Gene Symbol: Gck
Description: glucokinase
Alias: GLK, Gls006, HK4, HKIV, HXKP, Hlb62, MODY2, glucokinase, HK IV, hexokinase type IV, hexokinase-4, hexokinase-D
Species: mouse
Products:     Gck

Top Publications

  1. Toye A, Moir L, Hugill A, Bentley L, Quarterman J, Mijat V, et al. A new mouse model of type 2 diabetes, produced by N-ethyl-nitrosourea mutagenesis, is the result of a missense mutation in the glucokinase gene. Diabetes. 2004;53:1577-83 pubmed
    ..0). Positional candidate gene analyses revealed an A to T transversion mutation in exon 9 of the glucokinase gene, resulting in an isoleucine to phenylalanine change at amino acid 366 (I366F)...
  2. Terauchi Y, Takamoto I, Kubota N, Matsui J, Suzuki R, Komeda K, et al. Glucokinase and IRS-2 are required for compensatory beta cell hyperplasia in response to high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:246-57 pubmed
    b>Glucokinase (Gck) functions as a glucose sensor for insulin secretion, and in mice fed standard chow, haploinsufficiency of beta cell-specific Gck (Gck(+/-)) causes impaired insulin secretion to glucose, although the animals have a ..
  3. Valtat B, Dupuis C, Zenaty D, Singh Estivalet A, Tronche F, Breant B, et al. Genetic evidence of the programming of beta cell mass and function by glucocorticoids in mice. Diabetologia. 2011;54:350-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the crucial role of excess fetal glucocorticoids and the importance of GR signalling in progenitor cells to programme beta cell mass and dysfunction. ..
  4. van Bürck L, Blutke A, Kautz S, Rathkolb B, Klaften M, Wagner S, et al. Phenotypic and pathomorphological characteristics of a novel mutant mouse model for maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 2 (MODY 2). Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;298:E512-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutants exhibit a T to G transversion mutation at nt 629 in the glucokinase (Gck) gene, leading to an amino acid exchange from methionine to arginine at position 210...
  5. Wang R, Gao H, Xu W, Li H, Mao Y, Wang Y, et al. Differential expression of genes and changes in glucose metabolism in the liver of liver-specific glucokinase gene knockout mice. Gene. 2013;516:248-54 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the role of liver-specific expression of glucokinase (GCK) in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia and to identify candidate genes involved in mechanisms of the onset and progression of maturity onset diabetes of the young, ..
  6. Shirakawa J, Tanami R, Togashi Y, Tajima K, Orime K, Kubota N, et al. Effects of liraglutide on ?-cell-specific glucokinase-deficient neonatal mice. Endocrinology. 2012;153:3066-75 pubmed publisher
    ..In ?-cells, the glycolytic enzyme glucokinase plays a pivotal role as a glucose sensor...
  7. Zelent D, Golson M, Koeberlein B, Quintens R, Van Lommel L, Buettger C, et al. A glucose sensor role for glucokinase in anterior pituitary cells. Diabetes. 2006;55:1923-9 pubmed
    Enzymatic activity of glucokinase was demonstrated, quantitated, and characterized kinetically in rat and mouse pituitary extracts using a highly specific and sensitive spectrometric assay...
  8. Nakamura A, Terauchi Y, Ohyama S, Kubota J, Shimazaki H, Nambu T, et al. Impact of small-molecule glucokinase activator on glucose metabolism and beta-cell mass. Endocrinology. 2009;150:1147-54 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the effect of glucokinase activator (GKA) on glucose metabolism and beta-cell mass...
  9. Kim J, Song E, Lee H, Oh Y, Park Y, Park J, et al. Chronic ethanol consumption-induced pancreatic {beta}-cell dysfunction and apoptosis through glucokinase nitration and its down-regulation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:37251-62 pubmed publisher
    ..of pancreatic ?-cells to mediate insulin secretion and ATP production in coordination with the decrease of glucokinase, Glut2, and insulin expression...

More Information


  1. Postic C, Shiota M, Niswender K, Jetton T, Chen Y, Moates J, et al. Dual roles for glucokinase in glucose homeostasis as determined by liver and pancreatic beta cell-specific gene knock-outs using Cre recombinase. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:305-15 pubmed
    b>Glucokinase (GK) gene mutations cause diabetes mellitus in both humans and mouse models, but the pathophysiological basis is only partially defined...
