Gene Symbol: Gcm1
Description: glial cells missing homolog 1
Alias: GCMa, Gcm-rs2, Gcm1-rs1, glide, chorion-specific transcription factor GCMa, GCM motif protein 1, Gcm 1, Gcm a, glial cell deficient, mGCM1, mGCMa
Species: mouse
Products:     Gcm1

Top Publications

  1. Arima T, Hata K, Tanaka S, Kusumi M, Li E, Kato K, et al. Loss of the maternal imprint in Dnmt3Lmat-/- mice leads to a differentiation defect in the extraembryonic tissue. Dev Biol. 2006;297:361-73 pubmed
    ..These findings provide evidence that not only is DNA methylation required for the appropriate maternal imprint in the placenta but that the appropriate imprint is absolutely required for vertebrate placentation. ..
  2. Cross J, Nakano H, Natale D, Simmons D, Watson E. Branching morphogenesis during development of placental villi. Differentiation. 2006;74:393-401 pubmed
    ..begins with selection of a subset of trophoblast cells in the basal layer of the chorion that express the Gcm1 transcription factor...
  3. Schreiber J, Riethmacher Sonnenberg E, Riethmacher D, Tuerk E, Enderich J, Bösl M, et al. Placental failure in mice lacking the mammalian homolog of glial cells missing, GCMa. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:2466-74 pubmed
    ..To clarify the function of these mammalian homologs, we deleted GCMa in mice. Genetic ablation of murine GCMa (mGCMa) is embryonic lethal, with mice dying between 9.5 and 10 days postcoitum...
  4. Tunster S, Tycko B, John R. The imprinted Phlda2 gene regulates extraembryonic energy stores. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:295-306 pubmed publisher
  5. Aoki M, Mieda M, Ikeda T, Hamada Y, Nakamura H, Okamoto H. R-spondin3 is required for mouse placental development. Dev Biol. 2007;301:218-26 pubmed
    ..In the homozygous mutant placentas, fetal blood vessels did not penetrate into the chorion, and expression of Gcm1, encoding the transcription factor glial cells missing-1 (Gcm1), was dramatically reduced in the chorionic ..
  6. Fan B, Brennan J, Grant D, Peale F, Rangell L, Kirchhofer D. Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor-1 (HAI-1) is essential for the integrity of basement membranes in the developing placental labyrinth. Dev Biol. 2007;303:222-30 pubmed
    ..Our study demonstrates the important role of HAI-1 in maintaining the integrity of basement membrane most likely by regulating extracellular proteolytic activities during placental development. ..
  7. Simmons D, Natale D, Begay V, Hughes M, Leutz A, Cross J. Early patterning of the chorion leads to the trilaminar trophoblast cell structure in the placental labyrinth. Development. 2008;135:2083-91 pubmed publisher
    ..5-14.5) including Ctsq in S-TGCs (also Hand1-positive), Syna in syncytiotrophoblast layer I (SynT-I), and Gcm1, Cebpa and Synb in syncytiotrophoblast layer II (SynT-II)...
  8. Matsuura K, Jigami T, Taniue K, Morishita Y, Adachi S, Senda T, et al. Identification of a link between Wnt/?-catenin signalling and the cell fusion pathway. Nat Commun. 2011;2:548 pubmed publisher
    ..novel targets of Wnt/?-catenin signalling, we identified glial cells missing 1 (GCM1), which encodes a transcription factor that is involved in epigenetic regulation and is critical ..
  9. Stecca B, Nait Oumesmar B, Kelley K, Voss A, Thomas T, Lazzarini R. Gcm1 expression defines three stages of chorio-allantoic interaction during placental development. Mech Dev. 2002;115:27-34 pubmed
    ..The transcription factor glial cells missing 1 (Gcm1) plays a pivotal role in labyrinth development, but the sequence of events controlling its expression has not been ..

More Information


  1. Anson Cartwright L, Dawson K, Holmyard D, Fisher S, Lazzarini R, Cross J. The glial cells missing-1 protein is essential for branching morphogenesis in the chorioallantoic placenta. Nat Genet. 2000;25:311-4 pubmed
    ..We show here that Gcm1, encoding the transcription factor glial cells missing-1 (Gcm1), is expressed in small clusters of chorionic ..
