Gene Symbol: Gap43
Description: growth associated protein 43
Alias: B-50, Basp2, GAP-43, neuromodulin, axonal membrane protein GAP-43, brain abundant, membrane attached signal protein 2, calmodulin-binding protein P-57, growth accentuating protein 43
Species: mouse
Products:     Gap43

Top Publications

  1. Bolognani F, Tanner D, Merhege M, Deschenes Furry J, Jasmin B, Perrone Bizzozero N. In vivo post-transcriptional regulation of GAP-43 mRNA by overexpression of the RNA-binding protein HuD. J Neurochem. 2006;96:790-801 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our results demonstrate that HuD overexpression is sufficient to increase GAP-43 mRNA stability in vivo. ..
  2. Zhang F, Lu C, Severin C, Sretavan D. GAP-43 mediates retinal axon interaction with lateral diencephalon cells during optic tract formation. Development. 2000;127:969-80 pubmed
    ..Instead, GAP-43 appears to mediate RGC axon interaction with guidance cues in the lateral diencephalic wall, suggesting possible involvement of PKC and calmodulin signaling during optic tract formation. ..
  3. Rekart J, Routtenberg A. Overexpression of GAP-43 reveals unexpected properties of hippocampal mossy fibers. Hippocampus. 2010;20:46-57 pubmed publisher
  4. Zhu Q, Julien J. A key role for GAP-43 in the retinotectal topographic organization. Exp Neurol. 1999;155:228-42 pubmed
    ..Moreover, in the superior colliculus, RGC axons lacking GAP-43 are intermingled. These results suggest an essential role for GAP-43 in development of the topographic retinotectal connection. ..
  5. Buffo A, Holtmaat A, Savio T, Verbeek J, Oberdick J, Oestreicher A, et al. Targeted overexpression of the neurite growth-associated protein B-50/GAP-43 in cerebellar Purkinje cells induces sprouting after axotomy but not axon regeneration into growth-permissive transplants. J Neurosci. 1997;17:8778-91 pubmed
    ..However, the presence of this protein is not sufficient to enable these neurons to accomplish a full program of axon regeneration. ..
  6. Shen Y, Mishra R, Mani S, Meiri K. Both cell-autonomous and cell non-autonomous functions of GAP-43 are required for normal patterning of the cerebellum in vivo. Cerebellum. 2008;7:451-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The multiple effects of GAP-43 on cerebellar development suggest that it is a critical downstream transducer of signaling mechanisms that integrate generation of cerebellar structure with functional parcellation at the central lobe. ..
  7. Chen T, Huang C, Wang D, Chen S. Co-induction of growth-associated protein GAP-43 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the cochlear nucleus following cochleotomy. Exp Brain Res. 2004;158:151-62 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the latter result suggests a possible role of an autocrine mediator for nNOS in the AVCN. ..
  8. Rekart J, Meiri K, Routtenberg A. Hippocampal-dependent memory is impaired in heterozygous GAP-43 knockout mice. Hippocampus. 2005;15:1-7 pubmed
  9. Mishra R, Gupta S, Meiri K, Fong M, Thostrup P, Juncker D, et al. GAP-43 is key to mitotic spindle control and centrosome-based polarization in neurons. Cell Cycle. 2008;7:348-57 pubmed
    ..These results show that GAP-43 is required to link centrosome position to process outgrowth in order to generate neuronal polarity in cerebellar granule cells. ..

More Information


  1. Mu X, Fu X, Beremand P, Thomas T, Klein W. Gene regulation logic in retinal ganglion cell development: Isl1 defines a critical branch distinct from but overlapping with Pou4f2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6942-7 pubmed publisher
    ..They also reveal that identical RGC expression patterns are achieved by different combinations of divergent inputs from upstream transcription factors. ..
  2. Frey D, Laux T, Xu L, Schneider C, Caroni P. Shared and unique roles of CAP23 and GAP43 in actin regulation, neurite outgrowth, and anatomical plasticity. J Cell Biol. 2000;149:1443-54 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that CAP23 is functionally related to GAP43, and plays a critical role to regulate nerve sprouting and the actin cytoskeleton...
  3. Sretavan D, Kruger K. Randomized retinal ganglion cell axon routing at the optic chiasm of GAP-43-deficient mice: association with midline recrossing and lack of normal ipsilateral axon turning. J Neurosci. 1998;18:10502-13 pubmed
    ..This resemblance and the fact that GAP-43 also has been proposed to regulate calmodulin availability raise the possibility that calmodulin function is involved in CNS midline axon guidance in both vertebrates and invertebrates. ..