  2. Hrabe de Angelis M, Flaswinkel H, Fuchs H, Rathkolb B, Soewarto D, Marschall S, et al. Genome-wide, large-scale production of mutant mice by ENU mutagenesis. Nat Genet. 2000;25:444-7 pubmed
    ..Our mutant lines are freely accessible to non-commercial users (for information, see http://www.gsf.de/ieg/groups/enu-mouse.html). ..
  3. Grupe A, Hultgren B, Ryan A, Ma Y, Bauer M, Stewart T. Transgenic knockouts reveal a critical requirement for pancreatic beta cell glucokinase in maintaining glucose homeostasis. Cell. 1995;83:69-78 pubmed
    ..As phosphorylation by glucokinase (GLK) appears to be the rate-limiting step for glucose catabolism in beta cells, this enzyme may be the glucose ..
  4. Terauchi Y, Sakura H, Yasuda K, Iwamoto K, Takahashi N, Ito K, et al. Pancreatic beta-cell-specific targeted disruption of glucokinase gene. Diabetes mellitus due to defective insulin secretion to glucose. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:30253-6 pubmed
    Mice carrying a null mutation in the glucokinase (GK) gene in pancreatic beta-cells, but not in the liver, were generated by disrupting the beta-cell-specific exon...
  5. Toye A, Lippiat J, Proks P, Shimomura K, Bentley L, Hugill A, et al. A genetic and physiological study of impaired glucose homeostasis control in C57BL/6J mice. Diabetologia. 2005;48:675-86 pubmed
    ..There is a missense mutation in exon 1 and a multi-exon deletion in the C57BL/6J gene. Glucokinase lies within the Gluchos2 locus and shows reduced enzyme activity in liver...
  6. Zhang Y, Tan X, Xiao M, Li H, Mao Y, Yang X, et al. Establishment of liver specific glucokinase gene knockout mice: a new animal model for screening anti-diabetic drugs. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2004;25:1659-65 pubmed
    To characterize the liver-specific role of glucokinase in maintaining glucose homeostasis and to create an animal model for diabetes...
  7. Sussel L, Kalamaras J, Hartigan O Connor D, Meneses J, Pedersen R, Rubenstein J, et al. Mice lacking the homeodomain transcription factor Nkx2.2 have diabetes due to arrested differentiation of pancreatic beta cells. Development. 1998;125:2213-21 pubmed
    ..1. We propose that Nkx2.2 is required for the final differentiation of pancreatic beta cells, and in its absence, beta cells are trapped in an incompletely differentiated state. ..
  8. Danial N, Walensky L, Zhang C, Choi C, Fisher J, Molina A, et al. Dual role of proapoptotic BAD in insulin secretion and beta cell survival. Nat Med. 2008;14:144-53 pubmed publisher
    The proapoptotic BCL-2 family member BAD resides in a glucokinase-containing complex that regulates glucose-driven mitochondrial respiration...
  9. Inoue M, Sakuraba Y, Motegi H, Kubota N, Toki H, Matsui J, et al. A series of maturity onset diabetes of the young, type 2 (MODY2) mouse models generated by a large-scale ENU mutagenesis program. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:1147-57 pubmed
    ..9375 animals for dominant traits using a clinical biochemical test and thereby identified 11 mutations in the glucokinase (Gk) gene that were associated with hyperglycemia...
  10. Porat S, Weinberg Corem N, Tornovsky Babaey S, Schyr Ben Haroush R, Hija A, Stolovich Rain M, et al. Control of pancreatic ? cell regeneration by glucose metabolism. Cell Metab. 2011;13:440-449 pubmed publisher
    ..genetic and pharmacologic manipulations reveal that glucose induces ? cell replication via metabolism by glucokinase, the first step of glycolysis, followed by closure of K(ATP) channels and membrane depolarization...
  11. Shirakawa J, Amo K, Ohminami H, Orime K, Togashi Y, Ito Y, et al. Protective effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor against increased ? cell apoptosis induced by dietary sucrose and linoleic acid in mice with diabetes. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:25467-76 pubmed publisher
    ..We challenged ? cell-specific glucokinase haploinsufficient (Gck(+/-)) mice with a diet containing sucrose and oleic acid (SO) or sucrose and linoleic ..
