Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Gad2
Description: glutamic acid decarboxylase 2
Alias: 6330404F12Rik, GAD(65), GAD65, Gad-2, glutamate decarboxylase 2, 65 kDa glutamic acid decarboxylase, GAD-65, glutamate decarboxylase 65 kDa isoform
- Obata K, Fukuda T, Konishi S, Ji F, Mitoma H, Kosaka T. Synaptic localization of the 67,000 mol. wt isoform of glutamate decarboxylase and transmitter function of GABA in the mouse cerebellum lacking the 65,000 mol. wt isoform. Neuroscience. 1999;93:1475-82 pubmed
- Walls A, Nilsen L, Eyjolfsson E, Vestergaard H, Hansen S, Schousboe A, et al. GAD65 is essential for synthesis of GABA destined for tonic inhibition regulating epileptiform activity. J Neurochem. 2010;115:1398-408 pubmed publisherGABA is synthesized from glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), which exists in two isoforms, that is, GAD65 and GAD67...
- Geng L, Solimena M, Flavell R, Sherwin R, Hayday A. Widespread expression of an autoantigen-GAD65 transgene does not tolerize non-obese diabetic mice and can exacerbate disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:10055-60 pubmed..In an attempt to establish immunological tolerance toward GAD65 in NOD mice, and thereby to test the importance of GAD in IDDM, we generated three lines transgenic for murine ..
- Feng L, Xie X, Joshi P, Yang Z, Shibasaki K, Chow R, et al. Requirement for Bhlhb5 in the specification of amacrine and cone bipolar subtypes in mouse retina. Development. 2006;133:4815-25 pubmed..Our results reveal that a bHLH transcription factor cascade is involved in regulating retinal cell differentiation and imply that Bhlhb5 functions downstream of retinogenic factors to specify bipolar and amacrine subtypes. ..
- Imondi R, Jevince A, Helms A, Johnson J, Kaprielian Z. Mis-expression of L1 on pre-crossing spinal commissural axons disrupts pathfinding at the ventral midline. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2007;36:462-71 pubmed..These observations suggest that L1-mediated pathfinding decisions are normally delayed until axons have crossed the ventral midline (VM). ..
- Ding Q, Chen H, Xie X, Libby R, Tian N, Gan L. BARHL2 differentially regulates the development of retinal amacrine and ganglion neurons. J Neurosci. 2009;29:3992-4003 pubmed publisher..Thus, BARHL2 appears to have numerous roles in retinal development, including regulating neuronal subtype specification, differentiation, and survival. ..
- Condie B, Bain G, Gottlieb D, Capecchi M. Cleft palate in mice with a targeted mutation in the gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase 67. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:11451-5 pubmed..The striking similarity in phenotype between the receptor and ligand mutations clearly demonstrates a role for GABA signaling in normal palate development. ..
- Yanagawa Y, Ohnishi M, Kobayashi T, Tamura S, Tsuzuki T, Sanbo M, et al. Enrichment and efficient screening of ES cells containing a targeted mutation: the use of DT-A gene with the polyadenylation signal as a negative selection maker. Transgenic Res. 1999;8:215-21 pubmed..Our results indicate that the use of DT-ApA for negative selection together with the application of LA-PCR for screening ensures efficient and time-saving screening for homologous recombinants. ..
- Kim J, Richter W, Aanstoot H, Shi Y, Fu Q, Rajotte R, et al. Differential expression of GAD65 and GAD67 in human, rat, and mouse pancreatic islets. Diabetes. 1993;42:1799-808 pubmedThe smaller form of the autoantigen glutamic acid decarboxylase, GAD65 (formerly the 64,000 M(r) autoantigen), is a major target of humoral autoimmunity in type I diabetes...
- Taniguchi H, He M, Wu P, Kim S, Paik R, Sugino K, et al. A resource of Cre driver lines for genetic targeting of GABAergic neurons in cerebral cortex. Neuron. 2011;71:995-1013 pubmed publisher..As such, this approach will accelerate the study of GABAergic circuits throughout the mammalian brain. ..
