Gene Symbol: Gdnf
Description: glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor
Alias: AI385739, ATF, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, astrocyte-derived trophic factor, neurotrophic factor
Species: mouse
Products:     Gdnf

Top Publications

  1. Kotzbauer P, Lampe P, Heuckeroth R, Golden J, Creedon D, Johnson E, et al. Neurturin, a relative of glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor. Nature. 1996;384:467-70 pubmed
    ..Here we describe the purification and cloning of a new neurotrophic factor, identified on the basis of its ability to support the survival of sympathetic neurons in culture...
  2. Baloh R, Enomoto H, Johnson E, Milbrandt J. The GDNF family ligands and receptors - implications for neural development. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2000;10:103-10 pubmed
    The glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family has recently been expanded to include four members, and the interactions between these neurotrophic factors and their unique receptor system is now beginning to be understood...
  3. Young H, Hearn C, Farlie P, Canty A, Thomas P, Newgreen D. GDNF is a chemoattractant for enteric neural cells. Dev Biol. 2001;229:503-16 pubmed
    In situ hybridization revealed that GDNF mRNA in the mid- and hindgut mesenchyme of embryonic mice was minimal at E10.5 but was rapidly elevated at all gut regions after E11, but with a slight delay (0.5 days) in the hindgut...
  4. Airaksinen M, Saarma M. The GDNF family: signalling, biological functions and therapeutic value. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2002;3:383-94 pubmed
    Members of the nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) families comprising neurotrophins and GDNF-family ligands (GFLs), respectively are crucial for the development and maintenance of ..
  5. Gianino S, Grider J, Cresswell J, Enomoto H, Heuckeroth R. GDNF availability determines enteric neuron number by controlling precursor proliferation. Development. 2003;130:2187-98 pubmed
    ..These analyses demonstrate that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurturin are important for different aspects of ENS development...
  6. Bespalov M, Sidorova Y, Tumova S, Ahonen Bishopp A, Magalhães A, Kulesskiy E, et al. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-3 is a novel receptor for GDNF, neurturin, and artemin. J Cell Biol. 2011;192:153-69 pubmed publisher
    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family ligands (GFLs) are potent survival factors for dopaminergic neurons and motoneurons with therapeutic potential for Parkinson's disease...
  7. Michael L, Sweeney D, Davies J. The lectin Dolichos biflorus agglutinin is a sensitive indicator of branching morphogenetic activity in the developing mouse metanephric collecting duct system. J Anat. 2007;210:89-97 pubmed
    ..kidneys is inhibited in organ culture, by blocking the kidney's endogenous glial cell-derived neurothrophic factor (GDNF)-based branch-promoting signals, the DBA-binding zone extends to the very end of the tip but is lost from there ..
  8. Lin L, Doherty D, Lile J, Bektesh S, Collins F. GDNF: a glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor for midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Science. 1993;260:1130-2 pubmed
    A potent neurotrophic factor that enhances survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons was purified and cloned...
  9. Haase G, Dessaud E, Garces A, de Bovis B, Birling M, Filippi P, et al. GDNF acts through PEA3 to regulate cell body positioning and muscle innervation of specific motor neuron pools. Neuron. 2002;35:893-905 pubmed
    ..We show that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), initially characterized for its role as a survival factor, is present early in the plexus of the ..

More Information


  1. Enomoto H, Heuckeroth R, Golden J, Johnson E, Milbrandt J. Development of cranial parasympathetic ganglia requires sequential actions of GDNF and neurturin. Development. 2000;127:4877-89 pubmed
    ..Here we show that GDNF signaling via the RET/GFR(alpha)1 complex is crucial for the development of cranial parasympathetic ganglia ..
  2. Gonzalez Reyes L, Verbitsky M, Blesa J, Jackson Lewis V, Paredes D, Tillack K, et al. Sonic hedgehog maintains cellular and neurochemical homeostasis in the adult nigrostriatal circuit. Neuron. 2012;75:306-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Variable Shh signaling results in graded inhibition of muscarinic autoreceptor- and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-expression in the striatum...
