Gene Symbol: Gast
Description: gastrin
Alias: GAS, gastrin
Species: mouse
Products:     Gast

Top Publications

  1. Chen D, Zhao C, Dockray G, Varro A, van Hoek A, Sinclair N, et al. Glycine-extended gastrin synergizes with gastrin 17 to stimulate acid secretion in gastrin-deficient mice. Gastroenterology. 2000;119:756-65 pubmed
    Studies in gastrin-deficient mice have demonstrated critical roles for gastrin peptides in the regulation of gastric acid secretion, but the relative contributions of amidated (G-17) and glycine-extended (G17-Gly) gastrin remain unclear...
  2. Zavros Y, Eaton K, Kang W, Rathinavelu S, Katukuri V, Kao J, et al. Chronic gastritis in the hypochlorhydric gastrin-deficient mouse progresses to adenocarcinoma. Oncogene. 2005;24:2354-66 pubmed
    The current study tests the hypothesis that chronic atrophic gastritis from hypochlorhydria in the gastrin-deficient mouse predisposes the stomach to gastric cancer...
  3. Kang W, Rathinavelu S, Samuelson L, Merchant J. Interferon gamma induction of gastric mucous neck cell hypertrophy. Lab Invest. 2005;85:702-15 pubmed
    ..In gastrin-deficient (G-/-) mice exhibiting chronic inflammation in the hypochlorhydric stomach, we documented a prominent ..
  4. Wang T, Dangler C, Chen D, Goldenring J, Koh T, Raychowdhury R, et al. Synergistic interaction between hypergastrinemia and Helicobacter infection in a mouse model of gastric cancer. Gastroenterology. 2000;118:36-47 pubmed
    ..effects of hypergastrinemia, and possible synergy with Helicobacter felis infection, were investigated in insulin-gastrin (INS-GAS) transgenic mice...
  5. Nakajima T, Konda Y, Izumi Y, Kanai M, Hayashi N, Chiba T, et al. Gastrin stimulates the growth of gastric pit cell precursors by inducing its own receptors. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2002;282:G359-66 pubmed
    b>Gastrin/CCK-B receptors (CCKB-Rs) are present on parietal and enterochromaffin-like cells in the gastric mucosa but not on pit cells in the proliferative zone...
  6. Friis Hansen L, Sundler F, Li Y, Gillespie P, Saunders T, Greenson J, et al. Impaired gastric acid secretion in gastrin-deficient mice. Am J Physiol. 1998;274:G561-8 pubmed
    To further understand the role of the peptide hormone gastrin in the development and function of the stomach, we have generated gastrin-deficient mice by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells...
  7. Wang T, Dockray G. Lessons from genetically engineered animal models. I. Physiological studies with gastrin in transgenic mice. Am J Physiol. 1999;277:G6-11 pubmed
    The role of gastrin in the regulation of gastrointestinal growth and acid secretion has been addressed through recent studies involving transgenic and knockout mice...
  8. Jenny M, Uhl C, Roche C, Duluc I, Guillermin V, Guillemot F, et al. Neurogenin3 is differentially required for endocrine cell fate specification in the intestinal and gastric epithelium. EMBO J. 2002;21:6338-47 pubmed
    ..In contrast, in the glandular stomach, the differentiation of the gastrin- (G cells) and somatostatin (D cells)-secreting cells is impaired whereas serotonin- (enterochromaffin EC cells), ..
  9. Zavros Y, Waghray M, Tessier A, Bai L, Todisco A, L Gumucio D, et al. Reduced pepsin A processing of sonic hedgehog in parietal cells precedes gastric atrophy and transformation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:33265-74 pubmed
    ..b>Gastrin is the only hormone capable of stimulating gastric acid and is thus required to maintain functional parietal ..

More Information


  1. Kokubu H, Ohtsuka T, Kageyama R. Mash1 is required for neuroendocrine cell development in the glandular stomach. Genes Cells. 2008;13:41-51 pubmed publisher
    ..bHLH gene Neurogenin3 (Ngn3), which is known to regulate formation of subsets of gastric neuroendocrine cells (gastrin-, glucagon- and somatostatin-producing cells), is expressed normally in the Mash1-null stomach...
