galanin

Summary

Gene Symbol: galanin
Description: galanin
Alias: Galn, galanin peptides
Species: mouse
Products:     galanin

Top Publications

  1. Holmes F, Bacon A, Pope R, Vanderplank P, Kerr N, Sukumaran M, et al. Transgenic overexpression of galanin in the dorsal root ganglia modulates pain-related behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:6180-5 pubmed
    The neuropeptide galanin is expressed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord and is thought to be involved in the modulation of pain processing...
  2. Mahoney S, Hosking R, Farrant S, Holmes F, Jacoby A, Shine J, et al. The second galanin receptor GalR2 plays a key role in neurite outgrowth from adult sensory neurons. J Neurosci. 2003;23:416-21 pubmed
    Expression of the neuropeptide galanin is markedly upregulated within the adult dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after peripheral nerve injury...
  3. Wraith D, Pope R, Butzkueven H, Holder H, Vanderplank P, Lowrey P, et al. A role for galanin in human and experimental inflammatory demyelination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:15466-71 pubmed publisher
    The neuropeptide galanin is widely expressed by many differing subsets of neurons in the nervous system...
  4. Kerr B, Gupta Y, Pope R, Thompson S, Wynick D, McMahon S. Endogenous galanin potentiates spinal nociceptive processing following inflammation. Pain. 2001;93:267-77 pubmed
    We have undertaken a series of experiments using galanin null mutant mice to better define the role of endogenous galanin in spinal excitability following inflammation and in response to centrally sensitizing stimuli...
  5. Kerr B, Cafferty W, Gupta Y, Bacon A, Wynick D, McMahon S, et al. Galanin knockout mice reveal nociceptive deficits following peripheral nerve injury. Eur J Neurosci. 2000;12:793-802 pubmed
    The neuropeptide galanin has been identified as a potential neurotransmitter/neuromodulator within the central nervous system...
  6. Wynick D, Small C, Bacon A, Holmes F, Norman M, Ormandy C, et al. Galanin regulates prolactin release and lactotroph proliferation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:12671-6 pubmed
    The neuropeptide galanin is predominantly expressed by the lactotrophs (the prolactin secreting cell type) in the rodent anterior pituitary and in the median eminence and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus...
  7. Schweickert A, Deissler K, Britsch S, Albrecht M, Ehmann H, Mauch V, et al. Left-asymmetric expression of Galanin in the linear heart tube of the mouse embryo is independent of the nodal co-receptor gene cryptic. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:3557-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In a screen for novel factors we identified the gene encoding the neuropeptide Galanin in mouse. At embryonic day (E) 8...
  8. Elliott Hunt C, Marsh B, Bacon A, Pope R, Vanderplank P, Wynick D. Galanin acts as a neuroprotective factor to the hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:5105-10 pubmed
    The expression of the neuropeptide galanin is markedly up-regulated in many areas of the central and peripheral nervous system after injury...
  9. Eng S, Lanier J, Fedtsova N, Turner E. Coordinated regulation of gene expression by Brn3a in developing sensory ganglia. Development. 2004;131:3859-70 pubmed

More Information

Publications88

  1. Hygge Blakeman K, Brumovsky P, Hao J, Xu X, Hokfelt T, Crawley J, et al. Galanin over-expression decreases the development of neuropathic pain-like behaviors in mice after partial sciatic nerve injury. Brain Res. 2004;1025:152-8 pubmed
    The neuropeptide galanin may have a role in modulation of nociception, particularly after peripheral nerve injury...
  2. Holmes F, Mahoney S, King V, Bacon A, Kerr N, Pachnis V, et al. Targeted disruption of the galanin gene reduces the number of sensory neurons and their regenerative capacity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:11563-8 pubmed
    The neuropeptide galanin is expressed developmentally in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and is rapidly up-regulated 120-fold after peripheral nerve section in the adult...
  3. Xiang M, Gan L, Zhou L, Klein W, Nathans J. Targeted deletion of the mouse POU domain gene Brn-3a causes selective loss of neurons in the brainstem and trigeminal ganglion, uncoordinated limb movement, and impaired suckling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:11950-5 pubmed
  4. Perumal P, Vrontakis M. Transgenic mice over-expressing galanin exhibit pituitary adenomas and increased secretion of galanin, prolactin and growth hormone. J Endocrinol. 2003;179:145-54 pubmed
    b>Galanin is a biologically active 29 amino acid peptide, widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system, and most abundantly in the hypothalamus where it may serve in the regulation of anterior pituitary hormones...