  4. Donovan S, Mamounas L, Andrews A, Blue M, McCasland J. GAP-43 is critical for normal development of the serotonergic innervation in forebrain. J Neurosci. 2002;22:3543-52 pubmed
    ..a nearly complete failure of 5-HT immunoreactive axons to innervate the cortex and hippocampus in GAP-43-null (GAP43-/-) mice...
  5. Aigner L, Arber S, Kapfhammer J, Laux T, Schneider C, Botteri F, et al. Overexpression of the neural growth-associated protein GAP-43 induces nerve sprouting in the adult nervous system of transgenic mice. Cell. 1995;83:269-78 pubmed
    ..A mutant GAP-43 that cannot be phosphorylated by PKC had reduced sprout-promoting activity. The results establish GAP-43 as an intrinsic presynaptic determinant for neurite outgrowth and plasticity. ..
  6. SMITH K, Ohkubo Y, Maragnoli M, Rasin M, Schwartz M, Sestan N, et al. Midline radial glia translocation and corpus callosum formation require FGF signaling. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9:787-97 pubmed
    ..Hence, FGFs have an important role in the transition from radial glia to astrocytes by stimulating somal translocation of radial glial cells. ..
  7. Zaccaria K, Lagace D, Eisch A, McCasland J. Resistance to change and vulnerability to stress: autistic-like features of GAP43-deficient mice. Genes Brain Behav. 2010;9:985-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The synaptic growth-associated protein-43 (GAP43) has recently been identified as an autism candidate gene of interest...
  8. Maier D, Mani S, Donovan S, Soppet D, Tessarollo L, McCasland J, et al. Disrupted cortical map and absence of cortical barrels in growth-associated protein (GAP)-43 knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:9397-402 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that GAP-43 expression is critical for the normal establishment of ordered topography in barrel cortex. ..
  9. Holahan M, Honegger K, Routtenberg A. Ectopic growth of hippocampal mossy fibers in a mutated GAP-43 transgenic mouse with impaired spatial memory retention. Hippocampus. 2010;20:58-64 pubmed publisher
  10. Gianola S, Rossi F. GAP-43 overexpression in adult mouse Purkinje cells overrides myelin-derived inhibition of neurite growth. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;19:819-30 pubmed
    ..Our observations suggest that accumulation of GAP-43 along precise axon segments disrupts the normal axon-glia interaction and enhances the retraction of oligodendrocytic processes to facilitate the outgrowth of neuritic sprouts. ..
  11. Laux T, Fukami K, Thelen M, Golub T, Frey D, Caroni P. GAP43, MARCKS, and CAP23 modulate PI(4,5)P(2) at plasmalemmal rafts, and regulate cell cortex actin dynamics through a common mechanism. J Cell Biol. 2000;149:1455-72 pubmed
    ..b>GAP43, myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS), and CAP23 (GMC) are locally abundant, plasmalemma-..
  12. Grasselli G, Mandolesi G, Strata P, Cesare P. Impaired sprouting and axonal atrophy in cerebellar climbing fibres following in vivo silencing of the growth-associated protein GAP-43. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20791 pubmed publisher
    ..mechanisms involved in these events, we focused on the growth-associated protein GAP-43 (also known as B-50 or neuromodulin)...
  13. Pan L, Deng M, Xie X, Gan L. ISL1 and BRN3B co-regulate the differentiation of murine retinal ganglion cells. Development. 2008;135:1981-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results uncover a novel regulatory mechanism of BRN3B and ISL1 in RGC differentiation. ..
  14. Shen Y, Mani S, Donovan S, Schwob J, Meiri K. Growth-associated protein-43 is required for commissural axon guidance in the developing vertebrate nervous system. J Neurosci. 2002;22:239-47 pubmed
    ..Nonetheless, the data show that a functional threshold of GAP-43 is required for commissure formation and suggests that failure to regulate F-actin in commissural growth cones may be related to inhibited PKC phosphorylation of GAP-43. ..