  2. Kang W, Saqui Salces M, Zavros Y, Merchant J. Induction of follistatin precedes gastric transformation in gastrin deficient mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;376:573-7 pubmed publisher
    We previously showed that antral gastric tumors develop in gastrin-deficient (Gas(-/-)) mice. Therefore Gas(-/-) mice were studied sequentially over 12 months to identify molecular mechanisms underlying gastric transformation...
  3. Takaishi S, Tu S, Dubeykovskaya Z, Whary M, Muthupalani S, Rickman B, et al. Gastrin is an essential cofactor for helicobacter-associated gastric corpus carcinogenesis in C57BL/6 mice. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:365-75 pubmed publisher
    ..However, gastrin-deficient (GAS-KO) mice on a mixed C57BL/6/129Sv genetic background maintained in conventional housing were ..
  4. Takaishi S, Shibata W, Tomita H, Jin G, Yang X, Ericksen R, et al. In vivo analysis of mouse gastrin gene regulation in enhanced GFP-BAC transgenic mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2011;300:G334-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Gastrin is secreted from a subset of neuroendocrine cells residing in the gastric antrum known as G cells, but low levels are also expressed in fetal pancreas and intestine and in many solid malignancies...
  5. Tomita H, Takaishi S, Menheniott T, Yang X, Shibata W, Jin G, et al. Inhibition of gastric carcinogenesis by the hormone gastrin is mediated by suppression of TFF1 epigenetic silencing. Gastroenterology. 2011;140:879-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Although hormones have been associated with cancer risk, the mechanisms have not been determined. The peptide hormone gastrin exerts a suppressive effect on antral gastric carcinogenesis.
  6. Jonsson J, Carlsson L, Edlund T, Edlund H. Insulin-promoter-factor 1 is required for pancreas development in mice. Nature. 1994;371:606-9 pubmed
    ..These findings show that IPF1 is needed for the formation of the pancreas and suggest that it acts to determine the fate of common pancreatic precursor cells and/or to regulate their propagation. ..
  7. Du A, McCracken K, Walp E, Terry N, Klein T, Han A, et al. Arx is required for normal enteroendocrine cell development in mice and humans. Dev Biol. 2012;365:175-88 pubmed publisher
    ..mice, removal of Arx from the developing endoderm results in a decrease of enteroendocrine cell types including gastrin-, glucagon/GLP-1-, CCK-, secretin-producing cell populations and an increase of somatostatin-expressing cells...
  8. Wang T, Bonner Weir S, Oates P, Chulak M, Simon B, Merlino G, et al. Pancreatic gastrin stimulates islet differentiation of transforming growth factor alpha-induced ductular precursor cells. J Clin Invest. 1993;92:1349-56 pubmed
    b>Gastrin is transiently expressed in fetal islets during a critical period of their development from protodifferentiated islet precursors in fetal pancreatic ducts...
  9. Friis Hansen L. Achlorhydria is associated with gastric microbial overgrowth and development of cancer: lessons learned from the gastrin knockout mouse. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2006;66:607-21 pubmed
    b>Gastrin and gastrin receptor-deficient mice have been used for genetic dissection of the role of gastrins in maintaining gastric homeostasis and control of acid secretion...
  10. Pagliocca A, Hegyi P, Venglovecz V, Rackstraw S, Khan Z, Burdyga G, et al. Identification of ezrin as a target of gastrin in immature mouse gastric parietal cells. Exp Physiol. 2008;93:1174-89 pubmed publisher
    The gastric acid-secreting parietal cell exhibits profound morphological changes on stimulation. Studies in gastrin null (Gas-KO) mice indicate that maturation of parietal cell function depends on the hormone gastrin acting at the G-..
  11. Goering W, Adham I, Pasche B, Manner J, Ochs M, Engel W, et al. Impairment of gastric acid secretion and increase of embryonic lethality in Foxq1-deficient mice. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2008;121:88-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Ultrastructural analysis suggests that the gastric acid secretion defect in Foxq1-deficient mice might be due to impairment in the fusion of cytoplasmic tubulovesicles to the apical membrane of secretory canaliculi...
  12. Ottewell P, Varro A, Dockray G, Kirton C, Watson A, Wang T, et al. COOH-terminal 26-amino acid residues of progastrin are sufficient for stimulation of mitosis in murine colonic epithelium in vivo. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005;288:G541-9 pubmed
    ..whether the effects of progastrin observed in hGAS colon require the presence of other forms of circulating gastrin, we have crossed hGAS (hg(+/+)) with gastrin knockout (G(-/-)) mice to generate mice that express progastrin and ..
