Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Gad1
Description: glutamate decarboxylase 1
Alias: EP10, Gad-1, glutamate decarboxylase 1, 67 kDa glutamic acid decarboxylase, glutamate decarboxylase 67 kDa isoform, glutamic acid decarboxylase 1
- Faux C, Rakic S, Andrews W, Yanagawa Y, Obata K, Parnavelas J. Differential gene expression in migrating cortical interneurons during mouse forebrain development. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:1232-48 pubmed publisher..These data therefore provide a framework for future studies aimed at elucidating the complexities of interneuron migration and, in turn, may reveal important genes that are related to the development of specific neurological disorders. ..
- Ango F, Di Cristo G, Higashiyama H, Bennett V, Wu P, Huang Z. Ankyrin-based subcellular gradient of neurofascin, an immunoglobulin family protein, directs GABAergic innervation at purkinje axon initial segment. Cell. 2004;119:257-72 pubmed..Disruption of NF186-ankyrinG interactions at AIS reduced pinceau synapse formation. These results implicate ankyrin-based localization of L1CAMs in subcellular organization of GABAergic synapses. ..
- Asada H, Kawamura Y, Maruyama K, Kume H, Ding R, Ji F, et al. Mice lacking the 65 kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) maintain normal levels of GAD67 and GABA in their brains but are susceptible to seizures. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;229:891-5 pubmed
- Nakatani T, Minaki Y, Kumai M, Ono Y. Helt determines GABAergic over glutamatergic neuronal fate by repressing Ngn genes in the developing mesencephalon. Development. 2007;134:2783-93 pubmed
- Stevens H, Smith K, Maragnoli M, Fagel D, Borok E, Shanabrough M, et al. Fgfr2 is required for the development of the medial prefrontal cortex and its connections with limbic circuits. J Neurosci. 2010;30:5590-602 pubmed publisher..These data demonstrate that FGFR2 signaling expands the number of excitatory neurons in the mPFC and secondarily influences target neurons in subcortical stations of the limbic system. ..
- Marin O, Plump A, Flames N, Sánchez Camacho C, Tessier Lavigne M, Rubenstein J. Directional guidance of interneuron migration to the cerebral cortex relies on subcortical Slit1/2-independent repulsion and cortical attraction. Development. 2003;130:1889-901 pubmed
- Cheng L, Samad O, Xu Y, Mizuguchi R, Luo P, Shirasawa S, et al. Lbx1 and Tlx3 are opposing switches in determining GABAergic versus glutamatergic transmitter phenotypes. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:1510-5 pubmed..These genetic studies suggest that Lbx1 expression defines a basal GABAergic differentiation state, and Tlx3 acts to antagonize Lbx1 to promote glutamatergic differentiation. ..
- Pan B, Dong Y, Ito W, Yanagawa Y, Shigemoto R, Morozov A. Selective gating of glutamatergic inputs to excitatory neurons of amygdala by presynaptic GABAb receptor. Neuron. 2009;61:917-29 pubmed publisher..Thus, target-cell-specific control of glutamate release by presynaptic GABAbR orchestrates the inhibitory dominance inside amygdala and might contribute to prevention of nonadaptive defensive behaviors. ..
- Heusner C, Beutler L, Houser C, Palmiter R. Deletion of GAD67 in dopamine receptor-1 expressing cells causes specific motor deficits. Genesis. 2008;46:357-67 pubmed publisher..We generated mice carrying a conditional allele of the Gad1 gene, which encodes GAD67, one of the two enzymes responsible for GABA biosynthesis, and bred them to mice ..
- Runyan C, Schummers J, Van Wart A, Kuhlman S, Wilson N, Huang Z, et al. Response features of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons suggest precise roles for subtypes of inhibition in visual cortex. Neuron. 2010;67:847-57 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that subsets of parvalbumin interneurons are components of specific cortical networks and that perisomatic inhibition contributes to the generation of precise response properties. ..
- Fox I, Kornblum H. Developmental profile of ErbB receptors in murine central nervous system: implications for functional interactions. J Neurosci Res. 2005;79:584-97 pubmed..Together, these findings suggest that ErbB receptors might mediate multiple functions in central nervous system development, some of which may be initiated by EGFR/ErbB4 heterodimers in vivo. ..
- Pleasure S, Anderson S, Hevner R, Bagri A, Marin O, Lowenstein D, et al. Cell migration from the ganglionic eminences is required for the development of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons. Neuron. 2000;28:727-40 pubmed..Loss of hippocampal interneurons does not appear to have major effects on the early development of hippocampal projection neurons nor on the pathfinding of afferrent tracts. ..