  15. Holahan M, Routtenberg A. The protein kinase C phosphorylation site on GAP-43 differentially regulates information storage. Hippocampus. 2008;18:1099-102 pubmed publisher
  16. Burmeister M, Novak J, Liang M, Basu S, Ploder L, Hawes N, et al. Ocular retardation mouse caused by Chx10 homeobox null allele: impaired retinal progenitor proliferation and bipolar cell differentiation. Nat Genet. 1996;12:376-84 pubmed ..
  17. Foscarin S, Gianola S, Carulli D, Fazzari P, Mi S, Tamagnone L, et al. Overexpression of GAP-43 modifies the distribution of the receptors for myelin-associated growth-inhibitory proteins in injured Purkinje axons. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;30:1837-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, GAP-43 promotes axon growth by multiple synergistic mechanisms that potentiate the intrinsic motility of the elongating processes, while reducing their sensitivity to environmental inhibition. ..
  18. Nguyen Ba Charvet K, di Meglio T, Fouquet C, Chedotal A. Robos and slits control the pathfinding and targeting of mouse olfactory sensory axons. J Neurosci. 2008;28:4244-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Slit1, Slit2, Robo1, and Robo2 cooperate to control the convergence of ORN axons to the OB and the precise targeting of ORN axons to specific glomeruli. ..
  19. Unni D, Piper M, Moldrich R, Gobius I, Liu S, Fothergill T, et al. Multiple Slits regulate the development of midline glial populations and the corpus callosum. Dev Biol. 2012;365:36-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, our data also indicate that some of the roles of Slit proteins at the midline may be independent of Robo signalling, suggestive of additional receptors regulating Slit signalling during development. ..
  20. Hulo S, Alberi S, Laux T, Muller D, Caroni P. A point mutant of GAP-43 induces enhanced short-term and long-term hippocampal plasticity. Eur J Neurosci. 2002;15:1976-82 pubmed
    The growth-associated protein GAP-43 (or neuromodulin or B-50) plays a critical role during development in mechanisms of axonal growth and formation of synaptic networks...
  21. Wiederkehr A, Staple J, Caroni P. The motility-associated proteins GAP-43, MARCKS, and CAP-23 share unique targeting and surface activity-inducing properties. Exp Cell Res. 1997;236:103-16 pubmed
    ..Superimposed on these general properties, differences in the regulation of membrane association and binding properties of effector domains would confer individual properties to each of these proteins. ..
  22. Zhang Y, Bo X, Schoepfer R, Holtmaat A, Verhaagen J, Emson P, et al. Growth-associated protein GAP-43 and L1 act synergistically to promote regenerative growth of Purkinje cell axons in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:14883-8 pubmed
  23. Strittmatter S, Fankhauser C, Huang P, Mashimo H, Fishman M. Neuronal pathfinding is abnormal in mice lacking the neuronal growth cone protein GAP-43. Cell. 1995;80:445-52 pubmed
    ..This is compatible with the hypothesis that GAP-43 serves to amplify pathfinding signals from the growth cone. ..
  24. Hirota J, Mombaerts P. The LIM-homeodomain protein Lhx2 is required for complete development of mouse olfactory sensory neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:8751-5 pubmed
    ..However, expression of OMP is abolished and that of GAP43 is severely reduced, indicating that no mature and few immature OSNs are produced...
  25. Estivill Torrus G, Llebrez Zayas P, Matas Rico E, Santín L, Pedraza C, De Diego I, et al. Absence of LPA1 signaling results in defective cortical development. Cereb Cortex. 2008;18:938-50 pubmed
    ..These data support LPA(1) function in normal cortical development and suggest that the presence of genetic modifiers of LPA(1) influences cerebral cortical development. ..
  26. Ringstedt T, Ibanez C, Nosrat C. Role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in target invasion in the gustatory system. J Neurosci. 1999;19:3507-18 pubmed
  27. Pan L, Yang Z, Feng L, Gan L. Functional equivalence of Brn3 POU-domain transcription factors in mouse retinal neurogenesis. Development. 2005;132:703-12 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Brn3 factors are functionally equal and that their unique roles in neurogenesis are determined by the distinctive Brn3 spatiotemporal expression patterns. ..
  28. Salehi P, Ge M, Gundimeda U, Michelle Baum L, Lael Cantu H, Lavinsky J, et al. Role of Neuropilin-1/Semaphorin-3A signaling in the functional and morphological integrity of the cochlea. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1007048 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our results here support a model whereby Neuropilin-1/Semaphorin-3A signaling is critical for the functional and morphological integrity of the cochlea and that Nrp1 may play a role in ARHL. ..