  2. Hunter P, Swanson B, Haendel M, Lyons G, Cross J. Mrj encodes a DnaJ-related co-chaperone that is essential for murine placental development. Development. 1999;126:1247-58 pubmed
    ..However, expression of the chorionic trophoblast-specific transcription factor genes Err2 and Gcm1 was significantly reduced...
  3. Dupressoir A, Vernochet C, Harper F, Guégan J, Dessen P, Pierron G, et al. A pair of co-opted retroviral envelope syncytin genes is required for formation of the two-layered murine placental syncytiotrophoblast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:E1164-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Although some are absolutely required for completion of pregnancy, others are still amenable to "epigenetic" compensations, thus illustrating the complexity of the molecular machinery that developed during placental evolution. ..
  4. Basyuk E, Cross J, Corbin J, Nakayama H, Hunter P, Nait Oumesmar B, et al. Murine Gcm1 gene is expressed in a subset of placental trophoblast cells. Dev Dyn. 1999;214:303-11 pubmed
    ..1996; this communication). Here we report the molecular organization of the murine Gcm1, its spatio-temporal pattern of expression in developing placenta, and its map position at E1-E3 on murine ..
  5. Dupressoir A, Vernochet C, Bawa O, Harper F, Pierron G, Opolon P, et al. Syncytin-A knockout mice demonstrate the critical role in placentation of a fusogenic, endogenous retrovirus-derived, envelope gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:12127-32 pubmed publisher
  6. Tanaka H, Nagaike K, Takeda N, Itoh H, Kohama K, Fukushima T, et al. Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 (HAI-1) is required for branching morphogenesis in the chorioallantoic placenta. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:5687-98 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that mouse HAI-1 is essential for branching morphogenesis in the chorioallantoic placenta and lack of HAI-1 function may result in placental failure. ..
  7. Hitoshi S, Ishino Y, Kumar A, Jasmine S, Tanaka K, Kondo T, et al. Mammalian Gcm genes induce Hes5 expression by active DNA demethylation and induce neural stem cells. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:957-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that mammalian Gcm1 and Gcm2 (glial cells missing 1 and 2) are involved in the epigenetic regulation of Hes5 transcription by DNA ..
  8. Adamson S, Lu Y, Whiteley K, Holmyard D, Hemberger M, Pfarrer C, et al. Interactions between trophoblast cells and the maternal and fetal circulation in the mouse placenta. Dev Biol. 2002;250:358-73 pubmed
    ..blood spaces within the labyrinth was dependent on chorioallantoic morphogenesis and therefore disrupted in Gcm1 mutants...
  9. Molotkov A, Mazot P, Brewer J, Cinalli R, Soriano P. Distinct Requirements for FGFR1 and FGFR2 in Primitive Endoderm Development and Exit from Pluripotency. Dev Cell. 2017;41:511-526.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results identify mechanisms through which FGF signaling regulates inner cell mass lineage restriction and cell commitment during preimplantation development. ..
  10. Kashif M, Hellwig A, Kolleker A, Shahzad K, Wang H, Lang S, et al. p45NF-E2 represses Gcm1 in trophoblast cells to regulate syncytium formation, placental vascularization and embryonic growth. Development. 2011;138:2235-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of p45NF-E2 in labyrinthine trophoblast cells colocalizes with that of Gcm1, a transcription factor crucial for syncytiotrophoblast formation...
  11. Watson E, Hughes M, Simmons D, Natale D, Sutherland A, Cross J. Cell-cell adhesion defects in Mrj mutant trophoblast cells are associated with failure to pattern the chorion during early placental development. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:2505-19 pubmed publisher
    ..syncytiotrophoblast cells since Rhox4b expression, a marker of syncytiotrophoblast progenitors, was maintained and Gcm1, Synb, and Syna expression failed to increase...
  12. Altshuller Y, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Frohman M. Gcm1, a mammalian homolog of Drosophila glial cells missing. FEBS Lett. 1996;393:201-4 pubmed
    ..Mouse Gcm1 demonstrates extensive similarity to Drosophila gcm but is expressed at very low levels during neuro- and ..
  13. Kim J, Jones B, Zock C, Chen Z, Wang H, Goodman C, et al. Isolation and characterization of mammalian homologs of the Drosophila gene glial cells missing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:12364-9 pubmed
    ..We report here the isolation of two mammalian gcm homologs, Gcm1 and Gcm2, and the characterization of their expression patterns during embryonic development...
