Gene Symbol: Gcna
Description: germ cell nuclear acidic protein
Alias: Gcna1, germ cell nuclear acidic protein, germ cell nuclear antigen 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Gcna

Top Publications

  1. Enders G, May J. Developmentally regulated expression of a mouse germ cell nuclear antigen examined from embryonic day 11 to adult in male and female mice. Dev Biol. 1994;163:331-40 pubmed
    A rat IgM monoclonal antibody has been developed which recognized a mouse germ cell nuclear antigen (GCNA1)...
  2. Lipkin S, Moens P, Wang V, Lenzi M, Shanmugarajah D, Gilgeous A, et al. Meiotic arrest and aneuploidy in MLH3-deficient mice. Nat Genet. 2002;31:385-90 pubmed
    ..Mlh3(-/-) spermatocytes reach metaphase before succumbing to apoptosis, but oocytes fail to complete meiosis I after fertilization. Our results show that Mlh3 has an essential and distinct role in mammalian meiosis. ..
  3. Ballow D, Meistrich M, Matzuk M, Rajkovic A. Sohlh1 is essential for spermatogonial differentiation. Dev Biol. 2006;294:161-7 pubmed
    ..Sohlh1 represents the first testis-specific bHLH transcription factor that is essential for spermatogonial differentiation. ..
  4. Kolas N, Cohen P. Novel and diverse functions of the DNA mismatch repair family in mammalian meiosis and recombination. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2004;107:216-31 pubmed
    ..These studies highlight the importance of comparative analysis of MMR orthologs across species, and also underscore distinct sexually dimorphic characteristics of mammalian recombination and meiosis. ..
  5. Saba R, Wu Q, Saga Y. CYP26B1 promotes male germ cell differentiation by suppressing STRA8-dependent meiotic and STRA8-independent mitotic pathways. Dev Biol. 2014;389:173-81 pubmed publisher
  6. Suzuki A, Saba R, Miyoshi K, Morita Y, Saga Y. Interaction between NANOS2 and the CCR4-NOT deadenylation complex is essential for male germ cell development in mouse. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33558 pubmed publisher
  7. Maatouk D, Kellam L, Mann M, Lei H, Li E, Bartolomei M, et al. DNA methylation is a primary mechanism for silencing postmigratory primordial germ cell genes in both germ cell and somatic cell lineages. Development. 2006;133:3411-8 pubmed
    ..Premature loss of genomic methylation in Dnmt1 mutant embryos leads to early expression of these genes as well as GCNA1, a widely used germ cell marker. In addition, GCNA1 is ectopically expressed by somatic cells in Dnmt1 mutants...
  8. Lin Y, Page D. Dazl deficiency leads to embryonic arrest of germ cell development in XY C57BL/6 mice. Dev Biol. 2005;288:309-16 pubmed
    ..By E14.5, expression of germ cell markers (Mvh, Oct4, Dppa3/Stella, GCNA and MVH protein) was reduced in XY Dazl-/- gonads. By E15...
  9. Kneitz B, Cohen P, Avdievich E, Zhu L, Kane M, Hou H, et al. MutS homolog 4 localization to meiotic chromosomes is required for chromosome pairing during meiosis in male and female mice. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1085-97 pubmed
    ..Our results show that MSH4 localization on chromosomes during the early stages of meiosis is essential for normal chromosome synapsis in prophase I and that it acts in the same pathway as MSH5. ..

More Information


  1. Wang D, Enders G. Expression of a specific mouse germ cell nuclear antigen (GCNA1) by early embryonic testicular teratoma cells in 129/Sv-Sl/+ mice. Cancer Lett. 1996;100:31-6 pubmed
    ..mice to determine whether the teratoma cells which developed in these gonads retain the nuclear antigen GCNA1. GCNA1 is a 110 kDa mouse Germ Cell Nuclear Antigen recognized by a rat monoclonal antibody 10D9G11...
  2. Laird D, Altshuler Keylin S, Kissner M, Zhou X, Anderson K. Ror2 enhances polarity and directional migration of primordial germ cells. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002428 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these results indicate that Ror2 acts autonomously to permit the polarized response of PGCs to KitL. We propose a model by which Wnt5a potentiates PGC chemotaxis toward secreted KitL by redistribution of Ror2 within the cell. ..