  3. Xu P, Zheng W, Huang L, Maire P, Laclef C, Silvius D. Six1 is required for the early organogenesis of mammalian kidney. Development. 2003;130:3085-94 pubmed
    ..These analyses establish a role for Six1 in the initial inductive step for metanephric development. ..
  4. Natarajan D, Marcos Gutierrez C, Pachnis V, de Graaff E. Requirement of signalling by receptor tyrosine kinase RET for the directed migration of enteric nervous system progenitor cells during mammalian embryogenesis. Development. 2002;129:5151-60 pubmed
    ..We provide evidence that activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase RET by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is required for the directional migration of ENS progenitors towards and within the gut wall...
  5. Miyazaki Y, Oshima K, Fogo A, Hogan B, Ichikawa I. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 regulates the budding site and elongation of the mouse ureter. J Clin Invest. 2000;105:863-73 pubmed
    ..not inhibited, BMP4 beads inhibit ureter branching and expression of Wnt 11, a target of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor signaling. Thus, Bmp4 has 2 functions in the early morphogenesis of the kidney and urinary tract...
  6. Hidalgo Figueroa M, Bonilla S, Gutierrez F, Pascual A, Lopez Barneo J. GDNF is predominantly expressed in the PV+ neostriatal interneuronal ensemble in normal mouse and after injury of the nigrostriatal pathway. J Neurosci. 2012;32:864-72 pubmed publisher
    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is absolutely required for survival of dopaminergic (DA) nigrostriatal neurons and protect them from toxic insults...
  7. Carroll T, Park J, Hayashi S, Majumdar A, McMahon A. Wnt9b plays a central role in the regulation of mesenchymal to epithelial transitions underlying organogenesis of the mammalian urogenital system. Dev Cell. 2005;9:283-92 pubmed
    ..Together these findings suggest that Wnt9b is a common organizing signal regulating diverse components of the mammalian urogenital system...
  8. de Graaff E, Srinivas S, Kilkenny C, D AGATI V, Mankoo B, Costantini F, et al. Differential activities of the RET tyrosine kinase receptor isoforms during mammalian embryogenesis. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2433-44 pubmed
    ..Our findings show that RET9 and RET51 have different signaling properties in vivo and define specific temporal and spatial requirements of c-Ret function during renal development and histogenesis of the enteric nervous system. ..
  9. Hoshi M, Batourina E, Mendelsohn C, Jain S. Novel mechanisms of early upper and lower urinary tract patterning regulated by RetY1015 docking tyrosine in mice. Development. 2012;139:2405-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the mechanism of de novo ectopic budding is via increased ERK activity due to abnormal mesenchymal GDNF expression. Although reduction in GDNF dosage improved CAKUT it did not affect delayed mesenchyme regression...
  10. Murashima A, Akita H, Okazawa M, Kishigami S, Nakagata N, Nishinakamura R, et al. Midline-derived Shh regulates mesonephric tubule formation through the paraxial mesoderm. Dev Biol. 2014;386:216-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate the essential role of midline-derived Shh in local tissue morphogenesis and differentiation. ..
  11. Brophy P, Ostrom L, Lang K, Dressler G. Regulation of ureteric bud outgrowth by Pax2-dependent activation of the glial derived neurotrophic factor gene. Development. 2001;128:4747-56 pubmed
    ..The receptor tyrosine kinase RET and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) form a signaling complex that is essential for ureteric bud growth and branching morphogenesis of ..
  12. Arce V, Pollock R, Philippe J, Pennica D, Henderson C, Delapeyriere O. Synergistic effects of schwann- and muscle-derived factors on motoneuron survival involve GDNF and cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1). J Neurosci. 1998;18:1440-8 pubmed
    ..5 rat motoneurons in culture. Different lines of evidence implicate glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) in this synergy...
  13. Pepicelli C, Kispert A, Rowitch D, McMahon A. GDNF induces branching and increased cell proliferation in the ureter of the mouse. Dev Biol. 1997;192:193-8 pubmed
    The secreted signaling molecule GDNF is expressed in the metanephric mesenchyme and has recently been implicated as a factor necessary for development of the metanephric kidney...
