Gene Symbol: Gfra1
Description: glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor family receptor alpha 1
Alias: AU042498, GDNF family receptor alpha-1, GDNFR-alpha-1, GFR alpha-1, TGF-beta-related neurotrophic factor receptor 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Gfra1

Top Publications

  1. Nosrat C, Tomac A, Hoffer B, Olson L. Cellular and developmental patterns of expression of Ret and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor alpha mRNAs. Exp Brain Res. 1997;115:410-22 pubmed
    ..These areas seemed devoid of Ret mRNA, suggesting that GDNFR-alpha might also have functions unrelated to Ret. ..
  2. He Z, Jiang J, Hofmann M, Dym M. Gfra1 silencing in mouse spermatogonial stem cells results in their differentiation via the inactivation of RET tyrosine kinase. Biol Reprod. 2007;77:723-33 pubmed
    ..This study was designed to examine Gfra1 receptor expression in immature and adult mouse testes and determine the effects of Gfra1 knockdown on the ..
  3. Naughton C, Jain S, Strickland A, Gupta A, Milbrandt J. Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor-mediated RET signaling regulates spermatogonial stem cell fate. Biol Reprod. 2006;74:314-21 pubmed
    ..We report that glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) signaling through the RET tyrosine kinase/GFRA1 receptor complex is required for spermatogonial self-renewal in mice...
  4. Garces A, Haase G, Airaksinen M, Livet J, Filippi P, Delapeyriere O. GFRalpha 1 is required for development of distinct subpopulations of motoneuron. J Neurosci. 2000;20:4992-5000 pubmed
    ..on embryonic mouse spinal cord, we demonstrate that whereas Ret is expressed by nearly all motoneurons, Gfra1 and Gfra2 exhibit complex and distinct patterns of expression...
  5. Rossi J, Luukko K, Poteryaev D, Laurikainen A, Sun Y, Laakso T, et al. Retarded growth and deficits in the enteric and parasympathetic nervous system in mice lacking GFR alpha2, a functional neurturin receptor. Neuron. 1999;22:243-52 pubmed
    ..Thus, GFR alpha2 is a physiological NTN receptor, essential for the development of specific postganglionic parasympathetic neurons. ..
  6. Cacalano G, Farinas I, Wang L, Hagler K, Forgie A, Moore M, et al. GFRalpha1 is an essential receptor component for GDNF in the developing nervous system and kidney. Neuron. 1998;21:53-62 pubmed
  7. Enomoto H, Hughes I, Golden J, Baloh R, Yonemura S, Heuckeroth R, et al. GFRalpha1 expression in cells lacking RET is dispensable for organogenesis and nerve regeneration. Neuron. 2004;44:623-36 pubmed
    ..Thus RET-independent GFRalpha1 is dispensable for organogenesis and nerve regeneration in vivo, indicating that trans-signaling and GFRalpha-dependent NCAM signaling play a minor role physiologically. ..
  8. Veiga Fernandes H, Coles M, Foster K, Patel A, Williams A, Natarajan D, et al. Tyrosine kinase receptor RET is a key regulator of Peyer's patch organogenesis. Nature. 2007;446:547-51 pubmed
    ..Our work strongly suggests that the RET signalling pathway, by regulating the development of both the nervous and lymphoid system in the gut, has a key role in the molecular mechanisms that orchestrate intestine organogenesis. ..
  9. Luo W, Wickramasinghe S, Savitt J, Griffin J, Dawson T, Ginty D. A hierarchical NGF signaling cascade controls Ret-dependent and Ret-independent events during development of nonpeptidergic DRG neurons. Neuron. 2007;54:739-54 pubmed
    ..These findings support a model in which NGF controls maturation of nonpeptidergic DRG neurons through a combination of GFR/Ret-dependent and -independent signaling pathways. ..