  3. Tay J, Richter J. Germ cell differentiation and synaptonemal complex formation are disrupted in CPEB knockout mice. Dev Cell. 2001;1:201-13 pubmed
    ..Synaptonemal complexes were not detected in these animals. CPEB therefore controls germ cell differentiation by regulating the formation of the synaptonemal complex. ..
  4. Zhang B, Jain S, Song H, Fu M, Heuckeroth R, Erlich J, et al. Mice lacking sister chromatid cohesion protein PDS5B exhibit developmental abnormalities reminiscent of Cornelia de Lange syndrome. Development. 2007;134:3191-201 pubmed
  5. Murphy K, Carvajal L, Medico L, Pepling M. Expression of Stat3 in germ cells of developing and adult mouse ovaries and testes. Gene Expr Patterns. 2005;5:475-82 pubmed
    ..Stat3 is also expressed in gonocytes, prospermatogonia, oogonia and oocytes of embryonic and neonatal gonads. ..
  6. Encinas G, Zogbi C, Stumpp T. Detection of four germ cell markers in rats during testis morphogenesis: differences and similarities with mice. Cells Tissues Organs. 2012;195:443-55 pubmed publisher
    ..To study rat germ cell development and compare it with that of mouse, the germ cell markers germ cell nuclear antigen 1 (GCNA1), OCT4, mouse vasa homologue (MVH) and specific surface embryonic antigen 1 (SSEA1) were ..
  7. Greenbaum M, Iwamori N, Agno J, Matzuk M. Mouse TEX14 is required for embryonic germ cell intercellular bridges but not female fertility. Biol Reprod. 2009;80:449-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, while TEX14 and intercellular bridges have an essential role in postnatal spermatogenesis, they are not required in the embryo. ..
  8. Miles D, Van Den Bergen J, Wakeling S, Anderson R, Sinclair A, Western P. The proto-oncogene Ret is required for male foetal germ cell survival. Dev Biol. 2012;365:101-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Either way, this study identifies the proto-oncogene RET as a novel component of the foetal male germ cell development pathway. ..
  9. Best D, Sahlender D, Walther N, Peden A, Adams I. Sdmg1 is a conserved transmembrane protein associated with germ cell sex determination and germline-soma interactions in mice. Development. 2008;135:1415-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that changes that occur in the cell biology of embryonic Sertoli cells may facilitate the communication of male sex-determining decisions to the germ cells during embryonic development. ..
  10. Wong J, Alon N, McKerlie C, Huang J, Meyn M, Buchwald M. Targeted disruption of exons 1 to 6 of the Fanconi Anemia group A gene leads to growth retardation, strain-specific microphthalmia, meiotic defects and primordial germ cell hypoplasia. Hum Mol Genet. 2003;12:2063-76 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that the FA pathway plays a role in the maintenance of reproductive germ cells and in meiotic recombination. ..
  11. Payne C, Gallagher S, Foreman O, Dannenberg J, Depinho R, Braun R. Sin3a is required by sertoli cells to establish a niche for undifferentiated spermatogonia, germ cell tumors, and spermatid elongation. Stem Cells. 2010;28:1424-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the epigenome of Sertoli cells influences the establishment of a niche for germline stem cells as well as for tumor initiating cells. ..
  12. Adams I, McLaren A. Identification and characterisation of mRif1: a mouse telomere-associated protein highly expressed in germ cells and embryo-derived pluripotent stem cells. Dev Dyn. 2004;229:733-44 pubmed
    ..mRif1 may be involved in the maintenance of telomere length or pluripotency in the germline and during early mouse development. ..
  13. Wu R, Zeng Y, Pan I, Wu M. Androgen Receptor Coactivator ARID4B Is Required for the Function of Sertoli Cells in Spermatogenesis. Mol Endocrinol. 2015;29:1334-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our study identified ARID4B to be a key regulator of Sertoli cell function important for male germ cell development. ..
  14. Chang H, Gao F, Guillou F, Taketo M, Huff V, Behringer R. Wt1 negatively regulates beta-catenin signaling during testis development. Development. 2008;135:1875-85 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the suppression of beta-catenin signaling in these cells is essential for proper testis formation and Wt1 is a negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling during this developmental process. ..