- Stumm R, Zhou C, Ara T, Lazarini F, Dubois Dalcq M, Nagasawa T, et al. CXCR4 regulates interneuron migration in the developing neocortex. J Neurosci. 2003;23:5123-30 pubmed..Thus, our findings suggest that SDF-1, which is highly expressed in the embryonic leptomeninx, selectively regulates migration and layer-specific integration of CXCR4-expressing interneurons during neocortical development. ..
- Yanagawa Y, Kobayashi T, Kamei T, Ishii K, Nishijima M, Takaku A, et al. Structure and alternative promoters of the mouse glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 gene. Biochem J. 1997;326 ( Pt 2):573-8 pubmed..In contrast, exon 0A, but not exon 0B, was expressed in mouse testis and pancreas. These results suggest that these transcripts may be regulated under the control of independent promoters. ..
- Yun K, Potter S, Rubenstein J. Gsh2 and Pax6 play complementary roles in dorsoventral patterning of the mammalian telencephalon. Development. 2001;128:193-205 pubmed..The role of Pax6 in dorsalizing the telencephalon is similar to its role in the spinal cord, supporting the hypothesis that some dorsoventral patterning mechanisms are used at all axial levels of the central nervous system. ..
- Cholfin J, Rubenstein J. Patterning of frontal cortex subdivisions by Fgf17. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:7652-7 pubmed..Thus, Fgf17 functions similar to Fgf8 in patterning the overall neocortical map but has a more selective role in regulating the properties of the dorsal but not ventral FC. ..
- Ji F, Kanbara N, Obata K. GABA and histogenesis in fetal and neonatal mouse brain lacking both the isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase. Neurosci Res. 1999;33:187-94 pubmed
- Alcantara S, Ruiz M, D ARCANGELO G, Ezan F, de Lecea L, Curran T, et al. Regional and cellular patterns of reelin mRNA expression in the forebrain of the developing and adult mouse. J Neurosci. 1998;18:7779-99 pubmed..This complex pattern of cellular and regional expression is consistent with Reelin having multiple roles in brain development and adult brain function. ..
- Corbin J, Rutlin M, Gaiano N, Fishell G. Combinatorial function of the homeodomain proteins Nkx2.1 and Gsh2 in ventral telencephalic patterning. Development. 2003;130:4895-906 pubmed..1 dependent specification of oligodendrocytes. Therefore, both integrative and antagonistic interactions between homeodomain-containing transcription factors contribute to the patterning of the telencephalon. ..
- Rakic S, Yanagawa Y, Obata K, Faux C, Parnavelas J, Nikolic M. Cortical interneurons require p35/Cdk5 for their migration and laminar organization. Cereb Cortex. 2009;19:1857-69 pubmed publisher..We, therefore, propose that p35/Cdk5 plays a key role in guiding cortical interneurons to their final positions in the cortex. ..
- Iseki S, Ishii Suzuki M, Tsunekawa N, Yamada Y, Eto K, Obata K. Experimental induction of palate shelf elevation in glutamate decarboxylase 67-deficient mice with cleft palate due to vertically oriented palatal shelf. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2007;79:688-95 pubmed..These results suggest that the potential for palate formation is maintained in the palatal shelves of GAD67(-/-) fetuses, but it is obstructed by other, probably neural, factors, resulting in cleft palate. ..
- Asada H, Kawamura Y, Maruyama K, Kume H, Ding R, Kanbara N, et al. Cleft palate and decreased brain gamma-aminobutyric acid in mice lacking the 67-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:6496-9 pubmed..Previous pharmacological and genetic investigations have suggested the involvement of GABA in palate formation, but this is the first demonstration of a role for GAD67-derived GABA in the development of nonneural tissue. ..
- Uchida T, Oki Y, Yanagawa Y, Fukuda A. A heterozygous deletion in the glutamate decarboxylase 67 gene enhances maternal and fetal stress vulnerability. Neurosci Res. 2011;69:276-82 pubmed publisher..g., maternal stress, maternity, and being in utero. Thus, an abnormality in GAD67 could interact with environmental risk factors of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. ..