More Information


  1. Gould T, Yonemura S, Oppenheim R, Ohmori S, Enomoto H. The neurotrophic effects of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor on spinal motoneurons are restricted to fusimotor subtypes. J Neurosci. 2008;28:2131-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, although GDNF influences several aspects of MN development, the survival-promoting effects of GDNF during programmed cell death are mostly confined to spindle-innervating MNs. ..
  2. Suzuki H, Sada A, Yoshida S, Saga Y. The heterogeneity of spermatogonia is revealed by their topology and expression of marker proteins including the germ cell-specific proteins Nanos2 and Nanos3. Dev Biol. 2009;336:222-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the first of these groups is most likely to include the stem cell population and that Nanos3 may function in transit amplifying cells. ..
  3. Haase G, Dessaud E, Garces A, de Bovis B, Birling M, Filippi P, et al. GDNF acts through PEA3 to regulate cell body positioning and muscle innervation of specific motor neuron pools. Neuron. 2002;35:893-905 pubmed
    ..Thus, GDNF acts as a peripheral signal to induce PEA3 expression in specific motor neuron pools thereby regulating both cell body position and muscle innervation. ..
  4. Kondo S, Kishi H, Tokimitsu Y, Muraguchi A. Possible involvement of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor, GFRalpha1, in survival and maturation of thymocytes. Eur J Immunol. 2003;33:2233-40 pubmed
    ..These results suggested that GDNF/GFRalpha1 are involved in the survival of both the nervous system and DN immature thymocytes. ..
  5. Buageaw A, Sukhwani M, Ben Yehudah A, Ehmcke J, Rawe V, Pholpramool C, et al. GDNF family receptor alpha1 phenotype of spermatogonial stem cells in immature mouse testes. Biol Reprod. 2005;73:1011-6 pubmed
    ..The GDNF signals through a receptor complex that includes GDNF family receptor alpha1 (GFRA1), which is thought to be expressed by SSCs...
  6. Kramer E, Knott L, Su F, Dessaud E, Krull C, Helmbacher F, et al. Cooperation between GDNF/Ret and ephrinA/EphA4 signals for motor-axon pathway selection in the limb. Neuron. 2006;50:35-47 pubmed
    ..This phenotype is enhanced in mutant mice lacking Ret and EphA4. Thus, Ret and EphA4 signals cooperate to enforce the precision of the same binary choice in motor-axon guidance. ..
  7. Grasso M, Fuso A, Dovere L, de Rooij D, Stefanini M, Boitani C, et al. Distribution of GFRA1-expressing spermatogonia in adult mouse testis. Reproduction. 2012;143:325-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression profile of several markers, such as GFRA1 (the GDNF co-receptor), is heterogeneous among As, Apr and Aal spermatogonia...
  8. Golden J, DeMaro J, Osborne P, Milbrandt J, Johnson E. Expression of neurturin, GDNF, and GDNF family-receptor mRNA in the developing and mature mouse. Exp Neurol. 1999;158:504-28 pubmed
    ..that include the Ret tyrosine kinase receptor and a GPI-linked, ligand-binding component called GDNF family receptor alpha 1-4 (GFRalpha1-4)...
  9. Luo W, Enomoto H, Rice F, Milbrandt J, Ginty D. Molecular identification of rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors and their developmental dependence on ret signaling. Neuron. 2009;64:841-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the early Ret(+) neurons are RA mechanoreceptors and Ret signaling is required for the assembly of neural circuits underlying touch perception. ..
  10. Molliver D, Wright D, Leitner M, Parsadanian A, Doster K, Wen D, et al. IB4-binding DRG neurons switch from NGF to GDNF dependence in early postnatal life. Neuron. 1997;19:849-61 pubmed
    ..Together, our findings suggest that IB4-binding neurons switch from dependence on NGF in embryonic life to dependence on GDNF in postnatal life and are likely regulated by GDNF in maturity. ..