- Jaeckel E, Klein L, Martin Orozco N, von Boehmer H. Normal incidence of diabetes in NOD mice tolerant to glutamic acid decarboxylase. J Exp Med. 2003;197:1635-44 pubmed..In spite of specific tolerance insulitis and diabetes occurred with normal kinetics indicating that GAD is not an essential autoantigen in the pathogenesis of diabetes. ..
- Kubo K, Nishikawa K, Ishizeki J, Hardy Yamada M, Yanagawa Y, Saito S. Thermal hyperalgesia via supraspinal mechanisms in mice lacking glutamate decarboxylase 65. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;331:162-9 pubmed publisher..However, the roles of a 65-kDa isoform of GAD (GAD65)-mediated GABA in nociceptive processing are less clear...
- Katarova Z, Sekerkova G, Prodan S, Mugnaini E, Szabo G. Domain-restricted expression of two glutamic acid decarboxylase genes in midgestation mouse embryos. J Comp Neurol. 2000;424:607-27 pubmed..In this paper, the authors studied the cellular distribution of two GAD isoforms, GAD65 and GAD67, in midgestation mouse embryos by in situ hybridization histochemistry...
- Iwai Y, Fagiolini M, Obata K, Hensch T. Rapid critical period induction by tonic inhibition in visual cortex. J Neurosci. 2003;23:6695-702 pubmedMice lacking a synaptic isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) do not exhibit ocular dominance plasticity unless an appropriate level of GABAergic transmission is restored by direct infusion of benzodiazepines into the brain...
- Nery S, Corbin J, Fishell G. Dlx2 progenitor migration in wild type and Nkx2.1 mutant telencephalon. Cereb Cortex. 2003;13:895-903 pubmed..This recovery may be, at least in part, a result of the late migration of Dlx2 progenitors from the caudal ganglionic eminences (CGE), which, based on our previous work, does not appear to require Nkx2.1 gene function. ..
- Velloso L, Eizirik D, Karlsson F, Kämpe O. Absence of autoantibodies against glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse and low expression of the enzyme in mouse islets. Clin Exp Immunol. 1994;96:129-37 pubmed
- Guimera J, Weisenhorn D, Wurst W. Megane/Heslike is required for normal GABAergic differentiation in the mouse superior colliculus. Development. 2006;133:3847-57 pubmed..Mgn-null mice die between the second and the fifth postnatal week of age, and show a complete depletion of Gad65 and Gad67 expression in the superior colliculus and a reduction in the inferior colliculus...
- Kash S, Johnson R, Tecott L, Noebels J, Mayfield R, Hanahan D, et al. Epilepsy in mice deficient in the 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:14060-5 pubmed..major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, is synthesized by two glutamate decarboxylase isoforms, GAD65 and GAD67...
- Stork O, Ji F, Kaneko K, Stork S, Yoshinobu Y, Moriya T, et al. Postnatal development of a GABA deficit and disturbance of neural functions in mice lacking GAD65. Brain Res. 2000;865:45-58 pubmedThe 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) is believed to play an essential role for GABA synthesis in the central nervous system...
- Asada H, Kawamura Y, Maruyama K, Kume H, Ding R, Kanbara N, et al. Cleft palate and decreased brain gamma-aminobutyric acid in mice lacking the 67-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:6496-9 pubmed..GABA is synthesized by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), but the respective roles of its two isoforms (GAD65 and 67) have not been determined...
- Ji F, Kanbara N, Obata K. GABA and histogenesis in fetal and neonatal mouse brain lacking both the isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase. Neurosci Res. 1999;33:187-94 pubmed..of GABA in neurogenesis in vivo, we generated mice lacking both the isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), GAD65 and GAD67, by mating GAD65- and GAD67-mutant mice generated by homologous recombination in this laboratory...
- Kash S, Condie B, Baekkeskov S. Glutamate decarboxylase and GABA in pancreatic islets: lessons from knock-out mice. Horm Metab Res. 1999;31:340-4 pubmed..predominantly express the larger isoform of the enzyme, GAD67, and very low levels of the second isoform, GAD65. Yet GAD65 has been shown to be a target of very early autoimmune T-cell responses associated with beta-cell ..