  14. Hashemolhosseini S, Kilian K, Kardash E, Lischka P, Stamminger T, Wegner M. Structural requirements for nuclear localization of GCMa/Gcm-1. FEBS Lett. 2003;553:315-20 pubmed
    ..Whereas GCMb/Gcm-2 contained a classical bipartite NLS, nuclear localization of GCMa/Gcm-1 was mediated by two regions without resemblance to known NLS, one corresponding to the amino-terminal part of ..
  15. Dawson P, Rakoczy J, Simmons D. Placental, renal, and ileal sulfate transporter gene expression in mouse gestation. Biol Reprod. 2012;87:43 pubmed publisher
  16. Tunster S, Van de Pette M, John R. Fetal overgrowth in the Cdkn1c mouse model of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Dis Model Mech. 2011;4:814-21 pubmed publisher
  17. Chiu S, Asai N, Costantini F, Hsu W. SUMO-specific protease 2 is essential for modulating p53-Mdm2 in development of trophoblast stem cell niches and lineages. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e310 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal a key genetic pathway, SENP2-Mdm2-p53, underlying trophoblast lineage development, suggesting its pivotal role in cell cycle progression of mitosis and endoreduplication. ..
  18. Bissonauth V, Roy S, Gravel M, Guillemette S, Charron J. Requirement for Map2k1 (Mek1) in extra-embryonic ectoderm during placentogenesis. Development. 2006;133:3429-40 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these data enlighten the essential role of Map2k1 in extra-embryonic ectoderm during placentogenesis. In the embryo, the Map2k1 gene function appears dispensable. ..
  19. Ueno M, Lee L, Chhabra A, Kim Y, Sasidharan R, Van Handel B, et al. c-Met-dependent multipotent labyrinth trophoblast progenitors establish placental exchange interface. Dev Cell. 2013;27:373-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification of this c-Met-dependent multipotent LaTP provides a landmark in the poorly defined placental stem/progenitor cell hierarchy and may help us understand pregnancy complications caused by a defective placental exchange. ..
  20. Sripathy S, Lee M, Vasioukhin V. Mammalian Llgl2 is necessary for proper branching morphogenesis during placental development. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:2920-33 pubmed publisher
  21. Saito A, Kanemoto S, Kawasaki N, Asada R, Iwamoto H, Oki M, et al. Unfolded protein response, activated by OASIS family transcription factors, promotes astrocyte differentiation. Nat Commun. 2012;3:967 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcription factor Gcm1, which is necessary for astrocyte differentiation in Drosophila, is revealed to be a target of OASIS...
  22. Lacko L, Hurtado R, Hinds S, Poulos M, Butler J, Stuhlmann H. Altered feto-placental vascularization, feto-placental malperfusion and fetal growth restriction in mice with Egfl7 loss of function. Development. 2017;144:2469-2479 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of genes involved in branching morphogenesis, Gcm1, Syna and Synb, and in patterning of the extracellular matrix, Mmrn1, were temporally ..
  23. Schubert S, Lamoureux N, Kilian K, Klein Hitpass L, Hashemolhosseini S. Identification of integrin-alpha4, Rb1, and syncytin a as murine placental target genes of the transcription factor GCMa/Gcm1. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:5460-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In mammals, two GCM genes are known (GCMa and GCMb), but the knowledge of their target genes is very limited...
  24. Kröger C, Vijayaraj P, Reuter U, Windoffer R, Simmons D, Heukamp L, et al. Placental vasculogenesis is regulated by keratin-mediated hyperoxia in murine decidual tissues. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:1578-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that keratin mutations might mediate conditions leading to early pregnancy loss due to hyperoxia in the decidua. ..
  25. Raffel G, Chu G, Jesneck J, Cullen D, Bronson R, Bernard O, et al. Ott1 (Rbm15) is essential for placental vascular branching morphogenesis and embryonic development of the heart and spleen. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:333-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Ott1-dependent pathways, in addition to being implicated in leukemogenesis, may also be important for the pathogenesis of placental insufficiency and cardiac malformations. ..
  26. Iwasaki Y, Hosoya T, Takebayashi H, Ogawa Y, Hotta Y, Ikenaka K. The potential to induce glial differentiation is conserved between Drosophila and mammalian glial cells missing genes. Development. 2003;130:6027-35 pubmed
    ..Expression of these genes appeared to influence fibroblast features. In particular, mouse Gcm1 induced the expression of astrocyte-specific Ca(2+)-binding protein, S100beta, in those cells...