  11. Shirakawa T, Yaman Deveci R, Tomizawa S, Kamizato Y, Nakajima K, Sone H, et al. An epigenetic switch is crucial for spermatogonia to exit the undifferentiated state toward a Kit-positive identity. Development. 2013;140:3565-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the epigenetic status of spermatogonia shifts dramatically during the Kit-negative to Kit-positive transition. This shift might serve as a switch that determines whether spermatogonia self-renew or differentiate...
  12. Kuure S, Sainio K, Vuolteenaho R, Ilves M, Wartiovaara K, Immonen T, et al. Crosstalk between Jagged1 and GDNF/Ret/GFRalpha1 signalling regulates ureteric budding and branching. Mech Dev. 2005;122:765-80 pubmed
    ..Thus, the data provide evidence for a novel crosstalk between Notch and Ret/GFRalpha1 signalling during early nephrogenesis. ..
  13. de Graaff E, Srinivas S, Kilkenny C, D AGATI V, Mankoo B, Costantini F, et al. Differential activities of the RET tyrosine kinase receptor isoforms during mammalian embryogenesis. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2433-44 pubmed
    ..Our findings show that RET9 and RET51 have different signaling properties in vivo and define specific temporal and spatial requirements of c-Ret function during renal development and histogenesis of the enteric nervous system. ..
  14. Wallén A A, Castro D, Zetterström R, Karlen M, Olson L, Ericson J, et al. Orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1 is essential for Ret expression in midbrain dopamine neurons and in the brain stem. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2001;18:649-63 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, regulation of Ret by Nurr1 in midbrain DA neurons and in the DMN has implications for both embryonal development and adult physiology in which signaling by neurotrophic factors plays important roles. ..
  15. Park H, Bolton E. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor induces cell proliferation in the mouse urogenital sinus. Mol Endocrinol. 2015;29:289-306 pubmed publisher
  16. Chen Z, Donnelly C, Dominguez B, Harada Y, Lin W, Halim A, et al. p75 Is Required for the Establishment of Postnatal Sensory Neuron Diversity by Potentiating Ret Signaling. Cell Rep. 2017;21:707-720 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that p75 is required for the development of the nonpeptidergic nociceptor lineage by fine-tuning Ret-mediated trophic support. ..
  17. Suzuki H, Dann C, Rajkovic A. Generation of a germ cell-specific mouse transgenic CHERRY reporter, Sohlh1-mCherryFlag. Genesis. 2013;51:50-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The Sohlh1-mCherryFlag transgenic mouse provides a unique model to study early germ cell differentiation, as well as in vivo imaging and purification of differentiating germ cells. ..
  18. Uesaka T, Nagashimada M, Enomoto H. GDNF signaling levels control migration and neuronal differentiation of enteric ganglion precursors. J Neurosci. 2013;33:16372-82 pubmed publisher
  19. Gorokhova S, Gaillard S, Urien L, Malapert P, Legha W, Baronian G, et al. Uncoupling of molecular maturation from peripheral target innervation in nociceptors expressing a chimeric TrkA/TrkC receptor. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004081 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, adult homozygous TrkAC knock-in mice displayed severe deficits in acute and tissue injury-induced pain, representing the first viable adult Trk mouse mutant with a pain phenotype. ..
  20. Brantley M, Jain S, Barr E, Johnson E, Milbrandt J. Neurturin-mediated ret activation is required for retinal function. J Neurosci. 2008;28:4123-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These anatomic abnormalities indicate a possible basis for the abnormal retinal activity in the Ret and NRTN mutant mice. ..
  21. Gianino S, Grider J, Cresswell J, Enomoto H, Heuckeroth R. GDNF availability determines enteric neuron number by controlling precursor proliferation. Development. 2003;130:2187-98 pubmed
    ..Only mild reductions in neuron size and neuronal fiber counts occur in Ret(+/-) and Gfra1(+/-) mice...