- Burton A, Baquet Z, Eisenbarth G, Tisch R, Smeyne R, Workman C, et al. Central nervous system destruction mediated by glutamic acid decarboxylase-specific CD4+ T cells. J Immunol. 2010;184:4863-70 pubmed publisher..Although there is a considerable amount of data focusing on the role of GAD65-specific CD4(+) T cells in type 1 diabetes, little is known about their role in SPS...
- Tachibana N, Cantrup R, Dixit R, Touahri Y, Kaushik G, Zinyk D, et al. Pten Regulates Retinal Amacrine Cell Number by Modulating Akt, Tgf?, and Erk Signaling. J Neurosci. 2016;36:9454-71 pubmed publisher..Our studies provide molecular insights into how PTEN loss in humans may lead to uncontrolled cell division in several pathological conditions. ..
- Cabral A, Cornejo M, Fernandez G, De Francesco P, Garcia Romero G, Uriarte M, et al. Circulating Ghrelin Acts on GABA Neurons of the Area Postrema and Mediates Gastric Emptying in Male Mice. Endocrinology. 2017;158:1436-1449 pubmed publisher..Overall, we show that the capacity of circulating ghrelin to acutely induce gastric emptying in mice requires the integrity of the AP, which contains a population of GABA neurons that are a target of plasma ghrelin. ..
- Tochitani S, Kondo S. Immunoreactivity for GABA, GAD65, GAD67 and Bestrophin-1 in the meninges and the choroid plexus: implications for non-neuronal sources for GABA in the developing mouse brain. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56901 pubmed publisher..Immunohistochemical analyses showed that glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and 67 (GAD65 and GAD67), both of which are GABA-synthesizing enzymes, are expressed in the meninges...
- Lange M, Jüngling K, Paulukat L, Vieler M, Gaburro S, Sosulina L, et al. Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65: a link between GABAergic synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala and conditioned fear generalization. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2014;39:2211-20 pubmed publisher..These findings prompted us to hypothesize that a deficiency of GAD65, the GAD isoform controlling the availability of GABA as a transmitter, affects synaptic transmission and ..
- Homman Ludiye J, Kwan W, de Souza M, Rodger J, Bourne J. Ephrin-A2 regulates excitatory neuron differentiation and interneuron migration in the developing neocortex. Sci Rep. 2017;7:11813 pubmed publisher..The disturbance to the architecture of the neocortex observed following deletion of ephrin-A2 signaling shares many similarities with defects found in the neocortex of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. ..
- Hughes D, Mackie M, Nagy G, Riddell J, Maxwell D, Szabo G, et al. P boutons in lamina IX of the rodent spinal cord express high levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 and originate from cells in deep medial dorsal horn. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:9038-43 pubmed..out retrograde labeling from lamina IX in mice that express green fluorescent protein under the control of the GAD65 promoter, we provide evidence that the cells of origin of the P boutons are located in the medial part of laminae ..
- Heldt S, Green A, Ressler K. Prepulse inhibition deficits in GAD65 knockout mice and the effect of antipsychotic treatment. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004;29:1610-9 pubmed..startle habituation in knockout (KO) mice that lack the GABA synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD 65)...
- Deng R, Kao J, Kanold P. Distinct Translaminar Glutamatergic Circuits to GABAergic Interneurons in the Neonatal Auditory Cortex. Cell Rep. 2017;19:1141-1150 pubmed publisher..Glutamatergic signaling from subplate and intracortical sources likely plays a role in the maturation of GABAergic interneurons. ..
- Kosse C, Schöne C, Bracey E, Burdakov D. Orexin-driven GAD65 network of the lateral hypothalamus sets physical activity in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:4525-4530 pubmed publisher..distinct types of LH neurons have been identified, including orexin cells and glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) cells, but their interplay in orchestrating physical activity is not fully understood...
- Jiang Y, Yu V, Buchholz F, O Connell S, Rhodes S, Candeloro C, et al. A novel family of Cys-Cys, His-Cys zinc finger transcription factors expressed in developing nervous system and pituitary gland. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:10723-30 pubmed..Identification of a second mouse gene highly homologous to NZF-1, encoded by a distinct genomic locus, reveals a dispersed gene family encoding proteins containing Cys-Cys, His-Cys motifs. ..
