Gene Symbol: Gdf11
Description: growth differentiation factor 11
Alias: BMP-11, Bmp11, growth/differentiation factor 11, GDF-11, bone morphogenetic protein 11
Species: mouse
Products:     Gdf11

Top Publications

  1. Nakashima M, Toyono T, Akamine A, Joyner A. Expression of growth/differentiation factor 11, a new member of the BMP/TGFbeta superfamily during mouse embryogenesis. Mech Dev. 1999;80:185-9 pubmed
    ..member of the bone morphogenetic protein/transforming growth factor beta (BMP/TGFbeta) superfamily, growth differentiation factor 11 (Gdf11), from rat incisor pulp RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using ..
  2. McPherron A, Lawler A, Lee S. Regulation of anterior/posterior patterning of the axial skeleton by growth/differentiation factor 11. Nat Genet. 1999;22:260-4 pubmed
    ..While the work described here was being completed, the cloning of this gene, designated Gdf11 (also called Bmp11), was also reported by other groups...
  3. Dichmann D, Yassin H, Serup P. Analysis of pancreatic endocrine development in GDF11-deficient mice. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:3016-25 pubmed
    Here, we examine the role of GDF11 in pancreatic development...
  4. Gamer L, Wolfman N, Celeste A, Hattersley G, Hewick R, Rosen V. A novel BMP expressed in developing mouse limb, spinal cord, and tail bud is a potent mesoderm inducer in Xenopus embryos. Dev Biol. 1999;208:222-32 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that during vertebrate embryogenesis, BMP-11 plays a unique role in patterning both mesodermal and neural tissues. ..
  5. Souza T, Chen X, Guo Y, Sava P, Zhang J, Hill J, et al. Proteomic identification and functional validation of activins and bone morphogenetic protein 11 as candidate novel muscle mass regulators. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:2689-702 pubmed publisher
  6. Linton J, Martin G, Reichardt L. The ECM protein nephronectin promotes kidney development via integrin alpha8beta1-mediated stimulation of Gdnf expression. Development. 2007;134:2501-9 pubmed
    ..Our results thus place nephronectin and alpha8beta1 integrin in a pathway that regulates Gdnf expression and is essential for kidney development. ..
  7. Harmon E, Apelqvist A, Smart N, Gu X, Osborne D, Kim S. GDF11 modulates NGN3+ islet progenitor cell number and promotes beta-cell differentiation in pancreas development. Development. 2004;131:6163-74 pubmed
    ..Here we provide evidence that growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), a member of the TGF-beta ligand family, governs the number and maturation of islet ..
  8. Esquela A, Lee S. Regulation of metanephric kidney development by growth/differentiation factor 11. Dev Biol. 2003;257:356-70 pubmed
    Growth/differentiation factor 11 (Gdf11) is a transforming growth factor beta family member previously shown to control anterior/posterior patterning of the axial skeleton. We now report that Gdf11 also regulates kidney organogenesis...
  9. Wu H, Ivkovic S, Murray R, Jaramillo S, Lyons K, Johnson J, et al. Autoregulation of neurogenesis by GDF11. Neuron. 2003;37:197-207 pubmed
    ..Here we provide evidence that this feedback inhibitory signal is growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11)...

More Information


  1. Oh S, Yeo C, Lee Y, Schrewe H, Whitman M, Li E. Activin type IIA and IIB receptors mediate Gdf11 signaling in axial vertebral patterning. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2749-54 pubmed
    ..Recent studies have demonstrated that a transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family protein, Gdf11 (growth and differentiation factor 11), and the activin type II receptor, ActRIIB, are involved in controlling the ..
  2. Ge G, Hopkins D, Ho W, Greenspan D. GDF11 forms a bone morphogenetic protein 1-activated latent complex that can modulate nerve growth factor-induced differentiation of PC12 cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:5846-58 pubmed
    ..Sequence similarities between TGF-betas 1 to 3, myostatin, and superfamily member GDF11, also known as bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP11), prompted us to examine whether GDF11 might be capable of forming a latent complex with its ..