  13. Sundaresan S, Meininger C, Kang A, Photenhauer A, Hayes M, Sahoo N, et al. Gastrin Induces Nuclear Export and Proteasome Degradation of Menin in Enteric Glial Cells. Gastroenterology. 2017;153:1555-1567.e15 pubmed publisher
    ..Diffuse gastrin cell hyperplasia precedes the appearance of MEN1 gastrinomas, which develop within submucosal Brunner's glands...
  14. Cobb S, Wood T, Tessarollo L, Velasco M, Given R, Varro A, et al. Deletion of functional gastrin gene markedly increases colon carcinogenesis in response to azoxymethane in mice. Gastroenterology. 2002;123:516-30 pubmed
    ..were at a higher risk for developing colon cancers in response to azoxymethane (AOM), whereas mice overexpressing gastrin-17 were at a reduced risk...
  15. Arnold K, Sarkar A, Yram M, Polo J, Bronson R, Sengupta S, et al. Sox2(+) adult stem and progenitor cells are important for tissue regeneration and survival of mice. Cell Stem Cell. 2011;9:317-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results identify Sox2 expression in numerous adult endodermal and ectodermal stem cell compartments, which are critical for normal tissue regeneration and survival. ..
  16. Jiang X, Zhang Y, Yang Y, Yang J, Asico L, Chen W, et al. Gastrin stimulates renal dopamine production by increasing the renal tubular uptake of l-DOPA. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2017;312:E1-E10 pubmed publisher
    b>Gastrin is a peptide hormone that is involved in the regulation of sodium balance and blood pressure...
  17. Kandil E, Kohda K, Ishibashi T, Tanaka K, Kasahara M. PA28 subunits of the mouse proteasome: primary structures and chromosomal localization of the genes. Immunogenetics. 1997;46:337-44 pubmed
    ..It appears that the IFN-gamma-inducible alpha- and beta-subunits emerged by gene duplication from a gamma-subunit-like precursor. ..
  18. Liu P, Zhang H, McLellan A, Vogel H, Bradley A. Embryonic lethality and tumorigenesis caused by segmental aneuploidy on mouse chromosome 11. Genetics. 1998;150:1155-68 pubmed
    ..A duplication corresponding to one of these two deficiencies was able to rescue its haplolethality. ..
  19. Matters G, Harms J, McGovern C, Jayakumar C, Crepin K, Smith Z, et al. Growth of human pancreatic cancer is inhibited by down-regulation of gastrin gene expression. Pancreas. 2009;38:e151-61 pubmed publisher
    This study evaluated the effects of gastrin messenger RNA (mRNA) down-regulation on growth of human pancreatic cancer...
  20. Friis Hansen L, Rieneck K, Nilsson H, Wadstrom T, Rehfeld J. Gastric inflammation, metaplasia, and tumor development in gastrin-deficient mice. Gastroenterology. 2006;131:246-58 pubmed
    b>Gastrin deficiency and proton pump inhibitor treatment cause achlorhydria, which predisposes to disease. To elucidate the underlying molecular biology, we examined the changes in gastric gene expression in both types of achlorhydria...
  21. Huynh N, Yim M, Chernoff J, Shulkes A, Baldwin G, He H. p-21-Activated kinase 1 mediates gastrin-stimulated proliferation in the colorectal mucosa via multiple signaling pathways. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2013;304:G561-7 pubmed publisher
    ..PAK1, activated by both Gamide and Ggly, mediates gastrin-stimulated proliferation and migration, and activation of ?-catenin, in gastric epithelial cells...
  22. Franic T, Judd L, Nguyen N, Samuelson L, Loveland K, Giraud A, et al. Growth factors associated with gastric mucosal hypertrophy in autoimmune gastritis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2004;287:G910-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we examined factors that may be responsible for inducing this hypertrophy. Because gastrin is known to be both an inducer of gastric mucosal cell proliferation and is elevated in autoimmune gastritis, ..