  22. Langsdorf A, Radzikinas K, Kroten A, Jain S, Ai X. Neural crest cell origin and signals for intrinsic neurogenesis in the mammalian respiratory tract. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2011;44:293-301 pubmed publisher
  23. Almeida A, Arroz Madeira S, Fonseca Pereira D, Ribeiro H, Lasrado R, Pachnis V, et al. RET/GFR? signals are dispensable for thymic T cell development in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52949 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Ret, Gfra1 and Gfra2 are abundantly expressed by foetal and adult immature DN thymocytes...
  24. Lee C, Tee L, Dusenbery S, Takata T, Golden J, Pierchala B, et al. Neurotrophin and GDNF family ligands promote survival and alter excitotoxic vulnerability of neurons derived from murine embryonic stem cells. Exp Neurol. 2005;191:65-76 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that the response of ES-derived neurons to neurotrophins and GDNF family ligands is largely similar to that of other cultured central neurons. ..
  25. Garcia T, Farmaha J, Kow S, Hofmann M. RBPJ in mouse Sertoli cells is required for proper regulation of the testis stem cell niche. Development. 2014;141:4468-78 pubmed publisher
  26. He S, Chen C, Chernichenko N, He S, Bakst R, Barajas F, et al. GFR?1 released by nerves enhances cancer cell perineural invasion through GDNF-RET signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E2008-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These results advance a mechanistic understanding of PNI and implicate the nerve itself as a key facilitator of this adverse cancer cell behavior. ..
  27. Keefe Davis T, Hoshi M, Jain S. Stage specific requirement of Gfr?1 in the ureteric epithelium during kidney development. Mech Dev. 2013;130:506-18 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings delineate previously unclear biological roles of Gfr?1 in the urinary tract and demonstrate its cell-type and stage-specific requirements in kidney development. ..
  28. Cabrera J, Sanchez Pulido L, Rojas A, Valencia A, Manes S, Naranjo J, et al. Gas1 is related to the glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor family receptors alpha and regulates Ret signaling. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:14330-9 pubmed
    ..Consequently, when Gas1 is induced, Ret-mediated GDNF-dependent survival effects are compromised. ..
  29. Jing S, Yu Y, Fang M, Hu Z, Holst P, Boone T, et al. GFRalpha-2 and GFRalpha-3 are two new receptors for ligands of the GDNF family. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:33111-7 pubmed
    ..Consistent with a role in GDNF function, the GFRalphas and Ret are expressed in many of the same tissues, suggesting that GFRalphas mediate the action of GDNF family ligands in vivo. ..
  30. Wang H, Hughes I, Planer W, Parsadanian A, Grider J, Vohra B, et al. The timing and location of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor expression determine enteric nervous system structure and function. J Neurosci. 2010;30:1523-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, changes in GDNF expression can create a wide variety of alterations in ENS structure and function and may in part contribute to human motility disorders. ..
  31. Baloh R, Tansey M, Golden J, Creedon D, Heuckeroth R, Keck C, et al. TrnR2, a novel receptor that mediates neurturin and GDNF signaling through Ret. Neuron. 1997;18:793-802 pubmed
    ..Comparative analysis of TrnR1, TrnR2, and Ret expression indicates that multiple receptor complexes, capable of mediating GDNF and NTN signaling, exist in vivo. ..
  32. Mikaels A, Livet J, Westphal H, de Lapeyriere O, Ernfors P. A dynamic regulation of GDNF-family receptors correlates with a specific trophic dependency of cranial motor neuron subpopulations during development. Eur J Neurosci. 2000;12:446-56 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that specific GDNF family ligands support selective muscle-motor neuron circuits during development. ..
  33. Uesaka T, Jain S, Yonemura S, Uchiyama Y, Milbrandt J, Enomoto H. Conditional ablation of GFRalpha1 in postmigratory enteric neurons triggers unconventional neuronal death in the colon and causes a Hirschsprung's disease phenotype. Development. 2007;134:2171-81 pubmed
    ..This study reveals an essential role for GFRalpha1 in the survival of enteric neurons and suggests that caspase-independent death can be triggered by abolition of neurotrophic signals. ..