  27. Katsanou V, Milatos S, Yiakouvaki A, Sgantzis N, Kotsoni A, Alexiou M, et al. The RNA-binding protein Elavl1/HuR is essential for placental branching morphogenesis and embryonic development. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:2762-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data demonstrate the dominant role of HuR in organizing gene expression programs guiding placental labyrinth morphogenesis, skeletal specification patterns, and splenic ontogeny. ..
  28. Oh McGinnis R, Bogutz A, Lefebvre L. Partial loss of Ascl2 function affects all three layers of the mature placenta and causes intrauterine growth restriction. Dev Biol. 2011;351:277-86 pubmed publisher
  29. Chubanov V, Ferioli S, Wisnowsky A, Simmons D, Leitzinger C, Einer C, et al. Epithelial magnesium transport by TRPM6 is essential for prenatal development and adult survival. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, maintenance of organismal Mg2+ balance by TRPM6 is crucial for prenatal development and survival to adulthood. ..
  30. Hu X, Li J, Zhang Q, Zheng L, Wang G, Zhang X, et al. Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase (PI3K) Subunit p110? Is Essential for Trophoblast Cell Differentiation and Placental Development in Mouse. Sci Rep. 2016;6:28201 pubmed publisher
    ..These data, taken together, provide the first in vivo evidence that p110? may play an important role in placental vascularization through manipulating trophoblast giant cell. ..
  31. You L, Yan K, Zou J, Zhao H, Bertos N, Park M, et al. The chromatin regulator Brpf1 regulates embryo development and cell proliferation. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:11349-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These results uncover a crucial role of Brpf1 in controlling mouse embryo development and regulating cellular and gene expression programs. ..
  32. Lu J, Zhang S, Nakano H, Simmons D, Wang S, Kong S, et al. A positive feedback loop involving Gcm1 and Fzd5 directs chorionic branching morphogenesis in the placenta. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001536 pubmed publisher
    ..Employing global and trophoblast-specific Fzd5-null and Gcm1-deficient mouse models, combining trophoblast stem cell lines and tetraploid aggregation assay, we demonstrate here ..
  33. Rakoczy J, Zhang Z, Bowling F, Dawson P, Simmons D. Loss of the sulfate transporter Slc13a4 in placenta causes severe fetal abnormalities and death in mice. Cell Res. 2015;25:1273-6 pubmed publisher
  34. Mould A, Morgan M, Li L, Bikoff E, Robertson E. Blimp1/Prdm1 governs terminal differentiation of endovascular trophoblast giant cells and defines multipotent progenitors in the developing placenta. Genes Dev. 2012;26:2063-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In sum, the transcriptional repressor Blimp1/Prdm1 is required for terminal differentiation of SpA-TGCs and defines a lineage-restricted progenitor cell population contributing to placental growth and morphogenesis. ..
  35. Arsenault P, Song D, Chung Y, Khurana T, Lee F. The Zinc Finger of Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain Protein 2 Is Essential for Efficient Hydroxylation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor α. Mol Cell Biol. 2016;36:2328-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these findings have important implications for understanding both the molecular mechanism of the hypoxic response and human adaptation to high altitude. ..
  36. Cao Q, Chen H, Deng Z, Yue J, Chen Q, Cao Y, et al. Genetic deletion of Cxcl14 in mice alters uterine NK cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;435:664-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results suggested the important function of Cxcl14 in uNK cells and the proper level of Cxcl14 protein were required to recruit NK cells to pregnant uterus. ..
  37. Park C, DeMayo F, Lydon J, Dufort D. NODAL in the uterus is necessary for proper placental development and maintenance of pregnancy. Biol Reprod. 2012;86:194 pubmed publisher
  38. Baczyk D, Kibschull M, Mellstrom B, Levytska K, Rivas M, Drewlo S, et al. DREAM mediated regulation of GCM1 in the human placental trophoblast. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e51837 pubmed publisher
    The trophoblast transcription factor glial cell missing-1 (GCM1) regulates differentiation of placental cytotrophoblasts into the syncytiotrophoblast layer in contact with maternal blood...