  23. Kovac S, Smith K, Anderson G, Burgess J, Shulkes A, Baldwin G. Interrelationships between circulating gastrin and iron status in mice and humans. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;295:G855-61 pubmed publisher
    The observations that the peptide hormone gastrin interacts with transferrin in vitro and that circulating gastrin concentrations are increased in the iron-loading disorder hemochromatosis suggest a possible link between gastrin and iron ..
  24. Bhandari S, Bakke I, Kumar J, Beisvag V, Sandvik A, Thommesen L, et al. Connective tissue growth factor is activated by gastrin and involved in gastrin-induced migration and invasion. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;475:119-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to explore a possible link between CTGF and gastrin in gastric epithelial cells and to study the role of CTGF in gastrin induced migration and invasion of AGS-GR ..
  25. Umar S, Sarkar S, Wang Y, Singh P. Functional cross-talk between beta-catenin and NFkappaB signaling pathways in colonic crypts of mice in response to progastrin. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:22274-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies suggest a novel possibility that activation of beta-catenin, downstream to the IKKalpha,beta/NFkappaB pathway, may be integral to the hyperproliferative effects of progastrin on proximal colonic crypts. ..
  26. Mellitzer G, Beucher A, Lobstein V, Michel P, Robine S, Kedinger M, et al. Loss of enteroendocrine cells in mice alters lipid absorption and glucose homeostasis and impairs postnatal survival. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:1708-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data help unravel the role of enteroendocrine cells and hormones in lipid absorption and maintenance of the intestinal epithelium. ..
  27. Lei S, Dubeykovskiy A, Chakladar A, Wojtukiewicz L, Wang T. The murine gastrin promoter is synergistically activated by transforming growth factor-beta/Smad and Wnt signaling pathways. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:42492-502 pubmed
    ..The growth factor, gastrin, has previously been shown to be a downstream target of the Wnt pathway and a promoter of gastrointestinal cancer...
  28. Boyer D, Fujitani Y, Gannon M, Powers A, Stein R, Wright C. Complementation rescue of Pdx1 null phenotype demonstrates distinct roles of proximal and distal cis-regulatory sequences in pancreatic and duodenal expression. Dev Biol. 2006;298:616-31 pubmed
    ..These results reveal a role for distal cis-regulatory elements in achieving the correct level of extra-pancreatic Pdx1 expression, which is necessary for the production of duodenal GIP cells and stomach gastrin cells.
  29. Kovac S, Anderson G, Alexander W, Shulkes A, Baldwin G. Gastrin-deficient mice have disturbed hematopoiesis in response to iron deficiency. Endocrinology. 2011;152:3062-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously demonstrated that ferric ions bind to gastrins, that the gastrin-ferric ion complex interacts with the iron transport protein transferrin in vitro, and that circulating gastrin ..
  30. Koh T, Wang T. Molecular cloning and sequencing of the murine gastrin gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995;216:34-41 pubmed
    b>Gastrin is a peptide hormone important in acid regulation, growth of enterochromaffin cells of the oxyntic mucosa, and smooth muscle contractility. We isolated a genomic clone of gastrin from a SV-129 murine genomic library...
  31. Cui G, Takaishi S, Ai W, Betz K, Florholmen J, Koh T, et al. Gastrin-induced apoptosis contributes to carcinogenesis in the stomach. Lab Invest. 2006;86:1037-51 pubmed
    ..We investigated the possible role of gastrin-induced gastric cell apoptosis in the development of gastric cancer...
  32. Chakladar A, Dubeykovskiy A, Wojtukiewicz L, Pratap J, Lei S, Wang T. Synergistic activation of the murine gastrin promoter by oncogenic Ras and beta-catenin involves SMAD recruitment. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;336:190-6 pubmed
    ..The gastrin gene encodes for a family of peptide growth factors that are commonly upregulated in colorectal neoplasia...
  33. van den Buuse M, van Driel I, Samuelson L, Pijnappel M, Martin S. Reduced effects of amphetamine on prepulse inhibition of startle in gastrin-deficient mice. Neurosci Lett. 2005;373:237-42 pubmed
    The present study was aimed at investigating the role of gastrin in startle, startle habituation and prepulse inhibition (PPI)...
  34. Churchill A, Gutiérrez G, Singer R, Lorberbaum D, Fischer K, Sussel L. Genetic evidence that Nkx2.2 acts primarily downstream of Neurog3 in pancreatic endocrine lineage development. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..Consistently, we demonstrate Nkx2.2 functions as an integral component of a modular regulatory program to correctly specify pancreatic islet cell fates. ..