  14. Gould T, Yonemura S, Oppenheim R, Ohmori S, Enomoto H. The neurotrophic effects of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor on spinal motoneurons are restricted to fusimotor subtypes. J Neurosci. 2008;28:2131-46 pubmed publisher
    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) regulates multiple aspects of spinal motoneuron (MN) development, including gene expression, target selection, survival, and synapse elimination, and mice lacking either GDNF or its ..
  15. Naughton C, Jain S, Strickland A, Gupta A, Milbrandt J. Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor-mediated RET signaling regulates spermatogonial stem cell fate. Biol Reprod. 2006;74:314-21 pubmed
    ..We report that glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) signaling through the RET tyrosine kinase/GFRA1 receptor complex is required for spermatogonial self-..
  16. Simon L, Ekman G, Tyagi G, Hess R, Murphy K, Cooke P. Common and distinct factors regulate expression of mRNA for ETV5 and GDNF, Sertoli cell proteins essential for spermatogonial stem cell maintenance. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:3090-9 pubmed
    Ets variant gene 5 (ETV5) and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) are produced in Sertoli cells and required for maintenance and self-renewal of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in mice...
  17. Grieshammer U, Le Ma -, Plump A, Wang F, Tessier Lavigne M, Martin G. SLIT2-mediated ROBO2 signaling restricts kidney induction to a single site. Dev Cell. 2004;6:709-17 pubmed
    ..It begins when a single ureteric bud emerges from the nephric duct in response to GDNF secreted by the adjacent nephrogenic mesenchyme...
  18. Michos O, Cebrian C, Hyink D, Grieshammer U, Williams L, D AGATI V, et al. Kidney development in the absence of Gdnf and Spry1 requires Fgf10. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000809 pubmed publisher
    b>GDNF signaling through the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) is required for ureteric bud (UB) branching morphogenesis during kidney development in mice and humans...
  19. Nagalakshmi V, Ren Q, Pugh M, Valerius M, McMahon A, Yu J. Dicer regulates the development of nephrogenic and ureteric compartments in the mammalian kidney. Kidney Int. 2011;79:317-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, an understanding of miRNA action may provide new insights into the etiology and pathogenesis of renal cyst-based kidney disease. ..
  20. Miyamoto N, Yoshida M, Kuratani S, Matsuo I, Aizawa S. Defects of urogenital development in mice lacking Emx2. Development. 1997;124:1653-64 pubmed
    ..Pax-2 and c-ret expressions in the Wolffian duct and WT-1 and GDNF expressions in the metanephric blastema were initially normal in the mutant...
  21. Wellik D, Hawkes P, Capecchi M. Hox11 paralogous genes are essential for metanephric kidney induction. Genes Dev. 2002;16:1423-32 pubmed
    ..Six2 expression, however, is absent, as is expression of the inducing growth factor, Gdnf. In the absence of Gdnf, ureteric bud formation is not initiated...
  22. Michos O, Gonçalves A, Lopez Rios J, Tiecke E, Naillat F, Beier K, et al. Reduction of BMP4 activity by gremlin 1 enables ureteric bud outgrowth and GDNF/WNT11 feedback signalling during kidney branching morphogenesis. Development. 2007;134:2397-405 pubmed
    ..All epithelial buds express Wnt11, and Gdnf is significantly upregulated in the surrounding mesenchyme, indicating that epithelial-mesenchymal (e-m) feedback ..
  23. Basson M, Watson Johnson J, Shakya R, Akbulut S, Hyink D, Costantini F, et al. Branching morphogenesis of the ureteric epithelium during kidney development is coordinated by the opposing functions of GDNF and Sprouty1. Dev Biol. 2006;299:466-77 pubmed
    ..Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) initiates ureteric bud formation and promotes subsequent branching morphogenesis...
  24. Self M, Lagutin O, Bowling B, Hendrix J, Cai Y, Dressler G, et al. Six2 is required for suppression of nephrogenesis and progenitor renewal in the developing kidney. EMBO J. 2006;25:5214-28 pubmed
    ..We propose that in the developing kidney, Six2 activity is required for maintaining the mesenchymal progenitor population in an undifferentiated state by opposing the inductive signals emanating from the ureteric bud...