  12. Arden C, Harbottle A, Baltrusch S, Tiedge M, Agius L. Glucokinase is an integral component of the insulin granules in glucose-responsive insulin secretory cells and does not translocate during glucose stimulation. Diabetes. 2004;53:2346-52 pubmed
    The association of glucokinase with insulin secretory granules has been shown by cell microscopy techniques...
  13. Fyfe M, White J, Taylor A, Chatfield R, Wargent E, Printz R, et al. Glucokinase activator PSN-GK1 displays enhanced antihyperglycaemic and insulinotropic actions. Diabetologia. 2007;50:1277-87 pubmed
    We evaluated the insulinotropic and antihyperglycaemic actions of glucokinase activators (GKAs), especially through acute and subchronic studies in rodent diabetes models with (2R)-2-(4-cyclopropanesulphonylphenyl)-N-(5-fluorothiazol-2-..
  14. Reinert R, Brissova M, Shostak A, Pan F, Poffenberger G, Cai Q, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor-a and islet vascularization are necessary in developing, but not adult, pancreatic islets. Diabetes. 2013;62:4154-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that VEGF-A and islet vascularization have a lesser role in adult islet function and ?-cell mass. ..
  15. Babaya N, Fujisawa T, Nojima K, Itoi Babaya M, Yamaji K, Yamada K, et al. Direct evidence for susceptibility genes for type 2 diabetes on mouse chromosomes 11 and 14. Diabetologia. 2010;53:1362-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The glucokinase gene was sequenced as a positional candidate gene on Chr11...
  16. Dentin R, Pégorier J, Benhamed F, Foufelle F, Ferre P, Fauveau V, et al. Hepatic glucokinase is required for the synergistic action of ChREBP and SREBP-1c on glycolytic and lipogenic gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:20314-26 pubmed
    Hepatic glucokinase (GK) catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose to glucose 6-phosphate (G6P), a step which is essential for glucose metabolism in liver as well as for the induction of glycolytic and lipogenic genes...
  17. Terauchi Y, Iwamoto K, Tamemoto H, Komeda K, Ishii C, Kanazawa Y, et al. Development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the double knockout mice with disruption of insulin receptor substrate-1 and beta cell glucokinase genes. Genetic reconstitution of diabetes as a polygenic disease. J Clin Invest. 1997;99:861-6 pubmed
    ..Heterozygous mice with beta cell glucokinase (GK) gene knockout showed impaired glucose tolerance due to decreased insulin secretion to glucose...
  18. Fenner D, Odili S, Hong H, Kobayashi Y, Kohsaka A, Siepka S, et al. Generation of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) diabetes models in mice demonstrates genotype-specific action of glucokinase activators. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:39560-72 pubmed publisher
    ..two semi-dominant pedigrees with novel missense mutations (Gck(K140E) and Gck(P417R)) in the gene encoding glucokinase (Gck), the mammalian glucose sensor that is mutated in human maturity onset diabetes of the young type 2 and ..
  19. Baggio L, Huang Q, Cao X, Drucker D. An albumin-exendin-4 conjugate engages central and peripheral circuits regulating murine energy and glucose homeostasis. Gastroenterology. 2008;134:1137-47 pubmed publisher
  20. Hagiwara A, Cornu M, Cybulski N, Polak P, Betz C, Trapani F, et al. Hepatic mTORC2 activates glycolysis and lipogenesis through Akt, glucokinase, and SREBP1c. Cell Metab. 2012;15:725-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Fed LiRiKO mice displayed loss of Akt Ser473 phosphorylation and reduced glucokinase and SREBP1c activity in the liver, leading to constitutive gluconeogenesis, and impaired glycolysis and ..
  21. Sakura H, Ashcroft S, Terauchi Y, Kadowaki T, Ashcroft F. Glucose modulation of ATP-sensitive K-currents in wild-type, homozygous and heterozygous glucokinase knock-out mice. Diabetologia. 1998;41:654-9 pubmed
    One type of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY2) is caused by mutations in the glucokinase gene, a key glycolytic enzyme in the beta cell and liver...