  35. Vanhorenbeeck V, Jenny M, Cornut J, Gradwohl G, Lemaigre F, Rousseau G, et al. Role of the Onecut transcription factors in pancreas morphogenesis and in pancreatic and enteric endocrine differentiation. Dev Biol. 2007;305:685-94 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our data reveal partially redundant roles for HNF-6 and OC-2 in developing pancreas and identify new markers for antero-posterior patterning of the gut and for enteroendocrine differentiation. ..
  36. Kim B, Woo J, Kanellopoulou C, Shivdasani R. Regulation of mouse stomach development and Barx1 expression by specific microRNAs. Development. 2011;138:1081-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that miRNAs are required for proper digestive tract organogenesis and that miR-7a and miR-203 control expression of the stomach homeotic regulator Barx1. ..
  37. Alanentalo T, Chatonnet F, Karlen M, Sulniute R, Ericson J, Andersson E, et al. Cloning and analysis of Nkx6.3 during CNS and gastrointestinal development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006;6:162-70 pubmed
    ..2 both in the CNS and in the gut. Transient Nkx6.2 expression was also detected in the developing pancreas. However, analysis of Nkx6.2(-/-) mice did not display any obvious aberrations of pancreatic or stomach development. ..
  38. Friis Hansen L, Wierup N, Rehfeld J, Sundler F. Reduced ghrelin, islet amyloid polypeptide, and peptide YY expression in the stomach of gastrin-cholecystokinin knockout mice. Endocrinology. 2005;146:4464-71 pubmed
    The antral hormone gastrin and its intestinal relative, cholecystokinin (CCK), are pivotal in the regulation of gastric functions...
  39. Friis Hansen L. Lessons from the gastrin and gastrin receptor knockout mice. Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl. 2001;234:41-6 pubmed
    The gastric hormone gastrin was first recognized for its ability to induce acid secretion...
  40. Venugopal B, Browning M, Curcio Morelli C, Varro A, Michaud N, Nanthakumar N, et al. Neurologic, gastric, and opthalmologic pathologies in a murine model of mucolipidosis type IV. Am J Hum Genet. 2007;81:1070-83 pubmed
    ..delayed motor milestones, ophthalmologic abnormalities, constitutive achlorhydria, and elevated plasma gastrin levels...
  41. Watson S, Morris T, McWilliams D, Harris J, Evans S, Smith A, et al. Potential role of endocrine gastrin in the colonic adenoma carcinoma sequence. Br J Cancer. 2002;87:567-73 pubmed
    ..5 kDa. Omeprazole and lansoprazole-induced hyper-gastrinaemia (resulting in serum gastrin levels of 34.0 and 153...
  42. Das P, MAY C. Expression analysis of the Islet-1 gene in the developing and adult gastrointestinal tract. Gene Expr Patterns. 2011;11:244-54 pubmed publisher
  43. Suissa Y, Magenheim J, Stolovich Rain M, Hija A, Collombat P, Mansouri A, et al. Gastrin: a distinct fate of neurogenin3 positive progenitor cells in the embryonic pancreas. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70397 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Gastrin is a hormone produced primarily by G-cells in the stomach, where it functions to stimulate acid secretion by ..
  44. Choi E, Petersen C, Lapierre L, Williams J, Weis V, Goldenring J, et al. Dynamic expansion of gastric mucosal doublecortin-like kinase 1-expressing cells in response to parietal cell loss is regulated by gastrin. Am J Pathol. 2015;185:2219-31 pubmed publisher
    ..More important, expansion of MVSCs after induced parietal cell loss was not observed in Gast(-/-) mice...
  45. Jain R, Al Menhali A, Keeley T, Ren J, El Zaatari M, Chen X, et al. Hip1r is expressed in gastric parietal cells and is required for tubulovesicle formation and cell survival in mice. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:2459-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Hip1r-deficient mice had increased expression of the gastric growth factor gastrin, and mice mutant for both gastrin and Hip1r exhibited normalization of both proliferation and gland height...
  46. Lay J, Gillespie P, Samuelson L. Murine prenatal expression of cholecystokinin in neural crest, enteric neurons, and enteroendocrine cells. Dev Dyn. 1999;216:190-200 pubmed
    ..5, suggesting that CCK signaling is established early in mouse development. Dev Dyn 1999;216:190-200. ..