  25. Batourina E, Choi C, Paragas N, Bello N, Hensle T, Costantini F, et al. Distal ureter morphogenesis depends on epithelial cell remodeling mediated by vitamin A and Ret. Nat Genet. 2002;32:109-15 pubmed
    ..Our studies indicate that formation of the trigonal wedge may be essential for correct insertion of the distal ureters into the bladder, and that these events are mediated by the vitamin A and Ret signaling pathways. ..
  26. Bullock S, Fletcher J, Beddington R, Wilson V. Renal agenesis in mice homozygous for a gene trap mutation in the gene encoding heparan sulfate 2-sulfotransferase. Genes Dev. 1998;12:1894-906 pubmed
    ..These data provide the first genetic evidence that the regulated synthesis of differentially glycosylated proteoglycans can affect morphogenesis during vertebrate development. ..
  27. Whitehead J, Keller Peck C, Kucera J, Tourtellotte W. Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor-dependent fusimotor neuron survival during development. Mech Dev. 2005;122:27-41 pubmed
    Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent survival factor for motor neurons...
  28. Poladia D, Kish K, Kutay B, Hains D, Kegg H, Zhao H, et al. Role of fibroblast growth factor receptors 1 and 2 in the metanephric mesenchyme. Dev Biol. 2006;291:325-39 pubmed
    ..In metanephric mesenchymal rudiments, fgfr1 and fgfr2 appear to function downstream of Eya1 and Six1, but upstream of Six2, Sall1, and Pax2. Finally, this is the first example of renal aplasia in a conditional knockout model. ..
  29. Callahan T, Young H, Anderson R, Enomoto H, Anderson C. Development of satellite glia in mouse sympathetic ganglia: GDNF and GFR alpha 1 are not essential. Glia. 2008;56:1428-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Satellite glial precursors in E11.5-E15.5 mice also expressed the GDNF-binding molecule, GFRalpha1...
  30. Oatley J, Avarbock M, Brinster R. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor regulation of genes essential for self-renewal of mouse spermatogonial stem cells is dependent on Src family kinase signaling. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:25842-51 pubmed
    ..SSC self-renewal is dependent on glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF); however, intracellular mechanisms stimulated by GDNF in SSCs are unknown...
  31. Maeshima A, Sakurai H, Choi Y, Kitamura S, Vaughn D, Tee J, et al. Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor independent ureteric bud outgrowth from the Wolffian duct. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;18:3147-55 pubmed
  32. Milbrandt J, de Sauvage F, Fahrner T, Baloh R, Leitner M, Tansey M, et al. Persephin, a novel neurotrophic factor related to GDNF and neurturin. Neuron. 1998;20:245-53 pubmed
    A novel neurotrophic factor named Persephin that is approximately 40% identical to glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurturin (NTN) has been identified using degenerate PCR...
  33. Perälä N, Jakobson M, Ola R, Fazzari P, Penachioni J, Nymark M, et al. Sema4C-Plexin B2 signalling modulates ureteric branching in developing kidney. Differentiation. 2011;81:81-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Plexin B2 interacts with the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase, the receptor of Glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (Gdnf), in embryonic kidneys...
  34. Basson M, Akbulut S, Watson Johnson J, Simon R, Carroll T, Shakya R, et al. Sprouty1 is a critical regulator of GDNF/RET-mediated kidney induction. Dev Cell. 2005;8:229-39 pubmed
    ..These defects are due to increased sensitivity of the Wolffian duct to GDNF/RET signaling, and reducing Gdnf gene dosage correspondingly rescues the Spry1 null phenotype...
  35. Michos O, Panman L, Vintersten K, Beier K, Zeller R, Zuniga A. Gremlin-mediated BMP antagonism induces the epithelial-mesenchymal feedback signaling controlling metanephric kidney and limb organogenesis. Development. 2004;131:3401-10 pubmed induce metanephric kidney development as initiation of ureter growth, branching and establishment of RET/GDNF feedback signaling are disrupted in Grem1-deficient embryos...