  29. Cheng L, Reed R. Zfp423/OAZ participates in a developmental switch during olfactory neurogenesis. Neuron. 2007;54:547-57 pubmed
    ..Together, these experiments suggest that OAZ participates in a developmental switch regulating the transition from differentiation to maturation in ORNs. ..
  30. Freeman N, Templeton J, Orr W, Lu L, Williams R, Geisert E. Genetic networks in the mouse retina: growth associated protein 43 and phosphatase tensin homolog network. Mol Vis. 2011;17:1355-72 pubmed
    ..For example, we define the genetic network regulating growth associated protein 43 (Gap43) and phosphatase tensin homolog (Pten)...
  31. Guarnieri S, Morabito C, Paolini C, Boncompagni S, Pilla R, Fanò Illic G, et al. Growth associated protein 43 is expressed in skeletal muscle fibers and is localized in proximity of mitochondria and calcium release units. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53267 pubmed publisher
    The neuronal Growth Associated Protein 43 (GAP43), also known as B-50 or neuromodulin, is involved in mechanisms controlling pathfinding and branching of neurons during development and regeneration...
  32. Gagliardini V, Dusart I, Fankhauser C. Absence of GAP-43 can protect neurons from death. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2000;16:27-33 pubmed
    ..We also show that early postnatal Purkinje cells from GAP-43 (+/-) mice are more resistant to cell death in organotypic cultures. We conclude that GAP-43 can influence neuronal survival and modulate repulsive axon guidance signals. ..
  33. Irving N, Hardy J, Brown S. The multipoint genetic mapping of mouse chromosome 16. Genomics. 1991;9:386-9 pubmed
    ..D16Smh6, a random genomic clone; Pgk-1ps1, a phosphoglycerate kinase pseudogene; and the growth-associated protein Gap43. The map position of Gap43 indicates the presence, on mouse chromosome 16, of a significant-size conserved linkage ..
  34. Bressan A, Somma M, Lewis J, Santolamazza C, Copeland N, Gilbert D, et al. Characterization of the opposite-strand genes from the mouse bidirectionally transcribed HTF9 locus. Gene. 1991;103:201-9 pubmed
    ..Both genes appear to code for novel proteins that are structurally unrelated to each other. Finally, we show that both genes are highly conserved and efficiently expressed in human cells. ..
  35. Jochheim Richter A, Rüdrich U, Koczan D, Hillemann T, Tewes S, Petry M, et al. Gene expression analysis identifies novel genes participating in early murine liver development and adult liver regeneration. Differentiation. 2006;74:167-73 pubmed
    ..Two of the genes, growth arrest protein 43 (GAP43) and paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (Pitx2) were exclusively detected at 24 hr, whereas the genes ..
  36. Finotto S, Krieglstein K, Schober A, Deimling F, Lindner K, Brühl B, et al. Analysis of mice carrying targeted mutations of the glucocorticoid receptor gene argues against an essential role of glucocorticoid signalling for generating adrenal chromaffin cells. Development. 1999;126:2935-44 pubmed
    ..g. GAP43, acetylcholinesterase, adhesion molecule L1) of chromaffin cells in GR-deficient and wild-type mice...
  37. Tanner D, Qiu S, Bolognani F, Partridge L, Weeber E, Perrone Bizzozero N. Alterations in mossy fiber physiology and GAP-43 expression and function in transgenic mice overexpressing HuD. Hippocampus. 2008;18:814-23 pubmed publisher
  38. Mao C, Wang S, Pan P, Klein W. Rewiring the retinal ganglion cell gene regulatory network: Neurod1 promotes retinal ganglion cell fate in the absence of Math5. Development. 2008;135:3379-88 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that, although Neurod1 and Math3 have evolved specialized functions for establishing amacrine cell fate, they are nevertheless capable of alternative functions when expressed in foreign environments. ..
  39. Bird C, GARDINER A, Bolognani F, Tanner D, Chen C, Lin W, et al. KSRP modulation of GAP-43 mRNA stability restricts axonal outgrowth in embryonic hippocampal neurons. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e79255 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results suggest that KSRP is an important regulator of mRNA stability and axonal length that works in direct opposition to HuD to regulate the levels of GAP-43 and other ARE-containing neuronal mRNAs. ..