- Tovote P, Esposito M, Botta P, Chaudun F, Fadok J, Markovic M, et al. Midbrain circuits for defensive behaviour. Nature. 2016;534:206-12 pubmed publisher..In humans, dysregulation of this 'survival circuit' has been implicated in anxiety-related disorders. ..
- Miyoshi G, Bessho Y, Yamada S, Kageyama R. Identification of a novel basic helix-loop-helix gene, Heslike, and its role in GABAergic neurogenesis. J Neurosci. 2004;24:3672-82 pubmed..These results suggest that combinations of distinct bHLH factors promote formation of distinct neuronal subtypes, thereby increasing neuronal diversity. ..
- He F, Zhu H, Huang H, Dai Y, Shen X, Wang M, et al. Programmed death-1 ligands-transfected dendritic cells loaded with glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) inhibit both the alloresponse and the GAD65-reactive lymphocyte response. Clin Exp Immunol. 2008;151:86-93 pubmed..1 diabetes (T1D) is due to a loss of immune tolerance to islet antigens, such as glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65), for which islet transplantation is a promising therapy...
- Faulkner Jones B, Cram D, Kun J, Harrison L. Localization and quantitation of expression of two glutamate decarboxylase genes in pancreatic beta-cells and other peripheral tissues of mouse and rat. Endocrinology. 1993;133:2962-72 pubmed..cDNAs encoding GAD 67 and GAD 65 were cloned from mouse brain and shown to be 95% homologous with the rat sequences...
- Jiang B, He L, Wu X, Shi H, Zhang W, Zhang Z, et al. Promoted Interaction of C/EBP? with Demethylated Cxcr3 Gene Promoter Contributes to Neuropathic Pain in Mice. J Neurosci. 2017;37:685-700 pubmed publisher..Our study reveals an epigenetic mechanism underlying CXCR3 expression and also suggests that targeting the expression or activation of CXCR3 signaling may offer new therapeutics for neuropathic pain. ..
- O Connor E, Kremer Y, Lefort S, Harada M, Pascoli V, Rohner C, et al. Accumbal D1R Neurons Projecting to Lateral Hypothalamus Authorize Feeding. Neuron. 2015;88:553-64 pubmed publisher..Together, our study resolves a feeding circuit that overrides immediate metabolic need to allow rapid consumption control in response to changing external stimuli. VIDEO ABSTRACT. ..
- Mingorance Le Meur A, Zheng B, Soriano E, Del Río J. Involvement of the myelin-associated inhibitor Nogo-A in early cortical development and neuronal maturation. Cereb Cortex. 2007;17:2375-86 pubmed..On the basis of these observations, we propose that Nogo proteins, particularly Nogo-A, are involved in multiple processes during cortical development. ..
- Wu X, Fu Y, Knott G, Lu J, Di Cristo G, Huang Z. GABA signaling promotes synapse elimination and axon pruning in developing cortical inhibitory interneurons. J Neurosci. 2012;32:331-43 pubmed publisher..Therefore, GABA may regulate activity-dependent inhibitory synapse formation by coordinately eliminating certain nascent contacts while promoting the maturation of other nascent synapses. ..
- Sangha S, Narayanan R, Bergado Acosta J, Stork O, Seidenbecher T, Pape H. Deficiency of the 65 kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase impairs extinction of cued but not contextual fear memory. J Neurosci. 2009;29:15713-20 pubmed publisher..has particularly been implicated in extinction learning, and the 65 kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) may be important in elevating GABA levels in response to environmental signals...
- MÃ¼ller I, Obata K, Richter Levin G, Stork O. GAD65 haplodeficiency conveys resilience in animal models of stress-induced psychopathology. Front Behav Neurosci. 2014;8:265 pubmed publisher..we further tested the role of GABA using heterozygous mice with targeted mutation of the GABA synthesizing enzyme GAD65 [GAD65(+/-) mice], which show a delayed postnatal increase in tissue GABA content in limbic and cortical brain ..
- Pellicano F, Inglis Broadgate S, Pante G, Ansorge W, Iwata T. Expression of coiled-coil protein 1, a novel gene downstream of FGF2, in the developing brain. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006;6:285-93 pubmed..We observed that the expressed ccp1 protein was localised to endo/lysosomal compartment in the cell body as well as to vesicles present in the processes of primary cortical neurons and oligodendrocyte cell line. ..