  39. Duval C, Dilworth M, Tunster S, Kimber S, Glazier J. PTHrP is essential for normal morphogenetic and functional development of the murine placenta. Dev Biol. 2017;430:325-336 pubmed publisher
  40. Natale D, Hemberger M, Hughes M, Cross J. Activin promotes differentiation of cultured mouse trophoblast stem cells towards a labyrinth cell fate. Dev Biol. 2009;335:120-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Activin rather than TGF-beta (or Nodal) acts directly on TS cells influencing both TS cell maintenance and cell fate, depending on whether the cells are also exposed to FGF4. ..
  41. Cohen S, Moulin M, Schilling O, Meyer Klaucke W, Schreiber J, Wegner M, et al. The GCM domain is a Zn-coordinating DNA-binding domain. FEBS Lett. 2002;528:95-100 pubmed
    ..Our results define the GCM domain as a new type of Zn-coordinating, sequence-specific DNA-binding domain. ..
  42. Hamada Y, Hiroe T, Suzuki Y, Oda M, Tsujimoto Y, Coleman J, et al. Notch2 is required for formation of the placental circulatory system, but not for cell-type specification in the developing mouse placenta. Differentiation. 2007;75:268-78 pubmed
    ..Thus, Notch2 is not cell autonomously required for the early cell fate determination of subtypes of trophoblast cells, but plays an indispensable role in the formation of maternal blood sinuses in the developing mouse placenta. ..
  43. Stemmler M, Bedzhov I. A Cdh1HA knock-in allele rescues the Cdh1-/- phenotype but shows essential Cdh1 function during placentation. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2330-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Placentas without Cdh1 expression are impaired and incapable of establishing a proper connection between the embryonic and the maternal blood vessels for efficient nutrient and oxygen transport. ..
  44. Reifegerste R, Schreiber J, Gulland S, Lüdemann A, Wegner M. mGCMa is a murine transcription factor that overrides cell fate decisions in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 1999;82:141-50 pubmed
    ..Sequence similarities between GCM and the recently identified mouse protein mGCMa are strictly limited to the aminoterminal DNA-binding domain...
  45. Nait Oumesmar B, Copperman A, Lazzarini R. Placental expression and chromosomal localization of the human Gcm 1 gene. J Histochem Cytochem. 2000;48:915-22 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate expression of the mouse and human GCM 1 proteins in placenta...
  46. Nait Oumesmar B, Stecca B, Fatterpekar G, Naidich T, Corbin J, Lazzarini R. Ectopic expression of Gcm1 induces congenital spinal cord abnormalities. Development. 2002;129:3957-64 pubmed
    Brief ectopic expression of Gcm1 in mouse embryonic tail bud profoundly affects the development of the nervous system...
  47. Hashemolhosseini S, Hadjihannas M, Stolt C, Haas C, Amann K, Wegner M. Restricted expression of mouse GCMa/Gcm1 in kidney and thymus. Mech Dev. 2002;118:175-8 pubmed
    Mouse Glial Cells Missing a (mGCMa) belongs to a small family of transcription factors named after the prototypical GCM from Drosophila...
  48. Begay V, Smink J, Leutz A. Essential requirement of CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins in embryogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:9744-51 pubmed
    ..Our data thus reveal novel essential, redundant, and dosage dependent functions of C/EBPs. ..
  49. Bowl M, Mirczuk S, Grigorieva I, Piret S, Cranston T, Southam L, et al. Identification and characterization of novel parathyroid-specific transcription factor Glial Cells Missing Homolog B (GCMB) mutations in eight families with autosomal recessive hypoparathyroidism. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:2028-38 pubmed publisher
  50. Sachs M, Brohmann H, Zechner D, Muller T, Hülsken J, Walther I, et al. Essential role of Gab1 for signaling by the c-Met receptor in vivo. J Cell Biol. 2000;150:1375-84 pubmed
    ..This is genetic evidence that Gab1 is essential for c-Met signaling in vivo. Analogy exists to signal transmission by insulin receptors, which require IRS1 and IRS2 as specific docking proteins. ..
  51. Cohen S, Moulin M, Hashemolhosseini S, Kilian K, Wegner M, Müller C. Structure of the GCM domain-DNA complex: a DNA-binding domain with a novel fold and mode of target site recognition. EMBO J. 2003;22:1835-45 pubmed
    ..Here we present the crystal structure of the GCM domain from murine GCMa bound to its octameric DNA target site at 2.85 A resolution...