  34. Bye C, Jönsson M, Björklund A, Parish C, Thompson L. Transcriptome analysis reveals transmembrane targets on transplantable midbrain dopamine progenitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E1946-55 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins with high expression in mDA progenitors and describe the utility of four of these targets (Alcam, Chl1, Gfra1, and Igsf8) for isolating mDA progenitors from rat primary ventral mesencephalon through flow cytometry...
  35. Tsui C, Gabreski N, Hein S, Pierchala B. Lipid Rafts Are Physiologic Membrane Microdomains Necessary for the Morphogenic and Developmental Functions of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor In Vivo. J Neurosci. 2015;35:13233-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate, using a knock-in mouse model in which GFRα1 is no longer located in lipid rafts, that the developmental functions of GDNF in the periphery require the translocation of the GDNF receptor complex into lipid rafts. ..
  36. Rakowicz W, Staples C, Milbrandt J, Brunstrom J, Johnson E. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor promotes the survival of early postnatal spinal motor neurons in the lateral and medial motor columns in slice culture. J Neurosci. 2002;22:3953-62 pubmed
    ..Thus, in contrast to all other factors and drugs studied to date, GDNF is likely to be a critical trophic agent for all early postnatal MN populations. ..
  37. Vohra B, Planer W, Armon J, Fu M, Jain S, Heuckeroth R. Reduced endothelin converting enzyme-1 and endothelin-3 mRNA in the developing bowel of male mice may increase expressivity and penetrance of Hirschsprung disease-like distal intestinal aganglionosis. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:106-17 pubmed
    ..5 male RetDN heterozygous mouse gut explants in organ culture significantly increased the rate of ENS precursor migration through the bowel. ..
  38. Krentz A, Murphy M, Zhang T, Sarver A, Jain S, Griswold M, et al. Interaction between DMRT1 function and genetic background modulates signaling and pluripotency to control tumor susceptibility in the fetal germ line. Dev Biol. 2013;377:67-78 pubmed publisher
    ..We used a Nanos3-cre knock-in allele to perform conditional gene targeting, testing the GDNF coreceptors Gfra1 and Ret for effects on teratoma susceptibility...
  39. Ishida H, Saba R, Kokkinopoulos I, Hashimoto M, Yamaguchi O, Nowotschin S, et al. GFRA2 Identifies Cardiac Progenitors and Mediates Cardiomyocyte Differentiation in a RET-Independent Signaling Pathway. Cell Rep. 2016;16:1026-1038 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings establish a platform for investigating the biology of CPs as a foundation for future development of CP transplantation for treating heart failure. ..
  40. Tomac A, Grinberg A, Huang S, Nosrat C, Wang Y, Borlongan C, et al. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor alpha1 availability regulates glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor signaling: evidence from mice carrying one or two mutated alleles. Neuroscience. 2000;95:1011-23 pubmed
    ..Moreover, neuroprotective actions of exogenous glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor also require full GFRalpha1 receptor expression. ..
  41. Evangelisti C, Bianco F, Pradella L, Puliti A, Goldoni A, Sbrana I, et al. Apolipoprotein B is a new target of the GDNF/RET and ET-3/EDNRB signalling pathways. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2012;24:e497-508 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide a conceptual framework to investigate and establish the role of APOB gene in severe gut dysmotility. ..
  42. Agopiantz M, Xandre Rodriguez L, Jin B, Urbistondoy G, Ialy Radio C, Chalbi M, et al. Growth arrest specific 1 (Gas1) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor α1 (Gfrα1), two mouse oocyte glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, are involved in fertilisation. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2017;29:824-837 pubmed publisher
    ..After bibliographic and database searches we selected five GIP-anchored proteins (Cpm, Ephrin-A4, Gas1, Gfra1 and Rgmb) as potential oocyte candidates participating in fertilisation...