- He M, Tucciarone J, Lee S, Nigro M, Kim Y, Levine J, et al. Strategies and Tools for Combinatorial Targeting of GABAergic Neurons in Mouse Cerebral Cortex. Neuron. 2016;91:1228-1243 pubmed publisher..These strategies and tools will facilitate studying GABAergic neurons throughout the mouse brain. ..
- Zhang Z, Cai Y, Zou F, Bie B, Pan Z. Epigenetic suppression of GAD65 expression mediates persistent pain. Nat Med. 2011;17:1448-55 pubmed publisher..inflammatory and neuropathic pain epigenetically suppresses Gad2 (encoding glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65)) transcription through histone deacetylase (HDAC)-mediated histone hypoacetylation, resulting in impaired ?-..
- Zhou C, Pinson K, Pleasure S. Severe defects in dorsal thalamic development in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-6 mutants. J Neurosci. 2004;24:7632-9 pubmed..This study provides compelling in vivo evidence that thalamic development requires normal activity of the LRP6-mediated canonical Wnt signaling pathway. ..
- Lee B, Zhang Y, Kim Y, Kim S, Lee Y, Han K. Age-dependent decrease of GAD65/67 mRNAs but normal densities of GABAergic interneurons in the brain regions of Shank3-overexpressing manic mouse model. Neurosci Lett. 2017;649:48-54 pubmed publisher..the densities of parvalbumin- and somatostatin-positive interneurons, and the mRNA and protein levels of GAD65/67 GABA-synthesizing enzymes in the medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus of adult Shank3 transgenic ..
- Frantz G, Wuenschell C, Messer A, Tobin A. Presence of calbindin D28K and GAD67 mRNAs in both orthotopic and ectopic Purkinje cells of staggerer mice suggests that staggerer acts after the onset of cytodifferentiation. J Neurosci Res. 1996;44:255-62 pubmed..Our data suggest that the sg/sg mutation does not interfere with the transcriptional activation of these two genes, and might therefore act after the induction of specific gene expression in developing Purkinje cells. ..
- Chen M, Zhao Y, Yang H, Luan W, Song J, Cui D, et al. Morphine disinhibits glutamatergic input to VTA dopamine neurons and promotes dopamine neuron excitation. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that the disinhibitory action of morphine on presynaptic glutamate release might be the main mechanism for morphine-induced increase in VTA-DA neuron firing and related behaviors. ..
- Basu J, Zaremba J, Cheung S, Hitti F, Zemelman B, Losonczy A, et al. Gating of hippocampal activity, plasticity, and memory by entorhinal cortex long-range inhibition. Science. 2016;351:aaa5694 pubmed publisher..Long-range inhibition from entorhinal cortex may thus increase the precision of hippocampal-based long-term memory associations by assessing the salience of mnemonormation to the immediate sensory input. ..
- Hwang H, Saito Y, Park C, Blachere N, Tajima Y, Fak J, et al. cTag-PAPERCLIP Reveals Alternative Polyadenylation Promotes Cell-Type Specific Protein Diversity and Shifts Araf Isoforms with Microglia Activation. Neuron. 2017;95:1334-1349.e5 pubmed publisher..Our results demonstrate the broad applicability of cTag-PAPERCLIP and a previously undiscovered role of APA in contributing to protein diversity between different cell types and cellular states within the brain. ..
- Bergado Acosta J, Muller I, Richter Levin G, Stork O. The GABA-synthetic enzyme GAD65 controls circadian activation of conditioned fear pathways. Behav Brain Res. 2014;260:92-100 pubmed publisher..mice with genetic ablation of the ?-amino butyric acid (GABA) synthesizing isoenzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase GAD65. We observed in these mutant mice an altered expression of conditioned fear with a profound reduction of freezing, ..