  15. Tang H, Ross A, Capel B. Expression and functional analysis of Gm114, a putative mammalian ortholog of Drosophila bam. Dev Biol. 2008;318:73-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that either there is a function for the remaining N-terminal of GM114, or that there are alternative mechanisms in the mammalian system that control germ cell differentiation. ..
  16. Vainio S, Heikkilä M, Kispert A, Chin N, McMahon A. Female development in mammals is regulated by Wnt-4 signalling. Nature. 1999;397:405-9 pubmed
    ..Wnt-4 may also be required for maintenance of the female germ line. Thus, the establishment of sexual dimorphism is under the control of both local and systemic signals. ..
  17. Pepling M, Spradling A. Female mouse germ cells form synchronously dividing cysts. Development. 1998;125:3323-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, female mouse germ cell clusters exhibit key characteristics of invertebrate germline cysts indicating that the process of germline cyst formation is conserved in the mouse. ..
  18. Pui H, Saga Y. Gonocytes-to-spermatogonia transition initiates prior to birth in murine testes and it requires FGF signaling. Mech Dev. 2017;144:125-139 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we defined the precise timing of GST and revealed FGF signaling as a master regulator of GST in the perinatal mouse testes. ..
  19. Li B, Nair M, Mackay D, Bilanchone V, Hu M, Fallahi M, et al. Ovol1 regulates meiotic pachytene progression during spermatogenesis by repressing Id2 expression. Development. 2005;132:1463-73 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our studies demonstrate a role for Ovol1 in regulating pachytene progression of male germ cells, and identify Id2 as a Ovol1 target. ..
  20. Nadler J, Braun R. Fanconi anemia complementation group C is required for proliferation of murine primordial germ cells. Genesis. 2000;27:117-23 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates Fancc is required for mitotic proliferation of primordial germ cells. ..
  21. Reinholdt L, Munroe R, Kamdar S, Schimenti J. The mouse gcd2 mutation causes primordial germ cell depletion. Mech Dev. 2006;123:559-69 pubmed
    ..This raises the possibilities that the gcd2 mutation resides in non-coding sequences, and regulates genes outside the genetically defined critical region. ..
  22. Wu Q, Fukuda K, Kato Y, Zhou Z, Deng C, Saga Y. Sexual Fate Change of XX Germ Cells Caused by the Deletion of SMAD4 and STRA8 Independent of Somatic Sex Reprogramming. PLoS Biol. 2016;14:e1002553 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that SMAD4 and STRA8 are essential factors that regulate the female fate of germ cells. ..
  23. Arora R, Abby E, Ross A, Cantu A, Kissner M, Castro V, et al. Meiotic onset is reliant on spatial distribution but independent of germ cell number in the mouse ovary. J Cell Sci. 2016;129:2493-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, our studies underscore the importance of considering germ cell migration defects while studying meiosis to discern secondary effects resulting from positioning versus primary meiotic entry phenotypes. ..
  24. Barsoum I, Yao H. Redundant and differential roles of transcription factors Gli1 and Gli2 in the development of mouse fetal Leydig cells. Biol Reprod. 2011;84:894-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal overlapping and redundant Gli1 and Gli2 roles in fetal Leydig cell differentiation and a novel regulation of Gli2 expression in the fetal testis...
  25. Costa Y, Speed R, Gautier P, Semple C, Maratou K, Turner J, et al. Mouse MAELSTROM: the link between meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin and microRNA pathway?. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:2324-34 pubmed
    ..The presence of MAEL in these critical compartments of male germ cells and its interactions provide a link suggesting the involvement of the miRNA pathway in MSUC...
  26. Wu R, Zeng Y, Chen Y, Lanz R, Wu M. Temporal-Spatial Establishment of Initial Niche for the Primary Spermatogonial Stem Cell Formation Is Determined by an ARID4B Regulatory Network. Stem Cells. 2017;35:1554-1565 pubmed publisher
    ..Stem Cells 2017;35:1554-1565. ..
  27. Bao J, Vitting Seerup K, Waage J, Tang C, Ge Y, Porse B, et al. UPF2-Dependent Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay Pathway Is Essential for Spermatogenesis by Selectively Eliminating Longer 3'UTR Transcripts. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1005863 pubmed publisher
    ..This report provides physiological evidence supporting a noncanonical role of the NMD pathway in achieving global 3'UTR shortening in the male germ cells during spermatogenesis. ..