  36. Esquela A, Lee S. Regulation of metanephric kidney development by growth/differentiation factor 11. Dev Biol. 2003;257:356-70 pubmed
    ..embryos lacking a ureteric bud was found to be defective in the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (Gdnf), a gene known to direct ureteric bud outgrowth...
  37. Nishinakamura R, Matsumoto Y, Nakao K, Nakamura K, Sato A, Copeland N, et al. Murine homolog of SALL1 is essential for ureteric bud invasion in kidney development. Development. 2001;128:3105-15 pubmed
    ..Sall1 is therefore essential for ureteric bud invasion, the initial key step for metanephros development. ..
  38. Parkash V, Leppänen V, Virtanen H, Jurvansuu J, Bespalov M, Sidorova Y, et al. The structure of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-coreceptor complex: insights into RET signaling and heparin binding. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:35164-72 pubmed publisher
    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a neuronal survival factor, binds its co-receptor GDNF family receptor alpha1 (GFR alpha 1) in a 2:2 ratio and signals through the receptor tyrosine kinase RET...
  39. Caruana G, Cullen McEwen L, Nelson A, Kostoulias X, Woods K, Gardiner B, et al. Spatial gene expression in the T-stage mouse metanephros. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006;6:807-25 pubmed
    ..This study has identified genes spatially expressed in regions of the developing kidney involved in branching morphogenesis, nephrogenesis and the development of the collecting duct system, calyces, renal pelvis and ureter. ..
  40. Donovan M, Natoli T, Sainio K, Amstutz A, Jaenisch R, Sariola H, et al. Initial differentiation of the metanephric mesenchyme is independent of WT1 and the ureteric bud. Dev Genet. 1999;24:252-62 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that several markers, including Pax-2, Six-2, and GDNF, were present as RNAs in the metanephric mesenchyme of Wt1 -/- embryos...
  41. Braydich Stolle L, Kostereva N, Dym M, Hofmann M. Role of Src family kinases and N-Myc in spermatogonial stem cell proliferation. Dev Biol. 2007;304:34-45 pubmed
    ..In this report, we studied some of the signaling pathways triggered by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a component of the spermatogonial stem cell niche produced by the somatic Sertoli cells...
  42. Mugford J, Sipila P, Kobayashi A, Behringer R, McMahon A. Hoxd11 specifies a program of metanephric kidney development within the intermediate mesoderm of the mouse embryo. Dev Biol. 2008;319:396-405 pubmed publisher
    ..This program maintains tubule forming progenitors and instructs a metanephric specific pattern of nephron differentiation. ..
  43. Narlis M, Grote D, Gaitan Y, Boualia S, Bouchard M. Pax2 and pax8 regulate branching morphogenesis and nephron differentiation in the developing kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;18:1121-9 pubmed
    ..At the ureter tips, the expression of Wnt11, a target of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor-Ret signaling, is significantly reduced, whereas the expression levels of Ret and GDNF remain normal...
  44. Bridgewater D, Cox B, Cain J, Lau A, Athaide V, Gill P, et al. Canonical WNT/beta-catenin signaling is required for ureteric branching. Dev Biol. 2008;317:83-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that beta-catenin performs essential functions during renal branching morphogenesis via control of a hierarchy of genes that control ureteric branching. ..
  45. Nishita M, Qiao S, Miyamoto M, Okinaka Y, Yamada M, Hashimoto R, et al. Role of Wnt5a-Ror2 signaling in morphogenesis of the metanephric mesenchyme during ureteric budding. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:3096-105 pubmed publisher
    ..of a single ureteric bud (UB) on the caudal Wolffian duct (WD) in response to GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor) produced by the adjacent metanephric mesenchyme (MM)...
  46. Kramer E, Knott L, Su F, Dessaud E, Krull C, Helmbacher F, et al. Cooperation between GDNF/Ret and ephrinA/EphA4 signals for motor-axon pathway selection in the limb. Neuron. 2006;50:35-47 pubmed
    ..Here, we implicate glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its receptor, Ret, in the same guidance decision...
  47. Oh hashi K, Ito M, Tanaka T, Hirata Y, Kiuchi K. Biosynthesis, processing, and secretion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in astroglial cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 2009;323:1-7 pubmed publisher
    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is synthesized as a precursor, proGDNF...