- Kozak C, Leonard W. Genetic mapping of the interleukin 1 receptor alpha and beta chain genes in the mouse. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:823-4 pubmed
- Shi X, Barchini J, Ledesma H, Koren D, Jin Y, Liu X, et al. Retinal origin of direction selectivity in the superior colliculus. Nat Neurosci. 2017;20:550-558 pubmed publisher..Together, our studies demonstrate a retinal origin of direction selectivity in the SC and reveal a central visual deficit as a consequence of altered feature selectivity in the retina. ..
- Sun Y, Ikrar T, Davis M, Gong N, Zheng X, Luo Z, et al. Neuregulin-1/ErbB4 Signaling Regulates Visual Cortical Plasticity. Neuron. 2016;92:160-173 pubmed publisher..Our findings reveal molecular, cellular, and circuit mechanisms of NRG1/ErbB4 in regulating the initiation of critical period visual cortical plasticity. ..
- Kruse W, Krause M, Aarse J, Mark M, Manahan Vaughan D, Herlitze S. Optogenetic modulation and multi-electrode analysis of cerebellar networks in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e105589 pubmed publisher..Thus, this method is ideally suited to investigate the spatio/temporal modulation of PCs in anesthetized and in behaving mice. ..
- Pozas E, Ibanez C. GDNF and GFRalpha1 promote differentiation and tangential migration of cortical GABAergic neurons. Neuron. 2005;45:701-13 pubmed..The lack of involvement of RET or NCAM in these processes suggests the existence of additional transmembrane effectors for GDNF. ..
- Fagiolini M, Hensch T. Inhibitory threshold for critical-period activation in primary visual cortex. Nature. 2000;404:183-6 pubmed..In mice of all ages lacking an isoform of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) synthetic enzyme (GAD65), as well as in immature wild-type animals before the onset of their natural critical period, benzodiazepines ..
- Spiegel I, Mardinly A, Gabel H, Bazinet J, Couch C, Tzeng C, et al. Npas4 regulates excitatory-inhibitory balance within neural circuits through cell-type-specific gene programs. Cell. 2014;157:1216-29 pubmed publisher..These findings suggest that the functional outcomes of activity-induced transcriptional responses are adapted in a cell-type-specific manner to achieve a circuit-wide homeostatic response...
- Pascoli V, Terrier J, Hiver A, LÃ¼scher C. Sufficiency of Mesolimbic Dopamine Neuron Stimulation for the Progression to Addiction. Neuron. 2015;88:1054-1066 pubmed publisher..Together, these results show that stimulating VTA DA neurons induces behavioral and cellular hallmarks of addiction, indicating sufficiency for the induction and progression of the disease. ..
- Meng F, Han Y, Srisai D, Belakhov V, Farias M, Xu Y, et al. New inducible genetic method reveals critical roles of GABA in the control of feeding and metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:3645-50 pubmed publisher..This new genetic technique will augment current tools used to elucidate mechanisms underlying many physiological and neurological processes. ..
- Trifonov S, Yamashita Y, Kase M, Maruyama M, Sugimoto T. Glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 alternative splicing isoforms: characterization, expression and quantification in the mouse brain. BMC Neurosci. 2014;15:114 pubmed publisher..It is synthesized by the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). There are two isoforms of GAD, GAD1 and GAD2, which are encoded by different genes...
- Cloëtta D, Thomanetz V, Baranek C, Lustenberger R, Lin S, Oliveri F, et al. Inactivation of mTORC1 in the developing brain causes microcephaly and affects gliogenesis. J Neurosci. 2013;33:7799-810 pubmed publisher..Together, our results show that postnatal survival, overall brain growth, and specific aspects of brain development critically depend on mTORC1 function. ..
- Loulier K, Ruat M, Traiffort E. Analysis of hedgehog interacting protein in the brain and its expression in nitric oxide synthase-positive cells. Neuroreport. 2005;16:1959-62 pubmed..These data raise the hypothesis for a functional link between nitric oxide and Shh signaling and for a nonredundant role of Hip and Ptc1 in the adult brain. ..
- Lizen B, Hutlet B, Bissen D, Sauvegarde D, Hermant M, Ahn M, et al. HOXA5 localization in postnatal and adult mouse brain is suggestive of regulatory roles in postmitotic neurons. J Comp Neurol. 2017;525:1155-1175 pubmed publisher..J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1155-1175, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..