  40. Haag D, Zipper P, Westrich V, Karra D, Pfleger K, Toedt G, et al. Nos2 inactivation promotes the development of medulloblastoma in Ptch1(+/-) mice by deregulation of Gap43-dependent granule cell precursor migration. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002572 pubmed publisher
    ..The most consistent effect of Nos2 deficiency was downregulation of growth-associated protein 43 (Gap43)...
  41. Reeves R, Gallahan D, O Hara B, Callahan R, Gearhart J. Genetic mapping of Prm-1, Igl-1, Smst, Mtv-6, Sod-1, and Ets-2 and localization of the Down syndrome region on mouse chromosome 16. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1987;44:76-81 pubmed
    ..A region of MMU 16 which corresponds to the Down syndrome region of human chromosome 21 is located near the distal end of the chromosome. ..
  42. Parmantier E, Lynn B, Lawson D, Turmaine M, Namini S, Chakrabarti L, et al. Schwann cell-derived Desert hedgehog controls the development of peripheral nerve sheaths. Neuron. 1999;23:713-24 pubmed
    ..They also show that Schwann cell-derived signals can act as important regulators of nerve development. ..
  43. Estivill Torrus G, Vitalis T, Fernández Llebrez P, Price D. The transcription factor Pax6 is required for development of the diencephalic dorsal midline secretory radial glia that form the subcommissural organ. Mech Dev. 2001;109:215-24 pubmed
    ..A correlation between the defects of SCO formation and altered R- and OB-cadherin expression patterns in the SCO is observed in mutants suggesting a role for cadherins in SCO development. ..
  44. Enomoto H, Hughes I, Golden J, Baloh R, Yonemura S, Heuckeroth R, et al. GFRalpha1 expression in cells lacking RET is dispensable for organogenesis and nerve regeneration. Neuron. 2004;44:623-36 pubmed
    ..Thus RET-independent GFRalpha1 is dispensable for organogenesis and nerve regeneration in vivo, indicating that trans-signaling and GFRalpha-dependent NCAM signaling play a minor role physiologically. ..
  45. Bormuth I, Yan K, Yonemasu T, Gummert M, Zhang M, Wichert S, et al. Neuronal basic helix-loop-helix proteins Neurod2/6 regulate cortical commissure formation before midline interactions. J Neurosci. 2013;33:641-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings define a new stage in corpus callosum development and demonstrate that neocortical projection neurons require transcriptional specification by neuronal bHLH proteins to execute an intrinsic program of remote connectivity. ..
  46. Fallini C, Donlin Asp P, Rouanet J, Bassell G, Rossoll W. Deficiency of the Survival of Motor Neuron Protein Impairs mRNA Localization and Local Translation in the Growth Cone of Motor Neurons. J Neurosci. 2016;36:3811-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We also identify the cytoskeleton-associated growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43) mRNA as a new target of SMN and show that motor neurons from SMA mouse models have reduced levels ofGAP43mRNA and ..
  47. Morishita H, Kawaguchi M, Murata Y, Seiwa C, Hamada S, Asou H, et al. Myelination triggers local loss of axonal CNR/protocadherin alpha family protein expression. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;20:2843-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, myelination may be a trigger for the local loss of axonal CNR/Pcdh alpha protein, and this process may be important in the maturation of neural circuits. ..
  48. Ikeda K, Ookawara S, Sato S, Ando Z, Kageyama R, Kawakami K. Six1 is essential for early neurogenesis in the development of olfactory epithelium. Dev Biol. 2007;311:53-68 pubmed
    ..Our study indicates that Six1 plays critical roles in early neurogenesis by regulating Ngn1, NeuroD, Hes1, and Hes5. ..
  49. Matsugami T, Tanemura K, Mieda M, Nakatomi R, Yamada K, Kondo T, et al. From the Cover: Indispensability of the glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT1 to brain development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:12161-6 pubmed
  50. Kong E, Peng S, Chandra G, Sarkar C, Zhang Z, Bagh M, et al. Dynamic palmitoylation links cytosol-membrane shuttling of acyl-protein thioesterase-1 and acyl-protein thioesterase-2 with that of proto-oncogene H-ras product and growth-associated protein-43. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:9112-25 pubmed publisher
  51. Larouche M, Che P, Hawkes R. Neurogranin expression identifies a novel array of Purkinje cell parasagittal stripes during mouse cerebellar development. J Comp Neurol. 2006;494:215-27 pubmed
    ..Neurogranin immunoreactivity will be a valuable tool in helping to clarify the relationships between early- and late-onset patterns. ..