  3. Dudas M, Kim J, Li W, Nagy A, Larsson J, Karlsson S, et al. Epithelial and ectomesenchymal role of the type I TGF-beta receptor ALK5 during facial morphogenesis and palatal fusion. Dev Biol. 2006;296:298-314 pubmed
  4. Li Z, Zeng F, Mitchell A, Kim Y, Wu Z, Yang J. Transgenic overexpression of bone morphogenetic protein 11 propeptide in skeleton enhances bone formation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;416:289-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP11) is a key regulatory protein in skeletal development. BMP11 propeptide has been shown to antagonize GDF11 activity in vitro...
  5. Sammeta N, Hardin D, McClintock T. Uncx regulates proliferation of neural progenitor cells and neuronal survival in the olfactory epithelium. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;45:398-407 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that UNCX acts downstream of neural determination factors to broadly control transcriptional mechanisms used by neural progenitor cells to specify neural phenotypes...
  6. Andersen R, Lim D. An ingredient for the elixir of youth. Cell Res. 2014;24:1381-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Growth/differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is the first of such factors to be identified, and two new studies demonstrate that this "factor of youth" ..
  7. Jeanplong F, Falconer S, Oldham J, Maqbool N, Thomas M, Hennebry A, et al. Identification and expression of a novel transcript of the growth and differentiation factor-11 gene. Mol Cell Biochem. 2014;390:9-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we postulate that GDF-11?Ex1 may act as a long non-coding RNA to regulate the transcription of canonical GDF-11 and/or other genes in skeletal muscle and other tissues. ..
  8. Gaunt S, GEORGE M, Paul Y. Direct activation of a mouse Hoxd11 axial expression enhancer by Gdf11/Smad signalling. Dev Biol. 2013;383:52-60 pubmed publisher
    ..expression pattern in transgenic mouse embryos, is stimulated in tailbud fragments when cultured in presence of Gdf11, a TGF-? growth/differentiation factor...
  9. Santos R, Wu J, Hamilton J, Pinter R, Hindges R, Calof A. Restoration of retinal development in Vsx2 deficient mice by reduction of Gdf11 levels. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012;723:671-7 pubmed publisher
  10. Tsuda T, Iwai N, Deguchi E, Kimura O, Ono S, Furukawa T, et al. PCSK5 and GDF11 expression in the hindgut region of mouse embryos with anorectal malformations. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2011;21:238-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that retinoic acid induced anorectal malformations (ARM) in mice. GDF11 is a TGF? superfamily molecule and is cleaved and activated by proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 5 (PCSK5)...
  11. Li Z, Kawasumi M, Zhao B, Moisyadi S, Yang J. Transgenic over-expression of growth differentiation factor 11 propeptide in skeleton results in transformation of the seventh cervical vertebra into a thoracic vertebra. Mol Reprod Dev. 2010;77:990-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is one of the significant genes that control skeletal formation. Knockout of GDF11 function causes abnormal patterning of the anterior/posterior axial skeleton...
  12. Du G, Shao Z, Wu J, Yin W, Li S, Wu J, et al. Targeted myocardial delivery of GDF11 gene rejuvenates the aged mouse heart and enhances myocardial regeneration after ischemia-reperfusion injury. Basic Res Cardiol. 2017;112:7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), from the activin-transforming growth factor β superfamily, has been shown to promote stem ..
  13. Pitera J, Scambler P, Woolf A. Fras1, a basement membrane-associated protein mutated in Fraser syndrome, mediates both the initiation of the mammalian kidney and the integrity of renal glomeruli. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:3953-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Fras1 deficiency causes defective interactions between the bud and mesenchyme, correlating with disturbed expression of key nephrogenic molecules. Furthermore, Fras1 may also be required for the formation of normal glomeruli. ..
  14. Loffredo F, Steinhauser M, Jay S, Gannon J, Pancoast J, Yalamanchi P, et al. Growth differentiation factor 11 is a circulating factor that reverses age-related cardiac hypertrophy. Cell. 2013;153:828-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Using modified aptamer-based proteomics, we identified the TGF-? superfamily member GDF11 as a circulating factor in young mice that declines with age...
  15. Lu Q, Tu M, Li C, Zhang L, Jiang T, Liu T, et al. GDF11 Inhibits Bone Formation by Activating Smad2/3 in Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Calcif Tissue Int. 2016;99:500-509 pubmed
    b>Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily...