  43. Muñoz Bravo J, Hidalgo Figueroa M, Pascual A, Lopez Barneo J, Leal Cerro A, Cano D. GDNF is required for neural colonization of the pancreas. Development. 2013;140:3669-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data further show that exogenous GDNF promotes the proliferation of pancreatic progenitor cells in organ culture. In summary, our results point to GDNF as crucial for the development of the intrinsic innervation of the pancreas. ..
  44. Bondurand N, Southard Smith E. Mouse models of Hirschsprung disease and other developmental disorders of the enteric nervous system: Old and new players. Dev Biol. 2016;417:139-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, because HSCR has become a paradigm for complex oligogenic diseases with non-Mendelian inheritance, the importance of gene interactions, modifier genes, and initial studies on genetic background effects are outlined. ..
  45. Godmann M, May E, Kimmins S. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate stem cell expressed genes Pou5f1 and Gfra1 in a male germ cell line. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12727 pubmed publisher
    ..the chromatin modifying treatment specifically induced the expression of spermatogonia expressed genes Pou5f1 and Gfra1. ChIP-qPCR revealed that induction of gene expression was associated with a gain in gene activating histone H3 ..
  46. Puliti A, Cinti R, Seri M, Ceccherini I, Romeo G. Assignment of mouse Gfra1, the homologue of a new human HSCR candidate gene, to the telomeric region of mouse chromosome 19. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1997;78:291-4 pubmed
    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (Gdnf) and its alpha receptor (Gfra1) interact with the Ret receptor triggering its tyrosine kinase activity...
  47. Sun W, Gould T, Vinsant S, Prevette D, Oppenheim R. Neuromuscular development after the prevention of naturally occurring neuronal death by Bax deletion. J Neurosci. 2003;23:7298-310 pubmed
    ..Although sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia are also rescued from PCD by Bax deletion, their subsequent development is less affected than that of MNs. ..
  48. Boger H, Middaugh L, Zaman V, Hoffer B, Granholm A. Differential effects of the dopamine neurotoxin MPTP in animals with a partial deletion of the GDNF receptor, GFR alpha1, gene. Brain Res. 2008;1241:18-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings point to increased sensitivity of the DAergic system with age and neurotoxic exposure as a result of a genetic reduction of GFR alpha1. ..
  49. Lovasco L, Gustafson E, Seymour K, de Rooij D, Freiman R. TAF4b is required for mouse spermatogonial stem cell development. Stem Cells. 2015;33:1267-76 pubmed publisher
  50. Piscione T, Rosenblum N. The malformed kidney: disruption of glomerular and tubular development. Clin Genet. 1999;56:341-56 pubmed
  51. Lindfors P, Lindahl M, Rossi J, Saarma M, Airaksinen M. Ablation of persephin receptor glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor alpha4 impairs thyroid calcitonin production in young mice. Endocrinology. 2006;147:2237-44 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, this study indicates a novel role for endogenous GFRalpha4 signaling in regulating calcitonin production in thyroid C cells of young mice. ..
  52. Irala D, Bonafina A, Fontanet P, Alsina F, Paratcha G, Ledda F. The GDNF-GFR?1 complex promotes the development of hippocampal dendritic arbors and spines via NCAM. Development. 2016;143:4224-4235 pubmed
    ..Analysis of conditional Gfra1 knockout mice shows a reduction in dendritic length and complexity, as well as a decrease in postsynaptic density ..
  53. Shakya R, Watanabe T, Costantini F. The role of GDNF/Ret signaling in ureteric bud cell fate and branching morphogenesis. Dev Cell. 2005;8:65-74 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, the mutant cells assumed an asymmetric distribution in the UB trunks, suggesting a model of branching in which the epithelium of the tip and the adjacent trunk is remodeled to form new branches. ..