  52. Lyons D, Allen W, Goh T, Tsai L, Barnea G, Lomvardas S. An epigenetic trap stabilizes singular olfactory receptor expression. Cell. 2013;154:325-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel, three-node signaling cascade locks the epigenetic state of the chosen OR, stabilizes its singular expression, and prevents the transcriptional activation of additional OR alleles for the life of the neuron. ..
  53. Mao C, Tsai W, Cho J, Pan P, Barton M, Klein W. Neuronal transcriptional repressor REST suppresses an Atoh7-independent program for initiating retinal ganglion cell development. Dev Biol. 2011;349:90-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate an Atoh7-independent program for initial activation of RGC genes and suggest a novel role for REST in preventing premature expression in RPCs. ..
  54. Coate T, Spita N, Zhang K, Isgrig K, Kelley M. Neuropilin-2/Semaphorin-3F-mediated repulsion promotes inner hair cell innervation by spiral ganglion neurons. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a model in which cochlear innervation patterns by type I SGNs are determined, at least in part, through a Semaphorin-3F-mediated inhibitory signal that impedes processes from extending beyond the IHC region. ..
  55. Verhage M, Maia A, Plomp J, Brussaard A, Heeroma J, Vermeer H, et al. Synaptic assembly of the brain in the absence of neurotransmitter secretion. Science. 2000;287:864-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, synaptic connectivity does not depend on neurotransmitter secretion, but its maintenance does. Neurotransmitter secretion probably functions to validate already established synaptic connections. ..
  56. Tisay K, St John J, Key B. Expression of specific glycoconjugates in both primary and secondary olfactory pathways in BALB/C mice. J Comp Neurol. 2002;443:213-25 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that glycoconjugates recognized by DBA may have a specific role in the formation and maintenance of neural connections within a select functional pathway in the brain. ..
  57. Levi G, Puche A, Mantero S, Barbieri O, Trombino S, Paleari L, et al. The Dlx5 homeodomain gene is essential for olfactory development and connectivity in the mouse. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2003;22:530-43 pubmed
    ..Thus, the absence of Dlx5 in the OB does not per se prevent ORN axon ingrowth. In conclusion, Dlx5 plays major roles in the connectivity of ORN axons and in the differentiation of OB interneurons. ..
  58. Mulder J, Aguado T, Keimpema E, Barabas K, Ballester Rosado C, Nguyen L, et al. Endocannabinoid signaling controls pyramidal cell specification and long-range axon patterning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:8760-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Likewise, axonal pathfinding becomes impaired after in utero pharmacological blockade of CB(1)Rs. Overall, eCBs are fundamental developmental cues controlling pyramidal cell development during corticogenesis. ..
  59. Chen L, Gilman A, Kozasa T. A candidate target for G protein action in brain. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:26931-8 pubmed
    ..Coexpression of GRIN1 or GRIN2 with activated G(o)alpha causes formation of a network of fine processes in Neuro2a cells, suggesting that these pathways may function downstream of G(o)alpha to control growth of neurites. ..
  60. Hayashi S, Taira A, Inoue G, Koshi T, Ito T, Yamashita M, et al. TNF-alpha in nucleus pulposus induces sensory nerve growth: a study of the mechanism of discogenic low back pain using TNF-alpha-deficient mice. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008;33:1542-6 pubmed publisher
    ..left L4 dorsal root ganglions were removed and incubated with antibodies against growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43), a marker of axonal growth...
  61. Vosseller K, Hansen K, Chalkley R, Trinidad J, Wells L, Hart G, et al. Quantitative analysis of both protein expression and serine / threonine post-translational modifications through stable isotope labeling with dithiothreitol. Proteomics. 2005;5:388-98 pubmed
    ..These results demonstate BEMAD is suitable for large-scale quantitative analysis of both protein expression and serine / threonine post-translational modifications. ..
  62. Gamby C, Waage M, Allen R, Baizer L. Analysis of the role of calmodulin binding and sequestration in neuromodulin (GAP-43) function. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:26698-705 pubmed
    We demonstrated previously that forced expression of the neuronal phosphoprotein neuromodulin (also known as GAP-43, F1, B-50, and p57) in mouse anterior pituitary AtT-20 cells enhances depolarization-mediated secretion and alters ..