  47. Stanger B, Datar R, Murtaugh L, Melton D. Direct regulation of intestinal fate by Notch. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:12443-8 pubmed
    ..In the embryo, Notch activation perturbs morphogenesis, possibly through effects on stem or progenitor cells. ..
  48. Edfalk S, Steneberg P, Edlund H. Gpr40 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells and mediates free fatty acid stimulation of incretin secretion. Diabetes. 2008;57:2280-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our data suggest a conserved role for Ipf1/Pdx1 and Gpr40 in FFA-mediated secretion of hormones that regulate glucose and overall energy homeostasis. ..
  49. Kaur S, Norkina O, Ziemer D, Samuelson L, De Lisle R. Acidic duodenal pH alters gene expression in the cystic fibrosis mouse pancreas. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2004;287:G480-90 pubmed
    ..When the duodenal pH was corrected genetically (crossing CFTR null with gastrin null mice) or pharmacologically (use of the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole), expression levels of genes ..
  50. Ottewell P, Duckworth C, Varro A, Dimaline R, Wang T, Watson A, et al. Gastrin increases murine intestinal crypt regeneration following injury. Gastroenterology. 2006;130:1169-80 pubmed
    ..of growth factors affect the regeneration of intestinal epithelia following injury, but the effects of amidated gastrin have not previously been assessed...
  51. Saqui Salces M, Covés Datson E, Veniaminova N, Waghray M, Syu L, Dlugosz A, et al. Inflammation and Gli2 suppress gastrin gene expression in a murine model of antral hyperplasia. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48039 pubmed publisher
    Chronic inflammation in the stomach can lead to gastric cancer. We previously reported that gastrin-deficient (Gast?/?) mice develop bacterial overgrowth, inflammatory infiltrate, increased Il-1? expression, antral hyperplasia and ..
  52. Verzi M, Khan A, Ito S, Shivdasani R. Transcription factor foxq1 controls mucin gene expression and granule content in mouse stomach surface mucous cells. Gastroenterology. 2008;135:591-600 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is the first to implicate a transcription factor in terminal differentiation of foveolar cells and begins to define the requirements to assemble highly specialized organelles and cells in the gastric mucosa. ..
  53. Jain R, Samuelson L. Transcriptional profiling of gastrin-regulated genes in mouse stomach. Physiol Genomics. 2007;29:1-12 pubmed
    b>Gastrin, a potent stimulator of gastric acid secretion, primarily targets the acid-secreting parietal cells and histamine-secreting enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells in the stomach...
  54. Koh T, Goldenring J, Ito S, Mashimo H, Kopin A, Varro A, et al. Gastrin deficiency results in altered gastric differentiation and decreased colonic proliferation in mice. Gastroenterology. 1997;113:1015-25 pubmed
    b>Gastrin is a peptide hormone important in the regulation of both acid secretion and differentiation of oxyntic mucosal cells of the stomach...
  55. Gonzalez Coto A, Alonso Ron C, Alcalde I, Gallar J, Meana A, Merayo Lloves J, et al. Expression of cholecystokinin, gastrin, and their receptors in the mouse cornea. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;55:1965-75 pubmed publisher
    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a neuropeptide that has been identified in trigeminal ganglion neurons. Gastrin (GAST) is a related peptide never explored in the cornea...
  56. Franic T, Judd L, Robinson D, Barrett S, Scarff K, Gleeson P, et al. Regulation of gastric epithelial cell development revealed in H(+)/K(+)-ATPase beta-subunit- and gastrin-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001;281:G1502-11 pubmed
    ..The effect of elevated gastrin levels in the H/K-beta-deficient mice was determined by producing mice that are also deficient in gastrin...
  57. Smith K, Kovac S, Anderson G, Shulkes A, Baldwin G. Circulating gastrin is increased in hemochromatosis. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:6195-8 pubmed
    Gastric acid production is important in intestinal iron absorption. The peptide hormone gastrin exists in both amidated and non-amidated forms, which stimulate and potentiate gastric acid secretion, respectively...
  58. Jayewickreme C, Shivdasani R. Control of stomach smooth muscle development and intestinal rotation by transcription factor BARX1. Dev Biol. 2015;405:21-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The sum of evidence suggests that potent BARX1 functions in intestinal rotation and stomach myogenesis occur through this small group of intermediary transcription factors. ..