  5. Bhandari M, Thomas A, Hussey D, Li X, Jaya S, Woods C, et al. Galanin mediates the pathogenesis of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in the mouse. Pancreas. 2010;39:182-7 pubmed publisher
    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is characterized by pancreatic microcirculatory and secretory disturbances. As galanin can modulate pancreatic vascular perfusion, we sought to determine if galanin plays a role in AP...
  6. Holmes F, Armenaki A, Iismaa T, Einstein E, Shine J, Picciotto M, et al. Galanin negatively modulates opiate withdrawal via galanin receptor 1. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012;220:619-25 pubmed publisher
    The neuropeptide galanin has been shown to modulate opiate dependence and withdrawal...
  7. Christiansen S, Woldbye D. Regulation of the galanin system by repeated electroconvulsive seizures in mice. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88:3635-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The neuropeptide galanin exerts antiepileptic and antidepressant-like effects and has also been implicated in the pathophysiology of ..
  8. Finotto S, Krieglstein K, Schober A, Deimling F, Lindner K, Brühl B, et al. Analysis of mice carrying targeted mutations of the glucocorticoid receptor gene argues against an essential role of glucocorticoid signalling for generating adrenal chromaffin cells. Development. 1999;126:2935-44 pubmed
    ..These data strongly suggest that the dogma of an essential role of glucocorticoid signalling for the development of chromaffin cells must be abandoned. ..
  9. Hohmann J, Teklemichael D, Weinshenker D, Wynick D, Clifton D, Steiner R. Obesity and endocrine dysfunction in mice with deletions of both neuropeptide Y and galanin. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:2978-85 pubmed
    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and galanin have both been implicated in the regulation of body weight, yet mice bearing deletions of either of these molecules have unremarkable metabolic phenotypes...
  10. Laque A, Yu S, Qualls Creekmore E, Gettys S, Schwartzenburg C, Bui K, et al. Leptin modulates nutrient reward via inhibitory galanin action on orexin neurons. Mol Metab. 2015;4:706-17 pubmed publisher
    ..showed earlier that LepRb neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (LHA) co-express the inhibitory acting neuropeptide galanin (GAL-LepRb neurons)...
  11. Zachariou V, Brunzell D, Hawes J, Stedman D, Bartfai T, Steiner R, et al. The neuropeptide galanin modulates behavioral and neurochemical signs of opiate withdrawal. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9028-33 pubmed
    ..b>Galanin decreases firing of locus coeruleus neurons, an effect hypothesized to decrease signs of opiate withdrawal...
  12. Rajendren G, Gibson M. Expression of galanin immunoreactivity in gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in mice: a confocal microscopic study. Brain Res. 1999;821:270-6 pubmed
    The expression of galanin immunoreactivity (galanin-IR) in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons was investigated in mice using double label immunohistochemistry combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy...
  13. Holmes F, Vanderplank P, Wynick D. Galanin-expression and galanin-dependent sensory neurons are not required for itch. Mol Pain. 2012;8:87 pubmed publisher
    b>Galanin is a key modulator of nociception, and it is also required for the developmental survival of a subset of C-fibre sensory neurons which are critical to the mediation of neuropathic and inflammatory pain...
  14. Christiansen S. Regulation of the galanin system in the brainstem and hypothalamus by electroconvulsive stimulation in mice. Neuropeptides. 2011;45:337-41 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the working mechanism by which ECS exerts its antidepressant effects remains elusive. The galanin system is regulated by ECS in seizure-prone brain regions and has been shown to modulate depression-like ..
  15. Karatayev O, Baylan J, Leibowitz S. Increased intake of ethanol and dietary fat in galanin overexpressing mice. Alcohol. 2009;43:571-80 pubmed publisher
    Evidence suggests that the orexigenic peptide, galanin (GAL), in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) has a role in stimulating the consumption of ethanol, in addition to a high-fat diet...