  28. Maldonado Saldivia J, van den Bergen J, Krouskos M, Gilchrist M, Lee C, Li R, et al. Dppa2 and Dppa4 are closely linked SAP motif genes restricted to pluripotent cells and the germ line. Stem Cells. 2007;25:19-28 pubmed
    ..The study of expression and function of pluripotent markers such as Dppa2 and Dppa4 is likely to unveil new aspects of the regulation of pluripotency and germ line development in mammals. ..
  29. Medeiros L, Dennis L, Gill M, Houbaviy H, Markoulaki S, Fu D, et al. Mir-290-295 deficiency in mice results in partially penetrant embryonic lethality and germ cell defects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:14163-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Female mir-290-295(-/-) mice are unable to recover and are sterile, due to premature ovarian failure. ..
  30. Mathies H, Wolff E. [The prednisolone saving effect of proquazone]. MMW Munch Med Wochenschr. 1979;121:459-60 pubmed
  31. Wu Q, Kanata K, Saba R, Deng C, Hamada H, Saga Y. Nodal/activin signaling promotes male germ cell fate and suppresses female programming in somatic cells. Development. 2013;140:291-300 pubmed publisher
  32. Ene A, Park S, Edelmann W, Taketo T. Caspase 9 is constitutively activated in mouse oocytes and plays a key role in oocyte elimination during meiotic prophase progression. Dev Biol. 2013;377:213-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway mediated by caspase 9 is constitutively activated in oocytes and renders the elimination of oocytes with meiotic errors, which can be captured by the cleavage of PARP1. ..
  33. Lei N, Hornbaker K, Rice D, Karpova T, Agbor V, Heckert L. Sex-specific differences in mouse DMRT1 expression are both cell type- and stage-dependent during gonad development. Biol Reprod. 2007;77:466-75 pubmed
    Immunohistochemistry was used to examine GCNA1, a germ cell-specific protein, together with DMRT1 (Doublesex and Mab-3-related transcription factor-1), a transcription factor implicated in Sertoli cell and germ cell function, in order to ..
  34. Wang B, Qi T, Chen S, Ye L, Huang Z, Li H. RFX1 maintains testis cord integrity by regulating the expression of Itga6 in male mouse embryos. Mol Reprod Dev. 2016;83:606-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, RFX1 transcriptionally targets Itga6 in Sertoli cells, thereby, helping maintain the integrity of the basal lamina during testis cord development. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 606-614, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  35. Holloway J, Mohan S, Balmus G, Sun X, Modzelewski A, Borst P, et al. Mammalian BTBD12 (SLX4) protects against genomic instability during mammalian spermatogenesis. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002094 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that BTBD12 functions throughout gametogenesis to maintain genome stability, possibly by co-ordinating repair processes and/or by linking DNA repair events to the cell cycle via ATM...
  36. Yamaguchi S, Hong K, Liu R, Shen L, Inoue A, Diep D, et al. Tet1 controls meiosis by regulating meiotic gene expression. Nature. 2012;492:443-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study thus establishes a function for Tet1 in meiosis and meiotic gene activation in female germ cells. ..
  37. Wang D, Ikeda Y, Parker K, Enders G. Germ cell nuclear antigen (GCNA1) expression does not require a gonadal environment or steroidogenic factor 1: examination of GCNA1 in ectopic germ cells and in Ftz-F1 null mice. Mol Reprod Dev. 1997;48:154-8 pubmed
    ..The mechanisms controlling this transition are poorly understood. We recently reported that a mouse germ cell nuclear antigen 1 (GCNA1) is initially detected in both male and female germ cells as they reach the gonad at 11...
  38. Schmidt D, Ovitt C, Anlag K, Fehsenfeld S, Gredsted L, Treier A, et al. The murine winged-helix transcription factor Foxl2 is required for granulosa cell differentiation and ovary maintenance. Development. 2004;131:933-42 pubmed
    ..In addition to providing a molecular mechanism for premature ovarian failure in BPES, these results suggest that granulosa cell function is not only crucial for oocyte growth but also to maintain follicular quiescence in vivo. ..
  39. Grive K, Seymour K, Mehta R, Freiman R. TAF4b promotes mouse primordial follicle assembly and oocyte survival. Dev Biol. 2014;392:42-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal a novel TAF4b function in orchestrating the correct timing of germ cell cyst breakdown and establishment of the primordial follicle reserve during a critical window of development. ..