  52. Plaks V, Rinkenberger J, Dai J, Flannery M, Sund M, Kanasaki K, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 deficiency phenocopies features of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:11109-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data show that fetal and maternal MMP9 play a role in the development of PE and establish the MMP9-null mice as a much-needed model to study the clinical course of this syndrome. ..
  53. van Nes J, de Graaff W, Lebrin F, Gerhard M, Beck F, Deschamps J. The Cdx4 mutation affects axial development and reveals an essential role of Cdx genes in the ontogenesis of the placental labyrinth in mice. Development. 2006;133:419-28 pubmed
    ..Cdx genes thus operate in a redundant way during placentogenesis, as they do during embryonic axial elongation and patterning, and independently from the previously reported early Cdx2-specific role in the trophectoderm at implantation...
  54. Tsunematsu R, Nishiyama M, Kotoshiba S, Saiga T, Kamura T, Nakayama K. Fbxw8 is essential for Cul1-Cul7 complex formation and for placental development. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:6157-69 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the Cul7-based SCF-like E3 complex has both Fbxw8-dependent and Fbxw8-independent functions. ..
  55. Papadaki C, Alexiou M, Cecena G, Verykokakis M, Bilitou A, Cross J, et al. Transcriptional repressor erf determines extraembryonic ectoderm differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:5201-13 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that attenuation of FGF/Erk signaling and consecutive Erf nuclear localization and function is required for extraembryonic ectoderm differentiation, ectoplacental cone cavity closure, and chorioallantoic attachment. ..
  56. Kanasaki K, Palmsten K, Sugimoto H, Ahmad S, Hamano Y, Xie L, et al. Deficiency in catechol-O-methyltransferase and 2-methoxyoestradiol is associated with pre-eclampsia. Nature. 2008;453:1117-21 pubmed publisher
  57. Gordon J, Patel S, Mishina Y, Manley N. Evidence for an early role for BMP4 signaling in thymus and parathyroid morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2010;339:141-54 pubmed publisher
  58. Hu D, Scott I, Snider F, Geary Joo C, Zhao X, Simmons D, et al. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Hand1 regulates mouse development as a homodimer. Dev Biol. 2013;382:470-81 pubmed publisher
  59. Hughes M, Dobric N, Scott I, Su L, Starovic M, St Pierre B, et al. The Hand1, Stra13 and Gcm1 transcription factors override FGF signaling to promote terminal differentiation of trophoblast stem cells. Dev Biol. 2004;271:26-37 pubmed
    ..of the differentiated derivatives are dependent on key transcription factors: Mash2 for SpT, Hand1 for TG cells and Gcm1 for SynT cells...
  60. Szabo R, Peters D, Kosa P, Camerer E, Bugge T. Regulation of feto-maternal barrier by matriptase- and PAR-2-mediated signaling is required for placental morphogenesis and mouse embryonic survival. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004470 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal unexpected complementary roles of matriptase-prostasin- and PAR-2-dependent proteolytic signaling in the establishment of placental epithelial barrier function and overall embryonic survival. ..
  61. Bainbridge S, Minhas A, Whiteley K, Qu D, Sled J, Kingdom J, et al. Effects of reduced Gcm1 expression on trophoblast morphology, fetoplacental vascularity, and pregnancy outcomes in mice. Hypertension. 2012;59:732-9 pubmed publisher
    ..include abnormal syncytiotrophoblast and a 50% reduction in placental expression of the transcription factor Gcm1. In mice, homozygous deletion of Gcm1 prevents syncytiotrophoblast differentiation and is embryonic lethal...
  62. Nadeau V, Guillemette S, Bélanger L, Jacob O, Roy S, Charron J. Map2k1 and Map2k2 genes contribute to the normal development of syncytiotrophoblasts during placentation. Development. 2009;136:1363-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic experiments indicate that these structures are derived from Gcm1-expressing syncytiotrophoblasts (SynT), which are affected in their ability to form the uniform SynT layer II ..
  63. Akiyama Y, Hosoya T, Poole A, Hotta Y. The gcm-motif: a novel DNA-binding motif conserved in Drosophila and mammals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:14912-6 pubmed
    ..The gcm-motif, therefore, forms a family of novel DNA-binding proteins, and may function in various aspects of cell fate determination. ..