- Szabo G, Katarova Z, Kortvely E, Greenspan R, Urban Z. Structure and the promoter region of the mouse gene encoding the 67-kD form of glutamic acid decarboxylase. DNA Cell Biol. 1996;15:1081-91 pubmed
- Fode C, Ma Q, Casarosa S, Ang S, Anderson D, Guillemot F. A role for neural determination genes in specifying the dorsoventral identity of telencephalic neurons. Genes Dev. 2000;14:67-80 pubmed
- Anderson S, Qiu M, Bulfone A, Eisenstat D, Meneses J, Pedersen R, et al. Mutations of the homeobox genes Dlx-1 and Dlx-2 disrupt the striatal subventricular zone and differentiation of late born striatal neurons. Neuron. 1997;19:27-37 pubmed..Several lines of evidence suggest that mutations in Dlx-1 and Dlx-2 produce abnormalities in the development of the striatal subventricular zone and in the differentiation of striatal matrix neurons. ..
- Liodis P, Denaxa M, Grigoriou M, Akufo Addo C, Yanagawa Y, Pachnis V. Lhx6 activity is required for the normal migration and specification of cortical interneuron subtypes. J Neurosci. 2007;27:3078-89 pubmed..We also show that Lhx6 activity is required for the normal tangential and radial migration of GABAergic interneurons in the cortex. ..
- Nery S, Corbin J, Fishell G. Dlx2 progenitor migration in wild type and Nkx2.1 mutant telencephalon. Cereb Cortex. 2003;13:895-903 pubmed..This recovery may be, at least in part, a result of the late migration of Dlx2 progenitors from the caudal ganglionic eminences (CGE), which, based on our previous work, does not appear to require Nkx2.1 gene function. ..
- Casarosa S, Fode C, Guillemot F. Mash1 regulates neurogenesis in the ventral telencephalon. Development. 1999;126:525-34 pubmed..Therefore, Mash1 is an important regulator of neurogenesis in the ventral telencephalon, where it is required both to specify neuronal precursors and to control the timing of their production. ..
- Kitamura K, Yanazawa M, Sugiyama N, Miura H, Iizuka Kogo A, Kusaka M, et al. Mutation of ARX causes abnormal development of forebrain and testes in mice and X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia in humans. Nat Genet. 2002;32:359-69 pubmed..The present report is, to our knowledge, the first to use phenotypic analysis of a knockout mouse to identify a gene associated with an X-linked human brain malformation...
- Schuurmans C, Armant O, Nieto M, Stenman J, Britz O, Klenin N, et al. Sequential phases of cortical specification involve Neurogenin-dependent and -independent pathways. EMBO J. 2004;23:2892-902 pubmed..Our study thus reveals an unanticipated heterogeneity in the genetic mechanisms specifying the identity of neocortical projection neurons. ..
- Maddox D, Condie B. Dynamic expression of a glutamate decarboxylase gene in multiple non-neural tissues during mouse development. BMC Dev Biol. 2001;1:1 pubmed..Mouse embryos lacking the 67-kDa isoform of GAD (encoded by the Gad1 gene) develop a complete cleft of the secondary palate...
- Tanaka D, Maekawa K, Yanagawa Y, Obata K, Murakami F. Multidirectional and multizonal tangential migration of GABAergic interneurons in the developing cerebral cortex. Development. 2006;133:2167-76 pubmed..The MDT migration in the MZ may disperse and intermix interneurons within the cortex, resulting in a balanced distribution of interneuron subtypes. ..
- Wray S, Fueshko S, Kusano K, Gainer H. GABAergic neurons in the embryonic olfactory pit/vomeronasal organ: maintenance of functional GABAergic synapses in olfactory explants. Dev Biol. 1996;180:631-45 pubmed..However, unlike LHRH neurons, GABAergic neurons did not migrate large distances in olfactory explants or appear to leave the olfactory pit in vivo. ..
- Toresson H, Campbell K. A role for Gsh1 in the developing striatum and olfactory bulb of Gsh2 mutant mice. Development. 2001;128:4769-80 pubmed
- Cheng L, Arata A, Mizuguchi R, Qian Y, Karunaratne A, Gray P, et al. Tlx3 and Tlx1 are post-mitotic selector genes determining glutamatergic over GABAergic cell fates. Nat Neurosci. 2004;7:510-7 pubmed..GABAergic markers were derepressed in Tlx mutants, including Pax2 that is necessary for GABAergic differentiation, Gad1/2 and Viaat that regulate GABA synthesis and transport, and the kainate receptors Grik2/3...
- Vidaki M, Tivodar S, Doulgeraki K, Tybulewicz V, Kessaris N, Pachnis V, et al. Rac1-dependent cell cycle exit of MGE precursors and GABAergic interneuron migration to the cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2012;22:680-92 pubmed publisher..Rac1 is necessary for their transition from G1 to S phase, at least in part by regulating cyclin D levels and retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. ..