  54. Uchida A, Kishi K, Aiyama Y, Miura K, Takase H, Suzuki H, et al. In vivo dynamics of GFR?1-positive spermatogonia stimulated by GDNF signals using a bead transplantation assay. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;476:546-552 pubmed publisher
  55. Fleming M, Vysochan A, Paixão S, Niu J, Klein R, Savitt J, et al. Cis and trans RET signaling control the survival and central projection growth of rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors. elife. 2015;4:e06828 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that trans and cis RET signaling could function in the same developmental process and that the availability of both forms of activation likely enhances but not diversifies outcomes of RET signaling. ..
  56. Angrist M, Jing S, Bolk S, Bentley K, Nallasamy S, Halushka M, et al. Human GFRA1: cloning, mapping, genomic structure, and evaluation as a candidate gene for Hirschsprung disease susceptibility. Genomics. 1998;48:354-62 pubmed
    ..Recently, GDNF and GFRA1 (GDNF family receptor, also known as GDNFR-alpha), its GPI-linked coreceptor, were demonstrated to be components ..
  57. Enomoto H, Heuckeroth R, Golden J, Johnson E, Milbrandt J. Development of cranial parasympathetic ganglia requires sequential actions of GDNF and neurturin. Development. 2000;127:4877-89 pubmed
  58. Luukko K, Suvanto P, Saarma M, Thesleff I. Expression of GDNF and its receptors in developing tooth is developmentally regulated and suggests multiple roles in innervation and organogenesis. Dev Dyn. 1997;210:463-71 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that GDNF acts as a target-derived neurotrophic factor during tooth innervation. In addition, GDNF and its receptors may have nonneuronal organogenetic functions during tooth morphogenesis. ..
  59. Nishiyama C, Uesaka T, Manabe T, Yonekura Y, Nagasawa T, Newgreen D, et al. Trans-mesenteric neural crest cells are the principal source of the colonic enteric nervous system. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:1211-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The discovery of this trans-mesenteric ENCC population provides a basis for improving our understanding of ENS development and pathogenesis...
  60. Rosenthal A. The GDNF protein family: gene ablation studies reveal what they really do and how. Neuron. 1999;22:201-3 pubmed
  61. Callahan T, Young H, Anderson R, Enomoto H, Anderson C. Development of satellite glia in mouse sympathetic ganglia: GDNF and GFR alpha 1 are not essential. Glia. 2008;56:1428-37 pubmed publisher
    ..In E12.5 and E18.5 mice lacking GFRalpha1 or GDNF, the development of B-FABP immunoreactive satellite cells was normal, and hence neither GDNF or GFRalpha1 are essential for the development of satellite glia in sympathetic ganglia. ..
  62. Srinivas S, Wu Z, Chen C, D AGATI V, Costantini F. Dominant effects of RET receptor misexpression and ligand-independent RET signaling on ureteric bud development. Development. 1999;126:1375-86 pubmed
  63. Marks C, Belluscio L, Ibáñez C. Critical role of GFRα1 in the development and function of the main olfactory system. J Neurosci. 2012;32:17306-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The OE of newborn Gfra1 knock-out mice was thinner and contained fewer OSNs, but more dividing precursors, suggesting deficient ..
  64. Schlesser H, Simon L, Hofmann M, Murphy K, Murphy T, Hess R, et al. Effects of ETV5 (ets variant gene 5) on testis and body growth, time course of spermatogonial stem cell loss, and fertility in mice. Biol Reprod. 2008;78:483-9 pubmed
    ..SSC density (SSCs per mum(2) of seminiferous tubule), estimated using an antibody against GFRA1, was similar in 4d WT and Etv5(-/-) mice...
  65. Hiltunen J, Laurikainen A, Airaksinen M, Saarma M. GDNF family receptors in the embryonic and postnatal rat heart and reduced cholinergic innervation in mice hearts lacking ret or GFRalpha2. Dev Dyn. 2000;219:28-39 pubmed
    ..Here we have studied their possible role in heart development. Gfra1 was expressed in the endocardial cushion mesenchyme at E12 and later, in the developing and mature valves, and in ..