  22. Hofmeister Brix A, Lenzen S, Baltrusch S. The ubiquitin-proteasome system regulates the stability and activity of the glucose sensor glucokinase in pancreatic ?-cells. Biochem J. 2013;456:173-84 pubmed publisher
    ..It remains unknown, however, whether the glucose sensor enzyme glucokinase is involved in this process...
  23. Talchai C, Xuan S, Kitamura T, Depinho R, Accili D. Generation of functional insulin-producing cells in the gut by Foxo1 ablation. Nat Genet. 2012;44:406-12, S1 pubmed publisher
    ..The data indicate that Neurog3(+) enteroendocrine progenitors require active Foxo1 to prevent differentiation into Ins(+) cells. Foxo1 ablation in gut epithelium may provide an approach to restore insulin production in type 1 diabetes. ..
  24. Pino M, Kim K, Shelton K, Lindner J, Odili S, Li C, et al. Glucokinase thermolability and hepatic regulatory protein binding are essential factors for predicting the blood glucose phenotype of missense mutations. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:13906-16 pubmed
    To better understand how glucokinase (GK) missense mutations associated with human glycemic diseases perturb glucose homeostasis, we generated and characterized mice with either an activating (A456V) or inactivating (K414E) mutation in ..
  25. Lindahl M, Danilova T, Palm E, Lindholm P, Voikar V, Hakonen E, et al. MANF is indispensable for the proliferation and survival of pancreatic ? cells. Cell Rep. 2014;7:366-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that MANF specifically promotes ? cell proliferation and survival, thereby constituting a therapeutic candidate for ? cell protection and regeneration. ..
  26. Shiota M, Postic C, Fujimoto Y, Jetton T, Dixon K, Pan D, et al. Glucokinase gene locus transgenic mice are resistant to the development of obesity-induced type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2001;50:622-9 pubmed
    Transgenic mice that overexpress the entire glucokinase (GK) gene locus have been previously shown to be mildly hypoglycemic and to have improved tolerance to glucose...
  27. Schinner S, Ulgen F, Papewalis C, Schott M, Woelk A, Vidal Puig A, et al. Regulation of insulin secretion, glucokinase gene transcription and beta cell proliferation by adipocyte-derived Wnt signalling molecules. Diabetologia. 2008;51:147-54 pubmed
    ..At a molecular level, canonical Wnt signalling induced glucokinase gene transcription in a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent fashion, thereby defining ..
  28. Goldsworthy M, Hugill A, Freeman H, Horner E, Shimomura K, Bogani D, et al. Role of the transcription factor sox4 in insulin secretion and impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes. 2008;57:2234-44 pubmed publisher
    ..of glucose-stimulated insulin release similar to that observed for silencing of the key metabolic enzyme glucokinase. Intracellular calcium measurements in treated cells indicate that this defect lies downstream of the ATP-..
  29. Schworer S, Smirnova I, Kurbatova I, Bagina U, Churova M, Fowler T, et al. Toll-like receptor-mediated down-regulation of the deubiquitinase cylindromatosis (CYLD) protects macrophages from necroptosis in wild-derived mice. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:14422-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that CYLD is required for Toll-like receptor-induced necroptosis and describe a novel mechanism by which CYLD is down-regulated at the transcriptional level in MOLF/EiJ macrophages to confer protection from necroptosis. ..
  30. Markwardt M, Seckinger K, Rizzo M. Regulation of Glucokinase by Intracellular Calcium Levels in Pancreatic β Cells. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:3000-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucokinase (GCK) controls the rate of glucose metabolism in pancreatic β cells, and its activity is rate-limiting for insulin secretion...
  31. Sekine K, Chen Y, Kojima N, Ogata K, Fukamizu A, Miyajima A. Foxo1 links insulin signaling to C/EBPalpha and regulates gluconeogenesis during liver development. EMBO J. 2007;26:3607-15 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Foxo1 regulates gluconeogenesis cooperatively with C/EBPalpha, and also links insulin signaling to C/EBPalpha during liver development. ..
  32. Tsukita S, Yamada T, Uno K, Takahashi K, Kaneko K, Ishigaki Y, et al. Hepatic glucokinase modulates obesity predisposition by regulating BAT thermogenesis via neural signals. Cell Metab. 2012;16:825-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified a feed-forward mechanism favoring energy storage, originating in hepatic glucokinase (GK) upregulation...