  63. Pla P, Hirsch M, Le Crom S, Reiprich S, Harley V, Goridis C. Identification of Phox2b-regulated genes by expression profiling of cranial motoneuron precursors. Neural Dev. 2008;3:14 pubmed publisher
    ..We selected for functional studies the genes encoding the axonal growth promoter Gap43, the Wnt antagonist Sfrp1 and the transcriptional regulator Sox13, which were not previously suspected to play ..
  64. Sammeta N, Hardin D, McClintock T. Uncx regulates proliferation of neural progenitor cells and neuronal survival in the olfactory epithelium. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;45:398-407 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that UNCX acts downstream of neural determination factors to broadly control transcriptional mechanisms used by neural progenitor cells to specify neural phenotypes...
  65. Peretto P, Cummings D, Modena C, Behrens M, Venkatraman G, Fasolo A, et al. BMP mRNA and protein expression in the developing mouse olfactory system. J Comp Neurol. 2002;451:267-78 pubmed
    ..In summary, these data support the hypothesis that BMPs play a role in the morphogenesis of the olfactory system during development and in its plasticity during adulthood. ..
  66. Suda Y, Hossain Z, Kobayashi C, Hatano O, Yoshida M, Matsuo I, et al. Emx2 directs the development of diencephalon in cooperation with Otx2. Development. 2001;128:2433-50 pubmed
    ..Consequently, development of the dorsal and ventral thalamus and anterior pretectum requires cooperation between Emx2 and Otx2, whereas Emx2 expression is incompatible with development of the commissural region of the pretectum. ..
  67. Huang R, Zhao J, Ju L, Wen Y, Xu Q. The influence of GAP-43 on orientation of cell division through G proteins. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2015;47:333-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It can be considered from the results that the GAP-43 is involved in the orientation of cell division by interacting with Gαi and this should be an important mechanism for neurogenesis in the mammalian brain. ..
  68. Blanchart A, Martín López E, de Carlos J, López Mascaraque L. Peripheral contributions to olfactory bulb cell populations (migrations towards the olfactory bulb). Glia. 2011;59:278-92 pubmed publisher
  69. Huang J, Sakai R, Furuichi T. The docking protein Cas links tyrosine phosphorylation signaling to elongation of cerebellar granule cell axons. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:3187-96 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that Cas acts as a key scaffold that links the proteins associated with tyrosine phosphorylation signaling pathways to the granule cell axon elongation. ..
  70. Harding D, Greensmith L, Mason M, Anderson P, Vrbova G. Overexpression of GAP-43 induces prolonged sprouting and causes death of adult motoneurons. Eur J Neurosci. 1999;11:2237-42 pubmed
    ..Thus, continued growth of motor axons renders adult motoneurons susceptible to nerve injury and compromises their long-term survival. The progressive nature of neurodegenerative diseases may therefore be caused by prolonged sprouting. ..
  71. Hirata T, Suda Y, Nakao K, Narimatsu M, Hirano T, Hibi M. Zinc finger gene fez-like functions in the formation of subplate neurons and thalamocortical axons. Dev Dyn. 2004;230:546-56 pubmed
  72. Metz G, Schwab M. Behavioral characterization in a comprehensive mouse test battery reveals motor and sensory impairments in growth-associated protein-43 null mutant mice. Neuroscience. 2004;129:563-74 pubmed
    ..The results also show that the comprehensive test battery used in the present study represents a sensitive approach to assess the functional integrity of ascending and descending pathways in genetically manipulated mice. ..
  73. Whitesides J, LaMantia A. Distinct adhesive behaviors of neurons and neural precursor cells during regional differentiation in the mammalian forebrain. Dev Biol. 1995;169:229-41 pubmed
    ..aspect of the telencephalic vesicle is distinguished by early neuronal differentiation assessed by MAP2 and GAP43 expression and increased expression of the Ca(2+)-independent/immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules (..
  74. Miller A, Maurer L, Zou D, Firestein S, Greer C. Axon fasciculation in the developing olfactory nerve. Neural Dev. 2010;5:20 pubmed publisher
    ..While regional segregation occurs in the mesenchyme, the final convergence of OR-specific subpopulations does not occur until the axons reach the inner nerve layer of the OB...
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    ..Taken together, our data reveal an unexpected role for NFAT-3 as a direct transcriptional repressor of GAP-43 expression and suggest a more general role for NFAT-3 in the control of the neuronal outgrowth program. ..
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