  48. Karner C, Dietrich M, Johnson E, Kappesser N, Tennert C, Percin F, et al. Lrp4 regulates initiation of ureteric budding and is crucial for kidney formation--a mouse model for Cenani-Lenz syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10418 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that Lrp4 is a critical regulator of UB branching and lack of Lrp4 results in congenital kidney malformations in humans and mice. ..
  49. Cullen McEwen L, Drago J, Bertram J. Nephron endowment in glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) heterozygous mice. Kidney Int. 2001;60:31-6 pubmed
    ..However, in vivo and in vitro evidence indicates that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a key regulator of the initiation of ureteric branching...
  50. Gonçalves A, Zeller R. Genetic analysis reveals an unexpected role of BMP7 in initiation of ureteric bud outgrowth in mouse embryos. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19370 pubmed publisher
    ..In mouse embryos lacking both Grem1 and Bmp7, GDNF/WNT11 feedback signaling and the expression of the Etv4 target gene, which regulates formation of the invading ..
  51. Srinivas S, Wu Z, Chen C, D AGATI V, Costantini F. Dominant effects of RET receptor misexpression and ligand-independent RET signaling on ureteric bud development. Development. 1999;126:1375-86 pubmed
    ..kinase RET and co-receptor GFR(&agr;)-1, which are expressed in the ureteric bud, and the secreted ligand GDNF produced in the mesenchyme...
  52. Karner C, Das A, Ma Z, Self M, Chen C, Lum L, et al. Canonical Wnt9b signaling balances progenitor cell expansion and differentiation during kidney development. Development. 2011;138:1247-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms that regulate progenitor cell differentiation during normal and pathological conditions. ..
  53. Sanchez M, Silos Santiago I, Frisen J, He B, Lira S, Barbacid M. Renal agenesis and the absence of enteric neurons in mice lacking GDNF. Nature. 1996;382:70-3 pubmed
    Glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent survival factor for dopaminergic neurons and motor neurons in culture...
  54. Vrieseling E, Arber S. Target-induced transcriptional control of dendritic patterning and connectivity in motor neurons by the ETS gene Pea3. Cell. 2006;127:1439-52 pubmed
    ..We provide genetic evidence that the induction of the ETS transcription factor Pea3 by GDNF is essential in two cervical MN pools to control dendrite patterning and selectivity of IaPA connectivity...
  55. Grote D, Souabni A, Busslinger M, Bouchard M. Pax 2/8-regulated Gata 3 expression is necessary for morphogenesis and guidance of the nephric duct in the developing kidney. Development. 2006;133:53-61 pubmed
    ..Together, these results define Gata3 as a key regulator of nephric duct morphogenesis and guidance in the pro/mesonephric kidney. ..
  56. Kume T, Deng K, Hogan B. Murine forkhead/winged helix genes Foxc1 (Mf1) and Foxc2 (Mfh1) are required for the early organogenesis of the kidney and urinary tract. Development. 2000;127:1387-95 pubmed
    ..Moreover, expression in the intermediate mesoderm of Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (Gdnf), a primary inducer of the ureteric bud, is expanded more anteriorly in Foxc1 homozygous mutants ..
  57. Pozas E, Ibanez C. GDNF and GFRalpha1 promote differentiation and tangential migration of cortical GABAergic neurons. Neuron. 2005;45:701-13 pubmed
    ..b>GDNF signaling via GFRalpha1 was found to promote the differentiation of ventral precursors into GABAergic cells, ..
  58. Enomoto H, Hughes I, Golden J, Baloh R, Yonemura S, Heuckeroth R, et al. GFRalpha1 expression in cells lacking RET is dispensable for organogenesis and nerve regeneration. Neuron. 2004;44:623-36 pubmed
    The GDNF family ligands signal through a receptor complex composed of a ligand binding subunit, GFRalpha, and a signaling subunit, the RET tyrosine kinase...
  59. Fu M, Lui V, Sham M, Pachnis V, Tam P. Sonic hedgehog regulates the proliferation, differentiation, and migration of enteric neural crest cells in gut. J Cell Biol. 2004;166:673-84 pubmed
    ..The pro-neurogenic effect of glial cell line--derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on NCCs was abolished by Shh...