  16. Wu Z, Autry A, Bergan J, Watabe Uchida M, Dulac C. Galanin neurons in the medial preoptic area govern parental behaviour. Nature. 2014;509:325-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we uncover a subset of galanin-expressing neurons in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) that are specifically activated during male and female ..
  17. Yoshitake T, Wang F, Kuteeva E, Holmberg K, Yamaguchi M, Crawley J, et al. Enhanced hippocampal noradrenaline and serotonin release in galanin-overexpressing mice after repeated forced swimming test. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:354-9 pubmed
    ..and serotonin (5-HT) were determined by in vivo microdialysis in the ventral hippocampus of mice overexpressing galanin under the platelet-derived growth factor B promoter (GalOE/P) or under the dopamine beta-hydroxylase promoter (..
  18. Hulse R, Wynick D, Donaldson L. Characterization of a novel neuropathic pain model in mice. Neuroreport. 2008;19:825-9 pubmed publisher
    ..innervation of the dorsal hindpaw and increased expression in the dorsal root ganglion of the neuropeptide galanin. We have used the PSNI model to study the electrophysiological properties of injured primary afferent neurones, ..
  19. Grass S, Crawley J, Xu X, Wiesenfeld Hallin Z. Reduced spinal cord sensitization to C-fibre stimulation in mice over-expressing galanin. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;17:1829-32 pubmed
    The neuropeptide galanin may have a role in spinal nociception...
  20. Psichas A, Glass L, Sharp S, Reimann F, Gribble F. Galanin inhibits GLP-1 and GIP secretion via the GAL1 receptor in enteroendocrine L and K cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2016;173:888-98 pubmed publisher
    b>Galanin is a widely expressed neuropeptide, which in the gut is thought to modulate gastrointestinal motility and secretion...
  21. Cox G, Mahaffey C, Frankel W. Identification of the mouse neuromuscular degeneration gene and mapping of a second site suppressor allele. Neuron. 1998;21:1327-37 pubmed
    ..The identification of the nmd gene and mapping of a major suppressor provide new opportunities for understanding mechanisms of motor neuron degeneration. ..
  22. Lundkvist J, Land T, Kahl U, Bedecs K, Bartfai T. cDNA sequence, ligand biding, and regulation of galanin/GMAP in mouse brain. Neurosci Lett. 1995;200:121-4 pubmed
    The cDNA encoding the 29 amino acid-long neuropeptide galanin and its flanking peptide galanin message associated peptide (GMAP), has been cloned and sequenced from mouse hypothalamic cDNA...
  23. O MEARA G, Coumis U, Ma S, Kehr J, Mahoney S, Bacon A, et al. Galanin regulates the postnatal survival of a subset of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:11569-74 pubmed
    The neuropeptide galanin colocalizes with choline acetyltransferase, the synthetic enzyme for acetylcholine, in a subset of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain of rodents...
  24. Blakeman K, Holmberg K, Hao J, Xu X, Kahl U, Lendahl U, et al. Mice over-expressing galanin have elevated heat nociceptive threshold. Neuroreport. 2001;12:423-5 pubmed
    The neuropeptide galanin may have a role in modulation of nociceptive input at spinal level...
  25. Piqueras L, TACHE Y, Martinez V. Galanin inhibits gastric acid secretion through a somatostatin-independent mechanism in mice. Peptides. 2004;25:1287-95 pubmed
    The role of somatostatin in galanin-induced inhibition of gastric acid secretion in urethane-anesthetized mice was investigated by using immunoneutralization of endogenous somatostatin and somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2) knockout ..
  26. Girard B, Galli J, Vizzard M, Parsons R. Galanin expression in the mouse major pelvic ganglia during explant culture and following cavernous nerve transection. J Mol Neurosci. 2012;48:713-20 pubmed
    Autonomic neurons commonly respond to injury/axotomy with an increased expression of neuropeptides including galanin and pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)...
  27. Kim A, Park T. Diet-induced obesity regulates the galanin-mediated signaling cascade in the adipose tissue of mice. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010;54:1361-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Galanin is a neuropeptide that regulates the food intake, neurogenesis, memory, and gut secretion...