  33. Juriloff D, Harris M, Banks K, Mah D. Gaping lids, gp, a mutation on centromeric chromosome 11 that causes defective eyelid development in mice. Mamm Genome. 2000;11:440-7 pubmed
    ..The gaping lids mutation identifies a previously unknown locus on proximal Chromosome (Chr) 11 that has a strong role in fetal eyelid growth. ..
  34. Rizzo M, Piston D. Regulation of beta cell glucokinase by S-nitrosylation and association with nitric oxide synthase. J Cell Biol. 2003;161:243-8 pubmed
    b>Glucokinase (GK) activity plays a key role in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells...
  35. Kim S, Lee J, Merrins M, Gavrilova O, Bisteau X, Kaldis P, et al. Loss of Cyclin-dependent Kinase 2 in the Pancreas Links Primary ?-Cell Dysfunction to Progressive Depletion of ?-Cell Mass and Diabetes. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:3841-3853 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CDK2 serves as an important nexus linking primary ?-cell dysfunction to progressive ?-cell mass deterioration in diabetes. ..
  36. Cordoba Chacon J, Majumdar N, List E, Diaz Ruiz A, Frank S, Manzano A, et al. Growth Hormone Inhibits Hepatic De Novo Lipogenesis in Adult Mice. Diabetes. 2015;64:3093-103 pubmed publisher
    ..However, glucokinase mRNA and protein levels as well as fructose-2,6-bisphosphate levels were increased in aLivGHRkd mice, ..
  37. Baldini S, Steenackers A, Olivier Van Stichelen S, Mir A, Mortuaire M, Lefebvre T, et al. Glucokinase expression is regulated by glucose through O-GlcNAc glycosylation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;478:942-8 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the liver's functions is to maintain blood glucose concentrations within a physiological range. Glucokinase (GCK) or hexokinase IV, is the main enzyme that regulates the flux and the use of glucose in the liver leading ..
  38. Abdel Majid R, Leong W, Schalkwyk L, Smallman D, Wong S, Storm D, et al. Loss of adenylyl cyclase I activity disrupts patterning of mouse somatosensory cortex. Nat Genet. 1998;19:289-91 pubmed
    ..These results provide the first evidence for involvement of cAMP signalling pathways in pattern formation of the brain. ..
  39. Kishore M, Cheung K, Fu H, Bonacina F, Wang G, Coe D, et al. Regulatory T Cell Migration Is Dependent on Glucokinase-Mediated Glycolysis. Immunity. 2017;47:875-889.e10 pubmed publisher
    ..initiated by pro-migratory stimuli via a PI3K-mTORC2-mediated pathway culminating in induction of the enzyme glucokinase (GCK). Subsequently, GCK promoted cytoskeletal rearrangements by associating with actin...
  40. Aukrust I, Bjørkhaug L, Negahdar M, Molnes J, Johansson B, Müller Y, et al. SUMOylation of pancreatic glucokinase regulates its cellular stability and activity. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:5951-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucokinase is the predominant hexokinase expressed in hepatocytes and pancreatic ?-cells, with a pivotal role in regulating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, illustrated by glucokinase gene mutations causing monogenic diabetes and ..
  41. Ruan X, Li P, Cangelosi A, Yang L, Cao H. A Long Non-coding RNA, lncLGR, Regulates Hepatic Glucokinase Expression and Glycogen Storage during Fasting. Cell Rep. 2016;14:1867-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Downregulation of hepatic glucokinase (GCK) during fasting facilitates the transition of the liver from a glucose-consuming to a gluconeogenic organ...
  42. Andrikopoulos S, Verchere C, Terauchi Y, Kadowaki T, Kahn S. beta-cell glucokinase deficiency and hyperglycemia are associated with reduced islet amyloid deposition in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2000;49:2056-62 pubmed
    ..and hyperglycemia could enhance islet amyloid formation, we cross-bred our hIAPP transgenic mice with beta-cell glucokinase-knockout mice (GKKO) that have impaired glucose-mediated insulin secretion and fasting hyperglycemia...
