion syndrome. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2006;33:412-28 pubmed
    ..Such changes might contribute to schizophrenia vulnerability in 22q11DS. ..
  20. Ballatori N, Wang W, Lieberman M. Accelerated methylmercury elimination in gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-deficient mice. Am J Pathol. 1998;152:1049-55 pubmed
    ..metabolism of the resulting methylmercury-glutathione complex by the ectoproteins gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and dipeptidase...
  21. Jean J, Liu Y, Brown L, Marc R, Klings E, Joyce Brady M. Gamma-glutamyl transferase deficiency results in lung oxidant stress in normoxia. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2002;283:L766-76 pubmed
    gamma-Glutamyl transferase (GGT) is critical to glutathione homeostasis by providing substrates for glutathione synthesis. We hypothesized that loss of GGT would cause oxidant stress in the lung...
  22. Will Y, Kaetzel R, Brown M, Fraley T, Reed D. In vivo reversal of glutathione deficiency and susceptibility to in vivo dexamethasone-induced apoptosis by N-acetylcysteine and L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, but not ascorbic acid, in thymocytes from gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase-deficient k. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2002;397:399-406 pubmed
  23. Figlewicz D, Delattre O, Guellaen G, Krizus A, Thomas G, Zucman J, et al. Mapping of human gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase genes on chromosome 22 and other human autosomes. Genomics. 1993;17:299-305 pubmed
    gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT; EC 2.3.2...
  24. Shi Z, Habib G, Lebovitz R, Lieberman M. Cloning of cDNA and genomic structure of the mouse gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-encoding gene. Gene. 1995;167:233-7 pubmed
    ..and characterized cDNA and genomic clones containing the coding region for the mouse gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)...
  25. Habib G, Carter B, Sepulveda A, Shi Z, Wan D, Lebovitz R, et al. Identification of a sixth promoter that directs the transcription of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase type III RNA in mouse. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:13711-5 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate that the type III 5' region of the mouse gamma GT gene is organized into two distinct exons (IIIa and IIIb) and that type III RNA is expressed under the control of its own promoter. ..
  26. Klings E, Lowry M, Li G, Jean J, Fernandez B, Garcia Saura M, et al. Hyperoxia-induced lung injury in gamma-glutamyl transferase deficiency is associated with alterations in nitrosative and nitrative stress. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:2309-18 pubmed publisher
    gamma-Glutamyl transferase (GGT) regulates glutathione metabolism and cysteine supply. GGT inactivation in GGT(enu1) mice limits cysteine availability causing cellular glutathione deficiency...
  27. Chaubal V, Nair S, Ito S, Wakamatsu K, Mojamdar M. Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and its role in melanogenesis: redox reactions and regulation of tyrosinase. Pigment Cell Res. 2002;15:420-5 pubmed
    ..Our findings thus introduce a new aspect in the regulation of pigmentation and ascribe a novel role for gamma-GT in pigment cells. ..
  28. Rugg Gunn P, Cox B, Lanner F, Sharma P, Ignatchenko V, McDonald A, et al. Cell-surface proteomics identifies lineage-specific markers of embryo-derived stem cells. Dev Cell. 2012;22:887-901 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a comprehensive stem cell proteomic resource and enable new approaches to interrogate the mechanisms that regulate cell fate specification. ..
  29. Parissis J, Farmakis D, Andreoli C, Rafouli Stergiou P, Ambrosio G, Anastasiou Nana M, et al. Cardio-reno-hepatic interactions in acute heart failure: the role of ?-glutamyl transferase. Int J Cardiol. 2014;173:556-7 pubmed publisher
  30. Habib G, Barrios R, Shi Z, Lieberman M. Four distinct membrane-bound dipeptidase RNAs are differentially expressed and show discordant regulation with gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:16273-80 pubmed
    ..oxidized cysteinyl-glycine) following removal of a gamma-glutamyl group by gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)...
  31. Li G, Wu X, Lu W, Ai R, Chen F, Tang Z. Effect of atorvastatin on the expression of gamma-glutamyl transferase in aortic atherosclerotic plaques of apolipoprotein E-knockout mice. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2014;14:145 pubmed publisher
    Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is now considered to be one of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, whether statins can alter GGT levels in arterial atheromatous plaque has not yet been studied...
  32. Kumar T, Wiseman A, Kala G, Kala S, Matzuk M, Lieberman M. Reproductive defects in gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-deficient mice. Endocrinology. 2000;141:4270-7 pubmed
    Mice deficient in gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) are growth retarded as a result of cysteine deficiency secondary to excessive glutathione excretion in urine and display coat color defects and cataracts...
  33. Ding D, Jiang H, Chen G, Longo Guess C, Muthaiah V, Tian C, et al. N-acetyl-cysteine prevents age-related hearing loss and the progressive loss of inner hair cells in ?-glutamyl transferase 1 deficient mice. Aging (Albany NY). 2016;8:730-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Dwarf grey mice, Ggt1dwg/dwg, are homozygous for a loss of function mutation of the g-glutamyl transferase 1 gene, which encodes an important ..
  34. Sizova D, Velazquez H, Sampaio Maia B, Quelhas Santos J, Pestana M, Desir G. Renalase regulates renal dopamine and phosphate metabolism. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013;305:F839-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The signal to increase renal DA synthesis is strong since it overcomes a compensatory increase in COMT activity. ..
  35. Lowry M, McAllister B, Jean J, Brown L, Hughey R, Cruikshank W, et al. Lung lining fluid glutathione attenuates IL-13-induced asthma. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2008;38:509-16 pubmed
    b>GGT(enu1) mice, deficient in gamma-glutamyl transferase and unable to metabolize extracellular glutathione, develop intracellular glutathione deficiency and oxidant stress...
  36. Niida S, Kawahara M, Ishizuka Y, Ikeda Y, Kondo T, Hibi T, et al. Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase stimulates receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand expression independent of its enzymatic activity and serves as a pathological bone-resorbing factor. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:5752-6 pubmed
    ..Sequencing analysis identified the factor as gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), which is an enzyme involved in glutathione metabolism...