  28. Zheng K, Kuteeva E, Xia S, Bartfai T, Hokfelt T, Xu Z. Age-related impairments of synaptic plasticity in the lateral perforant path input to the dentate gyrus of galanin overexpressing mice. Neuropeptides. 2005;39:259-67 pubmed
    ..study, electrophysiological recordings were made from hippocampal slices obtained from mice overexpressing galanin under the promoter for the platelet-derived growth factor-B (GalOE mice)...
  29. Hegyi P, Venglovecz V, Pallagi P, Maléth J, Takacs T, Rakonczay Z. Galanin, a potent inhibitor of pancreatic bicarbonate secretion, is involved in the induction and progression of cerulein-induced experimental acute pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2011;40:155-6; author reply 156-7 pubmed publisher
  30. Wrenn C, Marriott L, Kinney J, Holmes A, Wenk G, Crawley J. Galanin peptide levels in hippocampus and cortex of galanin-overexpressing transgenic mice evaluated for cognitive performance. Neuropeptides. 2002;36:413-26 pubmed
    b>Galanin-overexpressing transgenic mice (GAL-tg) generated on a dopamine beta-hydroxylase promoter were previously shown to express high levels of galanin mRNA in the locus coeruleus, and to perform poorly on challenging cognitive tasks...
  31. Vilches J, Wynick D, Kofler B, Lang R, Navarro X. Sudomotor function and sweat gland innervation in galanin knockout mice. Neuropeptides. 2012;46:151-5 pubmed publisher
    The presence of galanin and galanin binding sites in sweat gland has been demonstrated previously...
  32. Kokaia M, Holmberg K, Nanobashvili A, Xu Z, Kokaia Z, Lendahl U, et al. Suppressed kindling epileptogenesis in mice with ectopic overexpression of galanin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:14006-11 pubmed
    The neuropeptide galanin has been shown to suppress epileptic seizures. In cortical and hippocampal areas, galanin is normally mainly expressed in noradrenergic afferents...
  33. Holmberg K, Kuteeva E, Brumovsky P, Kahl U, Karlstrom H, Lucas G, et al. Generation and phenotypic characterization of a galanin overexpressing mouse. Neuroscience. 2005;133:59-77 pubmed
    In most parts of the peripheral nervous system galanin is expressed at very low levels...
  34. Lyubetska H, Zhang L, Kong J, Vrontakis M. An elevated level of circulating galanin promotes developmental expression of myelin basic protein in the mouse brain. Neuroscience. 2015;284:581-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Galanin (GAL) is a bioactive neuropeptide that is widely distributed throughout the nervous system...
  35. Gonzalez S, Binato R, Guida L, Mencalha A, Abdelhay E. Conserved transcription factor binding sites suggest an activator basal promoter and a distal inhibitor in the galanin gene promoter in mouse ES cells. Gene. 2014;538:228-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Galanin and its receptors have been shown to be expressed in undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells through transcriptome and proteomic analyses...
  36. Hobson S, Vanderplank P, Pope R, Kerr N, Wynick D. Galanin stimulates neurite outgrowth from sensory neurons by inhibition of Cdc42 and Rho GTPases and activation of cofilin. J Neurochem. 2013;127:199-208 pubmed publisher
    We and others have previously shown that the neuropeptide galanin modulates neurite outgrowth from adult sensory neurons via activation of the second galanin receptor; however, the intracellular signalling pathways that mediate this ..
  37. Huang M, Huang T, Xiang Y, Xie Z, Chen Y, Yan R, et al. Ptf1a, Lbx1 and Pax2 coordinate glycinergic and peptidergic transmitter phenotypes in dorsal spinal inhibitory neurons. Dev Biol. 2008;322:394-405 pubmed publisher
    ..neuropeptide Y (NPY), nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), somatostatin (SOM), enkephalin (ENK), dynorphin (DYN) and galanin (GAL)...
  38. Cordero Llana O, Rinaldi F, Brennan P, Wynick D, Caldwell M. Galanin promotes neuronal differentiation from neural progenitor cells in vitro and contributes to the generation of new olfactory neurons in the adult mouse brain. Exp Neurol. 2014;256:93-104 pubmed publisher
    b>Galanin is a pleiotropic neuropeptide widely expressed in the nervous system...
  39. Holmes A, Yang R, Crawley J. Evaluation of an anxiety-related phenotype in galanin overexpressing transgenic mice. J Mol Neurosci. 2002;18:151-65 pubmed
    ..A role for galanin in mediating anxiety-related behavior is suggested by the pattern of distribution in the CNS and the coexistence ..