  40. Chen L, Faire M, Kissner M, Laird D. Primordial germ cells and gastrointestinal stromal tumors respond distinctly to a cKit overactivating allele. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:313-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a cell-context-dependent response to the cKit(V558?) mutation. We propose that AKT overload protection and JNK-mediated survival comprise PGC-specific mechanisms for regulating cKit signaling. ..
  41. Weber S, Eckert D, Nettersheim D, Gillis A, Schäfer S, Kuckenberg P, et al. Critical function of AP-2 gamma/TCFAP2C in mouse embryonic germ cell maintenance. Biol Reprod. 2010;82:214-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results implicate Tcfap2c as an important effector of Prdm1 activity that is required for PGC maintenance, most likely mediating Prdm1-induced suppression of mesodermal differentiation. ..
  42. Saba R, Kato Y, Saga Y. NANOS2 promotes male germ cell development independent of meiosis suppression. Dev Biol. 2014;385:32-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that NANOS2 is not merely a suppressor of meiosis, but instead plays pivotal roles in the sexual differentiation of male germ cells. ..
  43. Mattiske D, Kume T, Hogan B. The mouse forkhead gene Foxc1 is required for primordial germ cell migration and antral follicle development. Dev Biol. 2006;290:447-58 pubmed
    ..We conclude that alongside its previously known roles in kidney, cardiovascular and eye development, Foxc1 has essential functions during at least two stages of gonad development-germ cell migration and folliculogenesis. ..
  44. Nordstrand L, Svärd J, Larsen E, Nilsen A, Ougland R, Furu K, et al. Mice lacking Alkbh1 display sex-ratio distortion and unilateral eye defects. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13827 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic and phenotypic assessment suggests that Alkbh1 mediates gene regulation in spermatogenesis, and that Alkbh1 is essential for normal sex-ratio distribution and embryonic development in mice. ..
  45. Atchison F, Capel B, Means A. Pin1 regulates the timing of mammalian primordial germ cell proliferation. Development. 2003;130:3579-86 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Pin1 regulates the timing of PGC proliferation during mouse embryonic development. ..
  46. Wu Q, Fukuda K, Weinstein M, Graff J, Saga Y. SMAD2 and p38 signaling pathways act in concert to determine XY primordial germ cell fate in mice. Development. 2015;142:575-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we propose a model in which p38 and SMAD2 signaling coordinate to determine the sexual fate of XY PGCs. ..
  47. Koubova J, Hu Y, Bhattacharyya T, Soh Y, Gill M, Goodheart M, et al. Retinoic acid activates two pathways required for meiosis in mice. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004541 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings strengthen the importance of RA and Dazl in the meiotic transition, provide important details about the Stra8 pathway, and open avenues to investigate early meiosis through analysis of Rec8 induction and function. ..
  48. Pangas S, Choi Y, Ballow D, Zhao Y, Westphal H, Matzuk M, et al. Oogenesis requires germ cell-specific transcriptional regulators Sohlh1 and Lhx8. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:8090-5 pubmed
    ..In addition, we show that Lhx8 is downstream of Sohlh1 and critical in fertility. Thus, Sohlh1 and Lhx8 are two germ cell-specific, critical regulators of oogenesis. ..
  49. Held T, Barakat A, Mohamed B, Paprotta I, Meinhardt A, Engel W, et al. Heat-shock protein HSPA4 is required for progression of spermatogenesis. Reproduction. 2011;142:133-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide evidence that HSPA4 is required for normal spermatogenesis. ..
  50. Cupp A, Tessarollo L, Skinner M. Testis developmental phenotypes in neurotropin receptor trkA and trkC null mutations: role in formation of seminiferous cords and germ cell survival. Biol Reprod. 2002;66:1838-45 pubmed
    ..The current study demonstrates that both trkA and trkC neurotropin receptors influence germ cell numbers during testis development and events such as seminiferous cord formation. ..
  51. Kim B, Kim Y, Cooke P, Ruther U, Jorgensen J. The fused toes locus is essential for somatic-germ cell interactions that foster germ cell maturation in developing gonads in mice. Biol Reprod. 2011;84:1024-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we conclude that the Ft locus contains genes essential for somatic-germ cell interactions, without which the germ cell niche fails to mature in both sexes. ..