  60. Moore M, Klein R, Farinas I, Sauer H, Armanini M, Phillips H, et al. Renal and neuronal abnormalities in mice lacking GDNF. Nature. 1996;382:76-9 pubmed
    Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent survival factor for embryonic midbrain dopaminergic, spinal motor, cranial sensory, sympathetic, and hindbrain noradrenergic neurons, and is available to these cells in vivo...
  61. Xu P, Adams J, Peters H, Brown M, Heaney S, Maas R. Eya1-deficient mice lack ears and kidneys and show abnormal apoptosis of organ primordia. Nat Genet. 1999;23:113-7 pubmed
    ..b>Gdnf expression, which is required to direct ureteric bud outgrowth via activation of the c-ret Rtk (refs 5, 6, 7, 8), ..
  62. Tanaka M, Ito S, Matsushita N, Mori N, Kiuchi K. Promoter analysis and characteristics of the 5'-untranslated region of the mouse glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2000;85:91-102 pubmed
    We have cloned the mouse GDNF cDNA and genomic DNA to study the molecular mechanism of gene expression...
  63. Uchida S, Hara K, Kobayashi A, Otsuki K, Yamagata H, Hobara T, et al. Epigenetic status of Gdnf in the ventral striatum determines susceptibility and adaptation to daily stressful events. Neuron. 2011;69:359-72 pubmed publisher chronic stress were used to demonstrate how the differential epigenetic status of the glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (Gdnf) gene in the ventral striatum modulates susceptibility and adaptation to chronic stress...
  64. Linton J, Martin G, Reichardt L. The ECM protein nephronectin promotes kidney development via integrin alpha8beta1-mediated stimulation of Gdnf expression. Development. 2007;134:2501-9 pubmed
    ..Instead, we found that Gdnf expression was dramatically reduced in both nephronectin- and alpha8 integrin-null mutants specifically in the ..
  65. Shakya R, Jho E, Kotka P, Wu Z, Kholodilov N, Burke R, et al. The role of GDNF in patterning the excretory system. Dev Biol. 2005;283:70-84 pubmed
    ..factors thought to play a critical role in patterning the growth and branching of the epithelial ureteric bud is GDNF. We have tested the requirement for GDNF as a paracrine chemoattractive factor by altering its site of expression ..
  66. Grieshammer U, Cebrian C, Ilagan R, Meyers E, Herzlinger D, Martin G. FGF8 is required for cell survival at distinct stages of nephrogenesis and for regulation of gene expression in nascent nephrons. Development. 2005;132:3847-57 pubmed
    ..Thus, unlike other FGF family members, which regulate growth and branching morphogenesis of the collecting duct system, Fgf8 encodes a factor essential for gene regulation and cell survival at distinct steps in nephrogenesis. ..
  67. Pedersen A, Skjong C, Shawlot W. Lim 1 is required for nephric duct extension and ureteric bud morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2005;288:571-81 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Lim 1 influences nephric duct extension and ureteric bud outgrowth by regulating and or maintaining the differentiation of the nephric epithelium. ..
  68. Hains D, Sims Lucas S, Kish K, Saha M, McHugh K, Bates C. Role of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 in kidney mesenchyme. Pediatr Res. 2008;64:592-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of Fgfr2 did not change expression domains of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), Robo2, bone morphogenetic protein 4, or Sprouty1, all of which regulate ureteric bud induction...
  69. Majumdar A, Vainio S, Kispert A, McMahon J, McMahon A. Wnt11 and Ret/Gdnf pathways cooperate in regulating ureteric branching during metanephric kidney development. Development. 2003;130:3175-85 pubmed
    ..Wnt11 functions, in part, by maintaining normal expression levels of the gene encoding glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (Gdnf)...
  70. Pichel J, Shen L, Sheng H, Granholm A, Drago J, Grinberg A, et al. Defects in enteric innervation and kidney development in mice lacking GDNF. Nature. 1996;382:73-6 pubmed
    Glial-lial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been isolated as neurotrophic factor for midbrain dopaminergic neurons...