  40. Louridas M, Letourneau S, Lautatzis M, Vrontakis M. Galanin is highly expressed in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and facilitates migration of cells both in vitro and in vivo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;390:867-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Galanin peptide has recently been found to be highly abundant in early embryonic mouse mesenchyme, while galanin and its receptors are expressed in embryonic mouse stem cells...
  41. SCANLON C, Banerjee R, Inglehart R, Liu M, Russo N, Hariharan A, et al. Galanin modulates the neural niche to favour perineural invasion in head and neck cancer. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6885 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we developed an in vivo model of PNI to characterize this interaction. We show that the neuropeptide galanin (GAL) initiates nerve-tumour crosstalk via activation of its G protein-coupled receptor, GALR2...
  42. Gresle M, Butzkueven H, Perreau V, Jonas A, Xiao J, Thiem S, et al. Galanin is an autocrine myelin and oligodendrocyte trophic signal induced by leukemia inhibitory factor. Glia. 2015;63:1005-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified and validated the induction and secretion of the neuropeptide galanin in OCs, specifically in response to LIF...
  43. Narasimhaiah R, Kamens H, Picciotto M. Effects of galanin on cocaine-mediated conditioned place preference and ERK signaling in mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009;204:95-102 pubmed publisher
    The neuropeptide galanin and its receptors are expressed in brain regions implicated in the rewarding effects of natural stimuli and drugs of abuse...
  44. Shi M, Guo C, Dai J, Ding Y. DCC is required for the tangential migration of noradrenergic neurons in locus coeruleus of mouse brain. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2008;39:529-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings demonstrate that DCC is a key regulator of tangential migration of LC neurons during the embryonic development. ..
  45. Wang W, Grimmer J, Van De Water T, Lufkin T. Hmx2 and Hmx3 homeobox genes direct development of the murine inner ear and hypothalamus and can be functionally replaced by Drosophila Hmx. Dev Cell. 2004;7:439-53 pubmed
  46. Kuem N, Song S, Yu R, Yun J, Park T. Oleuropein attenuates visceral adiposity in high-fat diet-induced obese mice through the modulation of WNT10b- and galanin-mediated signalings. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014;58:2166-76 pubmed publisher
    ..significantly reversed the HFD-induced elevations of adipogenic related gene expression involved in WNT10b- and galanin-mediated signalings in adipose tissue of mice...
  47. Rustay N, Wrenn C, Kinney J, Holmes A, Bailey K, Sullivan T, et al. Galanin impairs performance on learning and memory tasks: findings from galanin transgenic and GAL-R1 knockout mice. Neuropeptides. 2005;39:239-43 pubmed
    b>Galanin (GAL) impairs performance on cognitive tasks when administered centrally to rats...
  48. Holstege J, de Graaff W, Hossaini M, Cardona Cano S, Jaarsma D, van den Akker E, et al. Loss of Hoxb8 alters spinal dorsal laminae and sensory responses in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6338-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The data therefore suggest that a lower number of neurons in the upper spinal laminae and neuronal disorganization in the dorsal horn underlie the sensory defects including the excessive grooming of the Hoxb8 mutant. ..
  49. Naylor M, Ginsburg E, Iismaa T, Vonderhaar B, Wynick D, Ormandy C. The neuropeptide galanin augments lobuloalveolar development. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:29145-52 pubmed
    ..We showed previously that galanin knockout mice fail to lactate sufficiently for pup survival following their first pregnancy...
  50. Kinney J, Starosta G, Holmes A, Wrenn C, Yang R, Harris A, et al. Deficits in trace cued fear conditioning in galanin-treated rats and galanin-overexpressing transgenic mice. Learn Mem. 2002;9:178-90 pubmed
    b>Galanin inhibits the release of several neurotransmitters and produces performance deficits in a variety of spatial and aversive learning and memory tasks...
  51. Kerr B, Thompson S, Wynick D, McMahon S. Endogenous galanin is required for the full expression of central sensitization following peripheral nerve injury. Neuroreport. 2001;12:3331-4 pubmed
    The neuropeptide galanin is known to be involved in nociceptive sensory processing in the spinal cord...