  52. Alton M, Lau M, Villemure M, Taketo T. The behavior of the X- and Y-chromosomes in the oocyte during meiotic prophase in the B6.Y(TIR)sex-reversed mouse ovary. Reproduction. 2008;135:241-52 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the total number of germ cells, identified by immunolabeling of germ cell nuclear antigen 1 (GCNA1), did not differ between XY and XX ovaries or XO and XX ovaries up to the day of delivery...
  53. Maatouk D, Resnick J. Continuing primordial germ cell differentiation in the mouse embryo is a cell-intrinsic program sensitive to DNA methylation. Dev Biol. 2003;258:201-8 pubmed
    ..We have studied the appearance of GCNA1, a postmigratory sex-common germ cell marker, in cultures of premigratory germ cells to investigate how this ..
  54. Gao F, Maiti S, Alam N, Zhang Z, Deng J, Behringer R, et al. The Wilms tumor gene, Wt1, is required for Sox9 expression and maintenance of tubular architecture in the developing testis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:11987-92 pubmed
    ..Our data, along with previous work demonstrating the role of Wt1 at early stages of gonadal development, thus indicate that Wt1 is essential at multiple steps in testicular development. ..
  55. Novak I, Wang H, Revenkova E, Jessberger R, Scherthan H, Hoog C. Cohesin Smc1beta determines meiotic chromatin axis loop organization. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:83-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that in addition to its role in sister chromatid cohesion, Smc1beta determines meiotic chromatin loop organization. ..
  56. McClellan K, Gosden R, Taketo T. Continuous loss of oocytes throughout meiotic prophase in the normal mouse ovary. Dev Biol. 2003;258:334-48 pubmed
    ..the present study, we established a new method to quantify murine germ cells by using Germ Cell Nuclear Antigen-1 (GCNA-1) as a germ cell marker...
  57. Arango N, Li L, Dabir D, Nicolau F, Pieretti Vanmarcke R, Koehler C, et al. Meiosis I arrest abnormalities lead to severe oligozoospermia in meiosis 1 arresting protein (M1ap)-deficient mice. Biol Reprod. 2013;88:76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results uncovered an essential role for M1ap as a novel germ cell gene not previously implicated in male germ cell development and suggest that mutations in M1AP could account for some cases of nonobstructive oligozoospermia in men. ..
  58. Hasthorpe S, Tainton K, Peart M, Roeszler K, Bell K, Lusby P, et al. G2/M checkpoint gene expression in developing germ cells. Mol Reprod Dev. 2007;74:531-8 pubmed
    ..02) mRNA. Although we do not fully understand the role checkpoint gene expression has during mammalian germ cell development this report is the first to show the expression of checkpoint-related genes in early mammalian germ cells. ..
  59. Huang X, Andreu Vieyra C, York J, Hatcher R, Lu T, Matzuk M, et al. Inhibitory phosphorylation of separase is essential for genome stability and viability of murine embryonic germ cells. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that inhibitory phosphorylation of separase plays a critical role in the maintenance of sister chromatid cohesion and genome stability in proliferating postmigratory primordial germ cells. ..
  60. Brown J, Bullwinkel J, Baron Luhr B, Billur M, Schneider P, Winking H, et al. HP1gamma function is required for male germ cell survival and spermatogenesis. Epigenetics Chromatin. 2010;3:9 pubmed publisher
    ..The Cbx3 gene-targeted mice generated in this study provide an appropriate model for the study of HP1gamma in transposon silencing and parental imprinting. ..
  61. Tay J, Hodgman R, Sarkissian M, Richter J. Regulated CPEB phosphorylation during meiotic progression suggests a mechanism for temporal control of maternal mRNA translation. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1457-62 pubmed
    ..The temporal control of CPEB phosphorylation suggests a mechanism in which CPE-containing mRNA translation is stimulated at pachytene and metaphase I. ..
  62. Memon M, Anway M, Covert T, Uzumcu M, Skinner M. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta1, TGFbeta2 and TGFbeta3) null-mutant phenotypes in embryonic gonadal development. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2008;294:70-80 pubmed publisher
    ..TGFb isoforms appear to have a role in gonadal development, but interactions between the isoforms is speculated to compensate in the different TGFb isoform null-mutant mice. ..