  16. Suragani R, Cadena S, Cawley S, Sako D, Mitchell D, Li R, et al. Transforming growth factor-? superfamily ligand trap ACE-536 corrects anemia by promoting late-stage erythropoiesis. Nat Med. 2014;20:408-14 pubmed publisher
    ..ACE-536 bound growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF11) and potently inhibited GDF11-mediated Smad2/3 signaling...
  17. Shi Y, Liu J. Gdf11 facilitates temporal progression of neurogenesis in the developing spinal cord. J Neurosci. 2011;31:883-93 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Growth differentiation factor 11 (Gdf11) belongs to the TGF-? family of proteins and is expressed transiently in newly born neurons ..
  18. Szumska D, Pieles G, Essalmani R, Bilski M, Mesnard D, Kaur K, et al. VACTERL/caudal regression/Currarino syndrome-like malformations in mice with mutation in the proprotein convertase Pcsk5. Genes Dev. 2008;22:1465-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that GDF11 is cleaved and activated by PCSK5A, but not by PCSK5A-C470R, and that Gdf11-deficient embryos, in addition to ..
  19. Lee Y, McPherron A, Choe S, Sakai Y, Chandraratna R, Lee S, et al. Growth differentiation factor 11 signaling controls retinoic acid activity for axial vertebral development. Dev Biol. 2010;347:195-203 pubmed publisher
    Mice deficient in growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) signaling display anterior transformation of axial vertebrae and truncation of caudal vertebrae...
  20. Kawauchi S, Kim J, Santos R, Wu H, Lander A, Calof A. Foxg1 promotes olfactory neurogenesis by antagonizing Gdf11. Development. 2009;136:1453-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Foxg1 is expressed in developing OE at the same time as the gene encoding growth differentiation factor 11 (Gdf11), a TGFbeta family member that mediates negative-feedback control of OE neurogenesis...
  21. Essalmani R, Zaid A, Marcinkiewicz J, Chamberland A, Pasquato A, Seidah N, et al. In vivo functions of the proprotein convertase PC5/6 during mouse development: Gdf11 is a likely substrate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:5750-5 pubmed publisher
    ..PC5/6-deficient embryos exhibited Gdf11-related phenotypes such as altered anteroposterior patterning with extra vertebrae and lack of tail and kidney ..
  22. Gokoffski K, Wu H, Beites C, Kim J, Kim E, Matzuk M, et al. Activin and GDF11 collaborate in feedback control of neuroepithelial stem cell proliferation and fate. Development. 2011;138:4131-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, we showed that a locally produced signal, the TGF? superfamily ligand GDF11, regulates the genesis of olfactory receptor neurons by inhibiting proliferation of the immediate neuronal ..
  23. Kawauchi S, Shou J, Santos R, Hebert J, McConnell S, Mason I, et al. Fgf8 expression defines a morphogenetic center required for olfactory neurogenesis and nasal cavity development in the mouse. Development. 2005;132:5211-23 pubmed
  24. Kondás K, Szláma G, Trexler M, Patthy L. Both WFIKKN1 and WFIKKN2 have high affinity for growth and differentiation factors 8 and 11. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:23677-84 pubmed publisher
    ..protein, WFIKKN1, also binds to both myostatin and myostatin propeptide and that both WFIKKN1 and WFIKKN2 bind GDF11, the growth and differentiation factor most closely related to myostatin, with high affinity...
  25. Liu J. The function of growth/differentiation factor 11 (Gdf11) in rostrocaudal patterning of the developing spinal cord. Development. 2006;133:2865-74 pubmed
    ..Our previous study using an in vitro assay system demonstrated that Fgf and Gdf11 signals located around Hensen's node of chick embryos have the ability to induce profiled Hoxc protein expression...
  26. Lee Y, Lee S. Regulation of GDF-11 and myostatin activity by GASP-1 and GASP-2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E3713-22 pubmed publisher
    ..transformations of the axial skeleton, which contrast with the anteriorly directed transformations seen in Gdf11(-/-) mice...
  27. Aires R, Jurberg A, Leal F, Novoa A, Cohn M, Mallo M. Oct4 Is a Key Regulator of Vertebrate Trunk Length Diversity. Dev Cell. 2016;38:262-74 pubmed publisher
  28. Lamar K, Bogdanovich S, Gardner B, Gao Q, Miller T, Earley J, et al. Overexpression of Latent TGF? Binding Protein 4 in Muscle Ameliorates Muscular Dystrophy through Myostatin and TGF?. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006019 pubmed publisher
    ..LTBP4 also interacted with TGF? and GDF11, a protein highly related to myostatin...