  43. Ciciotte S, Lessard M, Akeson E, Cameron E, Stearns T, Denegre J, et al. 3-Dimensional histological reconstruction and imaging of the murine pancreas. Mamm Genome. 2014;25:539-48 pubmed publisher
  44. Ding S, Nkobena A, Kraft C, Markwardt M, Rizzo M. Glucagon-like peptide 1 stimulates post-translational activation of glucokinase in pancreatic beta cells. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:16768-74 pubmed publisher
    ..in both ?TC3 insulinoma cells and islets in a manner consistent with post-translational activation of glucokinase (GCK). GLP-1 treatment increased GCK activity and enhanced GCK S-nitrosylation in ?TC3 cells...
  45. Zhang X, Liang W, Mao Y, Li H, Yang Y, Tan H. Hepatic glucokinase activity is the primary defect in alloxan-induced diabetes of mice. Biomed Pharmacother. 2009;63:180-6 pubmed
    ..Alloxan is believed to confer its diabetogenic effect by inhibiting pancreatic glucokinase activity, leading to pancreatic beta-cell death...
  46. Ishihara H, Tashiro F, Ikuta K, Asano T, Katagiri H, Inukai K, et al. Inhibition of pancreatic beta-cell glucokinase by antisense RNA expression in transgenic mice: mouse strain-dependent alteration of glucose tolerance. FEBS Lett. 1995;371:329-32 pubmed
    We have generated transgenic mice, in either C57BL/6 or C3H background, expressing antisense glucokinase mRNA in beta-cells...
  47. Postic C, Niswender K, Decaux J, Parsa R, Shelton K, Gouhot B, et al. Cloning and characterization of the mouse glucokinase gene locus and identification of distal liver-specific DNase I hypersensitive sites. Genomics. 1995;29:740-50 pubmed
    We cloned and characterized an 83-kb fragment of mouse genomic DNA containing the entire glucokinase (GK) gene. The 11 exons of the gene span a total distance of 49 kb, with exons 1 beta and 1L being separated by 35 kb...
  48. Kim J, Hwang J, Lee D, Song E, Park K, Kim G, et al. Chronic ethanol consumption inhibits glucokinase transcriptional activity by Atf3 and triggers metabolic syndrome in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:27065-79 pubmed publisher
    Chronic ethanol consumption induces pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction through glucokinase (Gck) nitration and down-regulation, leading to impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown...
  49. Baltrusch S, Lenzen S. Novel insights into the regulation of the bound and diffusible glucokinase in MIN6 beta-cells. Diabetes. 2007;56:1305-15 pubmed
    A stable MIN6 beta-cell clone overexpressing glucokinase as an enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP) fusion construct was generated for analysis of glucokinase regulation in these glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells...
  50. Artner I, Blanchi B, Raum J, Guo M, Kaneko T, Cordes S, et al. MafB is required for islet beta cell maturation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3853-8 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that MafB plays a previously uncharacterized role by regulating transcription of key factors during development that are required for the production of mature alpha and beta cells. ..
  51. Altomare D, Kozak C, Sonoda G, Testa J. Chromosome mapping of the mouse Akt2 gene and Akt2 pseudogene. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1996;74:248-51 pubmed
    ..The Akt2 pseudogene was mapped to proximal MMU11 by both multilocus mapping and fluorescence in situ hybridization. ..
  52. Bali D, Svetlanov A, Lee H, Fusco DeMane D, Leiser M, Li B, et al. Animal model for maturity-onset diabetes of the young generated by disruption of the mouse glucokinase gene. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:21464-7 pubmed
    b>Glucokinase catalyzes a rate-limiting step in glucose metabolism in hepatocytes and pancreatic beta cells and is considered the "glucose sensor" for regulation of insulin secretion...
  53. Moates J, Postic C, Decaux J, Girard J, Magnuson M. Variable expression of hepatic glucokinase in mice is due to a regulational locus that cosegregates with the glucokinase gene. Genomics. 1997;45:185-93 pubmed
    The Gk activity locus affects expression of hepatic glucokinase (GK) in mice...
  54. Ishimura Oka K, Nakamuta M, Chu M, Sullivan M, Chan L, Oka K. Partial structure of the mouse glucokinase gene. Genomics. 1995;29:751-4 pubmed
    A complementary DNA for glucokinase (GK) was cloned from mouse liver total RNA by a combination of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mouse liver cDNA library screening...