  52. Kuteeva E, Hokfelt T, Ogren S. Behavioural characterisation of transgenic mice overexpressing galanin under the PDGF-B promoter. Neuropeptides. 2005;39:299-304 pubmed
    The behavioural phenotype of transgenic mice (3-5-months old) overexpressing galanin (GalOE mice) under the platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B) promoter was evaluated in a battery of tests, including locomotor cages, light-dark ..
  53. Guida L, Charlton P, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Copeland N, Nicholls R. Genetic mapping of the galanin-GMAP (Galn) gene to mouse chromosome 19. Mamm Genome. 1998;9:240-2 pubmed
  54. Blakeman K, Hao J, Xu X, Jacoby A, Shine J, Crawley J, et al. Hyperalgesia and increased neuropathic pain-like response in mice lacking galanin receptor 1 receptors. Neuroscience. 2003;117:221-7 pubmed
    The neuropeptide galanin may have a role in modulation of nociception, particularly after peripheral nerve injury. The effect of galanin is mediated by at least three subtypes of receptors...
  55. Qualls Creekmore E, Yu S, François M, Hoang J, Huesing C, Bruce Keller A, et al. Galanin-Expressing GABA Neurons in the Lateral Hypothalamus Modulate Food Reward and Noncompulsive Locomotion. J Neurosci. 2017;37:6053-6065 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified a subpopulation of LHA GABA neurons that coexpress the neuropeptide galanin (LHA Gal )...
  56. Hohmann J, Jureus A, Teklemichael D, Matsumoto A, Clifton D, Steiner R. Distribution and regulation of galanin receptor 1 messenger RNA in the forebrain of wild type and galanin-transgenic mice. Neuroscience. 2003;117:105-17 pubmed
    ..or absence of peptide neurotransmitters, we examined the impact of genetically manipulating the neuropeptide galanin on the expression of one of its cognate receptors, galanin receptor 1...
  57. Opavsky R, Haviernik P, Jurkovicova D, Garin M, Copeland N, Gilbert D, et al. Molecular characterization of the mouse Tem1/endosialin gene regulated by cell density in vitro and expressed in normal tissues in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:38795-807 pubmed
    ..The ubiquitous expression in vivo is in contrast to previously reported expression limited to corpus luteum and highly angiogenic tissues such as tumors and wound tissue. ..
  58. Neugebauer N, Henehan R, Hales C, Picciotto M. Mice lacking the galanin gene show decreased sensitivity to nicotine conditioned place preference. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2011;98:87-93 pubmed publisher
    Previous work has indicated that the neuropeptide galanin decreases sensitivity to the rewarding effects of morphine and cocaine, but increases alcohol drinking...
  59. Hawes J, Brunzell D, Wynick D, Zachariou V, Picciotto M. GalR1, but not GalR2 or GalR3, levels are regulated by galanin signaling in the locus coeruleus through a cyclic AMP-dependent mechanism. J Neurochem. 2005;93:1168-76 pubmed
    The galanin receptors GalR1, GalR2 and GalR3 are widely expressed throughout the mouse brain and are enriched in catecholaminergic nuclei...
  60. Shen E, Hardenburg J, Meade E, Arey B, Merchenthaler I, Lopez F. Estradiol induces galanin gene expression in the pituitary of the mouse in an estrogen receptor alpha-dependent manner. Endocrinology. 1999;140:2628-31 pubmed
    Estradiol imprinting plays an important role in the regulation of galanin (GAL) gene expression in the rat. In the anterior pituitary gland, GAL gene expression is greatly induced by estrogen...
  61. Genestine M, Lin L, Durens M, Yan Y, Jiang Y, Prem S, et al. Engrailed-2 (En2) deletion produces multiple neurodevelopmental defects in monoamine systems, forebrain structures and neurogenesis and behavior. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:5805-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies suggest that disruption of hindbrain patterning genes can alter monoamine system development and thereby produce forebrain defects that are relevant to human neurodevelopmental disorders. ..
  62. Nishii H, Nomura M, Aono H, Fujimoto N, Matsumoto T. Up-regulation of galanin and corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNAs in the key hypothalamic and amygdaloid nuclei in a mouse model of visceral pain. Regul Pept. 2007;141:105-12 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we examined the effects of CP-induced cystitis on the levels of mRNAs encoding galanin, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), substance P, and enkephalins in the hypothalamic and limbic nuclei using ..