  66. Kim M, Jung J, Choi S, Lee H, Morales L, Koh J, et al. GFRA1 promotes cisplatin-induced chemoresistance in osteosarcoma by inducing autophagy. Autophagy. 2017;13:149-168 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that GFRA1/GFR?1 (GDNF family receptor ? 1), contributes to cisplatin-induced chemoresistance by regulating autophagy in ..
  67. Luukko K, Saarma M, Thesleff I. Neurturin mRNA expression suggests roles in trigeminal innervation of the first branchial arch and in tooth formation. Dev Dyn. 1998;213:207-19 pubmed
    ..In addition, although NTN appears not to be directly involved in the regulation of tooth morphogenesis, it may have non-neuronal, organogenetic functions during tooth formation. ..
  68. Rajan I, Gestblom C, Kapur R. RET(Men2B)-transgene produces sympathoadrenal tumors but does not prevent intestinal aganglionosis in gdnf-/- or gfr alpha-1(-/-) mice. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2001;4:446-53 pubmed
    ..We find that expression of the RET(Men2B) transgene in enteric neural progenitors, after they colonize the gut, does not prevent intestinal aganglionosis associated with gdnf or gfr alpha-1 deficiency. ..
  69. Perälä N, Jakobson M, Ola R, Fazzari P, Penachioni J, Nymark M, et al. Sema4C-Plexin B2 signalling modulates ureteric branching in developing kidney. Differentiation. 2011;81:81-91 pubmed publisher
  70. Nagai R, Shinomura M, Kishi K, Aiyama Y, Harikae K, Sato T, et al. Dynamics of GFR?1-positive spermatogonia at the early stages of colonization in the recipient testes of W/W? male mice. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:1374-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the proliferative patterns and kinetics of donor-derived GFR?1-positive spermatogonia containing potential SSCs were examined during early colonization following spermatogonial transplantation...
  71. Bonanomi D, Chivatakarn O, Bai G, Abdesselem H, Lettieri K, Marquardt T, et al. Ret is a multifunctional coreceptor that integrates diffusible- and contact-axon guidance signals. Cell. 2012;148:568-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies uncover a hierarchical GPI-receptor signaling network that is constructed from combinatorial components and integrated through Ret using ligand coincidence detection. ..
  72. Li L, Wang M, Geng L, Xue Y, Wei X, Jia Y, et al. A long non-coding RNA interacts with Gfra1 and maintains survival of mouse spermatogonial stem cells. Cell Death Dis. 2016;7:e2140 pubmed publisher
    ..LncRNA033862 is an antisense transcript of the GDNF receptor alpha1 (Gfra1) that lacks protein coding potential and regulates Gfra1 expression levels by interacting with Gfra1 chromatin...
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    ..neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a neuronal survival factor, binds its co-receptor GDNF family receptor alpha1 (GFR alpha 1) in a 2:2 ratio and signals through the receptor tyrosine kinase RET. We have solved the GDNF(2)...
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    ..Comparison of the expression patterns of GFRalpha-3 and Ret suggests that these molecules could form a receptor pair and interact with GDNF family members to play unique roles in development. ..
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    ..These observations are consistent with the emerging view that the combinatorial interactions of the spliced isoforms of GFRalpha, RET and NCAM may contribute to the pleiotropic biological responses. ..
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    ..Although NTN and GDNFR-beta expression patterns are sometimes complementary, this is not always the case, suggesting multiple modi operandi of GDNF and NTN in relation to RET and the two binding proteins, GDNFR-alpha and GDNFR-beta. ..
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    ..These results identify an endogenous survival mechanism for MLIs and reveal the unexpected vulnerability and selective requirement of MLIs in the control of cerebellar-dependent motor learning. ..
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