  59. Franic T, van Driel I, Gleeson P, Giraud A, Judd L. Reciprocal changes in trefoil 1 and 2 expression in stomachs of mice with gastric unit hypertrophy and inflammation. J Pathol. 2005;207:43-52 pubmed
    ..Stomachs from both models expressed decreased TFF1 mRNA and reciprocally increased TFF2 mRNA. The involvement of gastrin in regulating trefoil mRNA expression was also investigated using gastrin-deficient mice...
  60. Sinclair N, Ai W, Raychowdhury R, Bi M, Wang T, Koh T, et al. Gastrin regulates the heparin-binding epidermal-like growth factor promoter via a PKC/EGFR-dependent mechanism. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2004;286:G992-9 pubmed
    b>Gastrin is a known growth/differentiation factor for the gastric mucosa...
  61. Koh T, Dockray G, Varro A, Cahill R, Dangler C, Fox J, et al. Overexpression of glycine-extended gastrin in transgenic mice results in increased colonic proliferation. J Clin Invest. 1999;103:1119-26 pubmed
    b>Gastrin is a peptide hormone involved in the growth of both normal and malignant gastrointestinal tissue...
  62. Nakajima T, Konda Y, Izumi Y, Kanai M, Takeuchi T, Chiba T. Gastrin interferes with the differentiation of gastric pit cells and parietal cells. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002;16 Suppl 2:3-9 pubmed
    b>Gastrin is known to have stimulatory effects on gastric mucosa; however, long-term effect of gastrin stimulation is not well known.
  63. Lu Y, Rozengurt E, Zhukova E. Transgenic insulin released from G cells preferentially signals in the liver. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;355:23-7 pubmed
    ..G-InsKi mice provide a novel animal model for elucidating direct effects of insulin on liver functions. ..
  64. Feng R, Aihara E, Kenny S, Yang L, Li J, Varro A, et al. Indian Hedgehog mediates gastrin-induced proliferation in stomach of adult mice. Gastroenterology. 2014;147:655-666.e9 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied mice with parietal cell-specific deletion of Shh (PC-Shh(KO)) and hypergastrinemia, crossed with gastrin-deficient (GKO) mice (PC-Shh(KO)/GKO)...
  65. Salbaum J, Kruger C, Zhang X, Delahaye N, Pavlinkova G, Burk D, et al. Altered gene expression and spongiotrophoblast differentiation in placenta from a mouse model of diabetes in pregnancy. Diabetologia. 2011;54:1909-20 pubmed publisher
  66. Lu Y, Sternini C, Rozengurt E, Zhukova E. Release of transgenic human insulin from gastric g cells: a novel approach for the amelioration of diabetes. Endocrinology. 2005;146:2610-9 pubmed
    ..We generated transgenic mice in which the coding sequence of human insulin has been knocked into the mouse gastrin gene...
  67. Kirton C, Wang T, Dockray G. Regulation of parietal cell migration by gastrin in the mouse. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2002;283:G787-93 pubmed
    Recent studies suggest that gastrin regulates parietal cell maturation. We asked whether it also regulates parietal cell life span and migration along the gland...
  68. Pannequin J, Delaunay N, Buchert M, Surrel F, Bourgaux J, Ryan J, et al. Beta-catenin/Tcf-4 inhibition after progastrin targeting reduces growth and drives differentiation of intestinal tumors. Gastroenterology. 2007;133:1554-68 pubmed
    ..a heterozygous Apc mutation (APCDelta14), which overexpress progastrin but not amidated or glycine-extended gastrin. Depletion of endogenous progastrin production strongly decreased intestinal tumor growth in vivo through a ..
  69. Ramirez Solis R, Liu P, Bradley A. Chromosome engineering in mice. Nature. 1995;378:720-4 pubmed
    ..The availability of mice with defined regions of segmental haploidy will allow their use in genetic screens and enable accurate models of human 'chromosomal' diseases to be generated. ..
  70. Ramsdell C, Thames E, Weston J, Dewey M. Development of a deer mouse whole-genome radiation hybrid panel and comparative mapping of Mus chromosome 11 loci. Mamm Genome. 2006;17:37-48 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, this separate linkage group is likely to reside in a chromosomal region of inversion polymorphism between P. maniculatus and P. polionotus. ..