  63. Cook M, Coveney D, Batchvarov I, Nadeau J, Capel B. BAX-mediated cell death affects early germ cell loss and incidence of testicular teratomas in Dnd1(Ter/Ter) mice. Dev Biol. 2009;328:377-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that BAX-mediated apoptosis plays a role in early germ cell loss and protects from testicular teratoma formation on a mixed genetic background...
  64. Rajareddy S, Reddy P, Du C, Liu L, Jagarlamudi K, Tang W, et al. p27kip1 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B) controls ovarian development by suppressing follicle endowment and activation and promoting follicle atresia in mice. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:2189-202 pubmed
    ..This study therefore provides insight into ovary-borne genetic aberrations that cause defects in folliculogenesis and infertility in humans. ..
  65. Kumar M, Camlin N, Holt J, TEIXEIRA J, McLaughlin E, Tanwar P. Germ cell specific overactivation of WNT/βcatenin signalling has no effect on folliculogenesis but causes fertility defects due to abnormal foetal development. Sci Rep. 2016;6:27273 pubmed publisher
  66. Lovasco L, Gustafson E, Seymour K, de Rooij D, Freiman R. TAF4b is required for mouse spermatogonial stem cell development. Stem Cells. 2015;33:1267-76 pubmed publisher
  67. Chen G, Yang L, Begum S, Xu L. GPR56 is essential for testis development and male fertility in mice. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:3358-67 pubmed publisher
  68. Garcia T, Farmaha J, Kow S, Hofmann M. RBPJ in mouse Sertoli cells is required for proper regulation of the testis stem cell niche. Development. 2014;141:4468-78 pubmed publisher
  69. Burnicka Turek O, Shirneshan K, Paprotta I, Grzmil P, Meinhardt A, Engel W, et al. Inactivation of insulin-like factor 6 disrupts the progression of spermatogenesis at late meiotic prophase. Endocrinology. 2009;150:4348-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that INSL6 is required for the progression of spermatogenesis. ..
  70. Soyal S, Amleh A, Dean J. FIGalpha, a germ cell-specific transcription factor required for ovarian follicle formation. Development. 2000;127:4645-54 pubmed
    ..The persistence of FIGalpha in adult females suggests that it may regulate additional pathways that are essential for normal ovarian development. ..
  71. Muir T, Wilson Rawls J, Stevens J, Rawls A, Schweitzer R, Kang C, et al. Integration of CREB and bHLH transcriptional signaling pathways through direct heterodimerization of the proteins: role in muscle and testis development. Mol Reprod Dev. 2008;75:1637-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The observations suggest a mechanism for direct cross-talk between cAMP induced and bHLH controlled cellular differentiation...
  72. Kouznetsova A, Benavente R, Pastink A, Hoog C. Meiosis in mice without a synaptonemal complex. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28255 pubmed publisher
  73. Raverot G, Weiss J, Park S, Hurley L, Jameson J. Sox3 expression in undifferentiated spermatogonia is required for the progression of spermatogenesis. Dev Biol. 2005;283:215-25 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Sox3 is expressed in A(s), A(pr) and A(al) spermatogonia and is required for spermatogenesis through a pathway that involves Ngn3. ..
  74. Suzuki A, Niimi Y, Saga Y. Interaction of NANOS2 and NANOS3 with different components of the CNOT complex may contribute to the functional differences in mouse male germ cells. Biol Open. 2014;3:1207-16 pubmed publisher
    ..This alternate interaction might account for the molecular basis of the functional redundancy and differences in NANOS2 and NANOS3 functions. ..
  75. Pérez Armendariz E, Saez J, Bravo Moreno J, López Olmos V, Enders G, Villalpando I. Connexin43 is expressed in mouse fetal ovary. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2003;271:360-7 pubmed
    ..against Cx43 and the enzyme 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD) or a germ cell nuclear antigen (GCNA1), which are cell markers of steroidogenic and germinal cells, respectively. At 18...
  76. Carmell M, Dokshin G, Skaletsky H, Hu Y, Van Wolfswinkel J, Igarashi K, et al. A widely employed germ cell marker is an ancient disordered protein with reproductive functions in diverse eukaryotes. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..We report an ancient family of GCNA (germ cell nuclear antigen) proteins that arose in the earliest eukaryotes, and feature a rapidly evolving ..
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    ..Thus DMRT1 controls Stra8 sex-specifically, activating it in the fetal ovary and repressing it in the adult testis. ..