  55. Beigneux A, Kosinski C, Gavino B, Horton J, Skarnes W, Young S. ATP-citrate lyase deficiency in the mouse. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:9557-64 pubmed
    ..The Acly knockout allele is useful for identifying cell types with a high demand for acetyl-CoA synthesis. ..
  56. Togashi Y, Shirakawa J, Orime K, Kaji M, Sakamoto E, Tajima K, et al. ?-Cell proliferation after a partial pancreatectomy is independent of IRS-2 in mice. Endocrinology. 2014;155:1643-52 pubmed publisher
    The glucokinase-induced up-regulation of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS-2) plays an important role in ?-cell adaptive proliferation in response to high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance...
  57. Hayashi H, Sato Y, Li Z, Yamamura K, Yoshizawa T, Yamagata K. Roles of hepatic glucokinase in intertissue metabolic communication: Examination of novel liver-specific glucokinase knockout mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;460:727-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucokinase is expressed principally in pancreatic β-cells and hepatocytes, and catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate, a rate-limiting step of glycolysis...
  58. Okamoto Y, Ogawa W, Nishizawa A, Inoue H, Teshigawara K, Kinoshita S, et al. Restoration of glucokinase expression in the liver normalizes postprandial glucose disposal in mice with hepatic deficiency of PDK1. Diabetes. 2007;56:1000-9 pubmed
    ..The hepatic abundance of glucokinase, an important determinant of glucose flux and glucose-evoked signaling in hepatocytes, was substantially ..
  59. Steinbusch L, Picard A, Bonnet M, Basco D, Labouèbe G, Thorens B. Sex-Specific Control of Fat Mass and Counterregulation by Hypothalamic Glucokinase. Diabetes. 2016;65:2920-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucokinase (Gck) is a critical regulator of glucose-induced insulin secretion by pancreatic ?-cells...
  60. Piston D, Knobel S, Postic C, Shelton K, Magnuson M. Adenovirus-mediated knockout of a conditional glucokinase gene in isolated pancreatic islets reveals an essential role for proximal metabolic coupling events in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:1000-4 pubmed
    The relationship between glucokinase (GK) and glucose-stimulated metabolism, and the potential for metabolic coupling between beta cells, was examined in isolated mouse islets by using a recombinant adenovirus that expresses Cre ..
  61. Aizawa T, Asanuma N, Terauchi Y, Suzuki N, Komatsu M, Itoh N, et al. Analysis of the pancreatic beta cell in the mouse with targeted disruption of the pancreatic beta cell-specific glucokinase gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;229:460-5 pubmed
    ..study on the pancreatic beta cell function in the heterozygous mouse with targeted disruption of the beta cell glucokinase gene...
  62. Arden C, Hampson L, Huang G, Shaw J, Aldibbiat A, Holliman G, et al. A role for PFK-2/FBPase-2, as distinct from fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, in regulation of insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. Biochem J. 2008;411:41-51 pubmed
    ..catalyses the formation and degradation of fructose 2,6-P(2) (fructose 2,6-bisphosphate) and is also a glucokinase-binding protein...
  63. Gimenez Cassina A, Garcia Haro L, Choi C, Osundiji M, Lane E, Huang H, et al. Regulation of hepatic energy metabolism and gluconeogenesis by BAD. Cell Metab. 2014;19:272-84 pubmed publisher
    ..gluconeogenesis is actuated by phosphorylation of its BCL-2 homology (BH)-3 domain and subsequent activation of glucokinase. The physiologic relevance of these findings is evident from the ability of a BAD phosphomimic variant to ..
  64. Chow N, Bell R, Deane R, Streb J, Chen J, Brooks A, et al. Serum response factor and myocardin mediate arterial hypercontractility and cerebral blood flow dysregulation in Alzheimer's phenotype. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:823-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, SRF-MYOCD overexpression in small cerebral arteries appears to initiate independently of Abeta a pathogenic pathway mediating arterial hypercontractility and CBF dysregulation, which are associated with Alzheimer's dementia. ..
  65. Roncero I, Alvarez E, Acosta C, Sanz C, Barrio P, Hurtado Carneiro V, et al. Insulin-receptor substrate-2 (irs-2) is required for maintaining glucokinase and glucokinase regulatory protein expression in mouse liver. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58797 pubmed publisher
    Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins play important roles in hepatic nutrient homeostasis. Since glucokinase (GK) and glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) function as key glucose sensors, we have investigated the expression of GK ..