  29. Poggioli T, Vujic A, Yang P, Macias Trevino C, Uygur A, Loffredo F, et al. Circulating Growth Differentiation Factor 11/8 Levels Decline With Age. Circ Res. 2016;118:29-37 pubmed publisher
    b>Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) and GDF8 are members of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily sharing 89% protein sequence homology. We have previously shown that circulating GDF11 levels decrease with age in mice...
  30. Takehara Kasamatsu Y, Tsuchida K, Nakatani M, Murakami T, Kurisaki A, Hashimoto O, et al. Characterization of follistatin-related gene as a negative regulatory factor for activin family members during mouse heart development. J Med Invest. 2007;54:276-88 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that FLRG could function as a negative regulator of activin family members including MSTN during heart development. ..
  31. Young T, Rowland J, van de Ven C, Bialecka M, Novoa A, Carapuco M, et al. Cdx and Hox genes differentially regulate posterior axial growth in mammalian embryos. Dev Cell. 2009;17:516-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Concomitant regulation of Cyp26a1 expression, restraining retinoic acid signaling away from the posterior growth zone, may likewise play a role in timing the trunk-tail transition. ..
  32. Jurberg A, Aires R, Varela Lasheras I, Novoa A, Mallo M. Switching axial progenitors from producing trunk to tail tissues in vertebrate embryos. Dev Cell. 2013;25:451-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Gdf11 signaling is a major coordinator of the trunk-to-tail transition...
  33. Dussiot M, Maciel T, Fricot A, Chartier C, Negre O, Veiga J, et al. An activin receptor IIA ligand trap corrects ineffective erythropoiesis in ?-thalassemia. Nat Med. 2014;20:398-407 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), an ActRIIA ligand, was increased in splenic erythroblasts from thalassemic mice and in ..
  34. McPherron A, Huynh T, Lee S. Redundancy of myostatin and growth/differentiation factor 11 function. BMC Dev Biol. 2009;9:24 pubmed publisher
    Myostatin (Mstn) and growth/differentiation factor 11 (Gdf11) are highly related transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) family members that play important roles in regulating embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis...
  35. Mao C, Wang S, Pan P, Klein W. Rewiring the retinal ganglion cell gene regulatory network: Neurod1 promotes retinal ganglion cell fate in the absence of Math5. Development. 2008;135:3379-88 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that, although Neurod1 and Math3 have evolved specialized functions for establishing amacrine cell fate, they are nevertheless capable of alternative functions when expressed in foreign environments. ..
  36. Rodgers B, Eldridge J. Reduced Circulating GDF11 Is Unlikely Responsible for Age-Dependent Changes in Mouse Heart, Muscle, and Brain. Endocrinology. 2015;156:3885-8 pubmed publisher
    ..studies report conflicting data on the age-related change in circulating growth/differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) and myostatin as well as the former's influence on muscle regeneration...
  37. Andersson O, Reissmann E, Ibanez C. Growth differentiation factor 11 signals through the transforming growth factor-beta receptor ALK5 to regionalize the anterior-posterior axis. EMBO Rep. 2006;7:831-7 pubmed
    b>Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) contributes to regionalize the mouse embryo along its anterior-posterior axis by regulating the expression of Hox genes...
  38. Oliver Krasinski J, Kasner M, Yang J, Crutchlow M, Rustgi A, Kaestner K, et al. The diabetes gene Pdx1 regulates the transcriptional network of pancreatic endocrine progenitor cells in mice. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:1888-98 pubmed publisher
  39. Gad J, Tam P. Axis development: the mouse becomes a dachshund. Curr Biol. 1999;9:R783-6 pubmed
    Targeted deletion of the gene for GDF11, a novel member of the TGFbeta family, has been found to cause an increase in the number of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae in the mouse...
  40. Smart N, Apelqvist A, Gu X, Harmon E, Topper J, Macdonald R, et al. Conditional expression of Smad7 in pancreatic beta cells disrupts TGF-beta signaling and induces reversible diabetes mellitus. PLoS Biol. 2006;4:e39 pubmed
    ..Thus, our studies reveal that TGF-beta signaling is crucial for establishing and maintaining defining features of mature pancreatic beta cells. ..