  71. Hannibal J, Hundahl C, Fahrenkrug J, Rehfeld J, Friis Hansen L. Cholecystokinin (CCK)-expressing neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus: innervation, light responsiveness and entrainment in CCK-deficient mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;32:1006-17 pubmed publisher
  72. Li Q, Deng X, Singh P. Significant increase in the aggressive behavior of transgenic mice overexpressing peripheral progastrin peptides: associated changes in CCK2 and serotonin receptors in the CNS. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007;32:1813-21 pubmed
    The gastrin precursor peptide, progastrin (PG), is secreted from enteroendocrine cells in the intestine and increased in patients with hypergastrinemia and colorectal cancers...
  73. Al Menhali A, Keeley T, Demitrack E, Samuelson L. Gastrin induces parathyroid hormone-like hormone expression in gastric parietal cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2017;312:G649-G657 pubmed publisher
    ..The gastrointestinal hormone gastrin is known to be a central regulator of both parietal cell function and gastric epithelial cell proliferation and ..
  74. Chang A, Song D, Wolfe M. Attenuation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) mediates gastrin-stimulated colorectal cancer cell proliferation. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:14700-10 pubmed
    ..has been shown to suppress cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, whereas the gastrointestinal regulatory peptide gastrin stimulates the growth of neoplastic cells...
  75. Friis Hansen L, Rourke I, Bundgaard J, Rehfeld J, Samuelson L. Molecular structure and genetic mapping of the mouse gastrin gene. FEBS Lett. 1996;386:128-32 pubmed
    The mouse gastrin gene has three exons totalling 460 bp and a deduced preprogastrin of 101 amino acids. The sequence of murine gastrin-34 is 94% identical to rat gastrin-34 and 76% identical to human gastrin-34...
  76. Peterson A, Nguyen N, Okamoto H, Giraud A, van Driel I, Judd L. Loss of RegI in conjunction with gastrin deficiency in mice facilitates efficient gastric ulcer healing but is dispensable for hyperplasia and tumourigenesis. Regul Pept. 2010;160:9-18 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that epithelial repair of acetic acid ulcers in compound mutant RegI/gastrin-deficient mice was significantly reduced compared to wild type, RegI-deficient or gastrin-deficient mice...
  77. Bonnavion R, Teinturier R, Jaafar R, Ripoche D, Leteurtre E, Chen Y, et al. Islet Cells Serve as Cells of Origin of Pancreatic Gastrin-Positive Endocrine Tumors. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;35:3274-83 pubmed publisher
    The cells of origin of pancreatic gastrinomas remain an enigma, since no gastrin-expressing cells are found in the normal adult pancreas...
  78. Nomura S, Yamaguchi H, Ogawa M, Wang T, Lee J, Goldenring J. Alterations in gastric mucosal lineages induced by acute oxyntic atrophy in wild-type and gastrin-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005;288:G362-75 pubmed
    ..the alterations in gastric mucosal lineages elicited by acute oxyntic atrophy induced by treatment of C57BL/6 and gastrin-deficient mice with the parietal cell protonophore [S-(R*,S*)]-N-[1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)butyl]-3,3-diethyl-2-[4-..
  79. Laval M, Baldwin G, Shulkes A, Marshall K. Increased gastrin gene expression provides a physiological advantage to mice under hypoxic conditions. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2015;308:G76-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Although data on the interplay between hypoxia and gastrins are limited, gastrin expression is upregulated by hypoxia in gastrointestinal cancer cell lines, and gastrins counterbalance hypoxia ..
  80. Nozaki K, Weis V, Wang T, Falus A, Goldenring J. Altered gastric chief cell lineage differentiation in histamine-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;296:G1211-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice dually deficient for both HDC and gastrin showed a normal distribution of chief cells in fundic glands...
  81. Koh T, Bulitta C, Fleming J, Dockray G, Varro A, Wang T. Gastrin is a target of the beta-catenin/TCF-4 growth-signaling pathway in a model of intestinal polyposis. J Clin Invest. 2000;106:533-9 pubmed
    ..Previous studies have shown that the gene encoding the hormone gastrin is activated during colon cancer progression and the less-processed forms of gastrin are important colonic ..