  63. Pope R, Holmes F, Kerr N, Wynick D. Characterisation of the nociceptive phenotype of suppressible galanin overexpressing transgenic mice. Mol Pain. 2010;6:67 pubmed publisher
    The neuropeptide galanin is widely expressed in both the central and peripheral nervous systems and is involved in many diverse biological functions...
  64. Eng S, Dykes I, Lanier J, Fedtsova N, Turner E. POU-domain factor Brn3a regulates both distinct and common programs of gene expression in the spinal and trigeminal sensory ganglia. Neural Dev. 2007;2:3 pubmed
  65. Liu H, Hokfelt T. The participation of galanin in pain processing at the spinal level. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2002;23:468-74 pubmed
    b>Galanin, a 29-amino-acid peptide expressed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal dorsal horn interneurones, is regulated by nerve injury and peripheral inflammation...
  66. Kuteeva E, Calza L, Holmberg K, Theodorsson E, Ogren S, Hokfelt T. Distribution of galanin in the brain of a galanin-overexpressing transgenic mouse. Neuropeptides. 2005;39:293-8 pubmed
    The distribution of galanin mRNA-expressing cells and galanin-immunoreactive (IR) cell bodies and processes was studied in the brain of mice overexpressing galanin under the PDGF-B promoter (GalOE mice) and of wild type (WT) mice, both ..
  67. Steiner R, Hohmann J, Holmes A, Wrenn C, Cadd G, Jureus A, et al. Galanin transgenic mice display cognitive and neurochemical deficits characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:4184-9 pubmed
    b>Galanin is a neuropeptide with multiple inhibitory actions on neurotransmission and memory...
  68. Bröhl D, Strehle M, Wende H, Hori K, Bormuth I, Nave K, et al. A transcriptional network coordinately determines transmitter and peptidergic fate in the dorsal spinal cord. Dev Biol. 2008;322:381-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate here that dynorphin, galanin, NPY, nociceptin and enkephalin expression depends on Ptf1a, indicating that these neuropeptides are expressed in ..
  69. Mufson E, Counts S, Perez S, Binder L. Galanin plasticity in the cholinergic basal forebrain in Alzheimer's disease and transgenic mice. Neuropeptides. 2005;39:233-7 pubmed
    b>Galanin (GAL) is a biologically active 29 amino acid (30 in humans) which participates in the modulation of several ascending neurotransmitter systems including cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) neurons, which undergo extensive ..
  70. Leibowitz S, Alexander J, Dourmashkin J, Hill J, Gayles E, Chang G. Phenotypic profile of SWR/J and A/J mice compared to control strains: possible mechanisms underlying resistance to obesity on a high-fat diet. Brain Res. 2005;1047:137-47 pubmed
    ..of hypothalamic peptides via radioimmunoassay or real-time quantitative PCR revealed markedly enhanced galanin (GAL) in the paraventricular nucleus and reduced neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression in the arcuate nucleus of ..
  71. Brumovsky P, Hygge Blakeman K, Villar M, Watanabe M, Wiesenfeld Hallin Z, Hokfelt T. Phenotyping of sensory and sympathetic ganglion neurons of a galanin-overexpressing mouse--possible implications for pain processing. J Chem Neuroanat. 2006;31:243-62 pubmed
    The distribution of galanin was studied in the lumbar 5 dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and spinal cord, superior cervical ganglia (SCGs), and skin of transgenic mice overexpressing galanin under the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) promoter (..
  72. Mandel S, Rechavi G, Gozes I. Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) differentially interacts with chromatin to regulate genes essential for embryogenesis. Dev Biol. 2007;303:814-24 pubmed
    ..These results place ADNP at a crucial point of gene regulation, repressing potential endoderm genes and enhancing genes associated with organogenesis/neurogenesis. ..
  73. Lei J, Howard M. Targeted deletion of Hand2 in enteric neural precursor cells affects its functions in neurogenesis, neurotransmitter specification and gangliogenesis, causing functional aganglionosis. Development. 2011;138:4789-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Hand2 is essential for neurogenesis, neurotransmitter specification and neural network patterning in the developing ENS. ..
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