  66. Klein A, Ferreira N, Ben Dor S, Duan J, Hardy J, Cox T, et al. Identification of Modifier Genes in a Mouse Model of Gaucher Disease. Cell Rep. 2016;16:2546-2553 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data identify putative modifier genes that may be involved in determining GD severity, which might help elucidate phenotypic variability between patients with similar GD mutations. ..
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    Hepatic glucokinase activity in the C3H/He strain of mice is about twice that in the C58 strain. Genetic analysis of hybrids and back-crosses indicates control of activity by a single codominant gene...
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    In the liver, glucokinase (GCK) facilitates hepatic glucose uptake during hyperglycemia and is essential for the regulation of a network of glucose-responsive genes involved in glycolysis, glycogen synthesis, and lipogenesis...
  69. Hirota K, Sakamaki J, Ishida J, Shimamoto Y, Nishihara S, Kodama N, et al. A combination of HNF-4 and Foxo1 is required for reciprocal transcriptional regulation of glucokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase genes in response to fasting and feeding. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:32432-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucokinase (GK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) regulate rate-limiting reactions in the physiologically opposed metabolic cascades, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, respectively...
  70. James P, Lavender F, Lawrence G, Walker D. Comparison of glucokinase in C3H/He and C58 mice that differ in their hepatic activity. Biochem Genet. 1985;23:525-38 pubmed
    Partially purified preparations of the hepatic glucokinase from C3H/He and C58 inbred mice have been used to explore the molecular basis for the observed twofold difference in activity between the strains...
  71. Grimsby J, Coffey J, Dvorozniak M, Magram J, Li G, Matschinsky F, et al. Characterization of glucokinase regulatory protein-deficient mice. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:7826-31 pubmed
    The glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) inhibits glucokinase competitively with respect to glucose by forming a protein-protein complex with this enzyme...
  72. Terauchi Y, Kubota N, Tamemoto H, Sakura H, Nagai R, Akanuma Y, et al. Insulin effect during embryogenesis determines fetal growth: a possible molecular link between birth weight and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2000;49:82-6 pubmed
    ..secretion, we measured the birth weights of neonates derived from crosses of male pancreatic beta-cell type glucokinase knockout (Gck+/-) mice and female wild-type (WT) or Gck+/- mice...
  73. Park J, Kim T, Jo S, Kim M, Ahn Y. Acetylation of glucokinase regulatory protein decreases glucose metabolism by suppressing glucokinase activity. Sci Rep. 2015;5:17395 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucokinase (GK), mainly expressed in the liver and pancreatic β-cells, is critical for maintaining glucose homeostasis...
  74. Johansson B, Fjeld K, Solheim M, Shirakawa J, Zhang E, Keindl M, et al. Nuclear import of glucokinase in pancreatic beta-cells is mediated by a nuclear localization signal and modulated by SUMOylation. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017;454:146-157 pubmed publisher
    The localization of glucokinase in pancreatic beta-cell nuclei is a controversial issue. Although previous reports suggest such a localization, the mechanism for its import has so far not been identified...
  75. Hofmeister Brix A, Kollmann K, Langer S, Schultz J, Lenzen S, Baltrusch S. Identification of the ubiquitin-like domain of midnolin as a new glucokinase interaction partner. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:35824-39 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucokinase acts as a glucose sensor in pancreatic beta cells. Its posttranslational regulation is important but not yet fully understood...
  76. Parmentier Batteur S, Jin K, Xie L, Mao X, Greenberg D. DNA microarray analysis of cannabinoid signaling in mouse brain in vivo. Mol Pharmacol. 2002;62:828-35 pubmed
    ..genes not previously implicated in cannabinoid signaling-melanocyte-specific gene-related gene 1 (MRG1) and hexokinase 4 (glucokinase, GK)-was measured by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry...
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    ..Attenuated Glut-2 and glucokinase expression, and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, were also induced by RNA interference-mediated ..
  78. Dalgaard L. UCP2 mRNA expression is dependent on glucose metabolism in pancreatic islets. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;417:495-500 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim was to examine the effects of glucokinase (GK) deficiency on UCP2 mRNA levels and to characterize the interaction between UCP2 and GK with regard to ..