- Chattopadhyaya B, Di Cristo G, Wu C, Knott G, Kuhlman S, Fu Y, et al. GAD67-mediated GABA synthesis and signaling regulate inhibitory synaptic innervation in the visual cortex. Neuron. 2007;54:889-903 pubmed..Since intracellular GABA levels are modulated by neuronal activity, our results implicate GAD67-mediated GABA synthesis in activity-dependent regulation of inhibitory innervation patterns. ..
- Kawaguchi H, Yamanaka A, Uchida K, Shibasaki K, Sokabe T, Maruyama Y, et al. Activation of polycystic kidney disease-2-like 1 (PKD2L1)-PKD1L3 complex by acid in mouse taste cells. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:17277-81 pubmed publisher..Thus, PKD2L1-PKD1L3-mediated acid-evoked off responses occurred both in HEK293 cells and in native taste cells, suggesting the involvement of the PKD2L1-PKD1L3 complex in acid sensing in vivo...
- Fujii M, Arata A, Kanbara Kume N, Saito K, Yanagawa Y, Obata K. Respiratory activity in brainstem of fetal mice lacking glutamate decarboxylase 65/67 and vesicular GABA transporter. Neuroscience. 2007;146:1044-52 pubmed..These results indicate that the lack of GABA and glycine impairs the function of the respiratory network in mouse fetuses and the impairment progresses with fetal age. ..
- Corbin J, Gaiano N, Machold R, Langston A, Fishell G. The Gsh2 homeodomain gene controls multiple aspects of telencephalic development. Development. 2000;127:5007-20 pubmed..Taken together, our data support a model in which Gsh2, in response to sonic hedgehog signaling, plays a crucial role in multiple aspects of telencephalic development. ..
- Wojcik S, Katsurabayashi S, Guillemin I, Friauf E, Rosenmund C, Brose N, et al. A shared vesicular carrier allows synaptic corelease of GABA and glycine. Neuron. 2006;50:575-87 pubmed..Since GABA and glycine compete for vesicular uptake, these data point to a close association of Viaat with GABA-synthesizing enzymes as a key factor in specifying GABAergic neuronal phenotypes. ..
- Peltopuro P, Kala K, Partanen J. Distinct requirements for Ascl1 in subpopulations of midbrain GABAergic neurons. Dev Biol. 2010;343:63-70 pubmed publisher..Also, our results have implications on understanding the origins of the various midbrain GABAergic neuron groups in the embryonic neuroepithelium. ..
- Sessa A, Mao C, Colasante G, Nini A, Klein W, Broccoli V. Tbr2-positive intermediate (basal) neuronal progenitors safeguard cerebral cortex expansion by controlling amplification of pallial glutamatergic neurons and attraction of subpallial GABAergic interneurons. Genes Dev. 2010;24:1816-26 pubmed publisher..We thus propose that INPs are able to control simultaneously the increase of glutamatergic and GABAergic neuronal pools, thereby creating a simple way to intrinsically balance their relative accumulation. ..
- Westmoreland J, Hancock C, Condie B. Neuronal development of embryonic stem cells: a model of GABAergic neuron differentiation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;284:674-80 pubmed..The glutamate decarboxylase genes (Gad1 and Gad2), required for GABA synthesis and the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (Viaat) gene, required ..
- Long J, Garel S, Alvarez Dolado M, Yoshikawa K, Osumi N, Alvarez Buylla A, et al. Dlx-dependent and -independent regulation of olfactory bulb interneuron differentiation. J Neurosci. 2007;27:3230-43 pubmed
- Kaneko K, Tamamaki N, Owada H, Kakizaki T, Kume N, Totsuka M, et al. Noradrenergic excitation of a subpopulation of GABAergic cells in the basolateral amygdala via both activation of nonselective cationic conductance and suppression of resting K+ conductance: a study using glutamate decarboxylase 67-green fluorescent . Neuroscience. 2008;157:781-97 pubmed publisher..NA also increased the frequency of spontaneous IPSCs in the principal cells of the BLA. It is suggested that the NA-dependent excitation of type-A cells attenuates the BLA output for a certain period. ..
- Cobos I, Long J, Thwin M, Rubenstein J. Cellular patterns of transcription factor expression in developing cortical interneurons. Cereb Cortex. 2006;16 Suppl 1:i82-8 pubmed..This study is a first step to define the combinatorial codes of transcription factors that participate in regulating the specification and function of cortical interneuron subtypes. ..
- Evans J, Frostholm A, Rotter A. Embryonic and postnatal expression of four gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter mRNAs in the mouse brain and leptomeninges. J Comp Neurol. 1996;376:431-46 pubmed
- Southwell D, Paredes M, Galvão R, Jones D, Froemke R, Sebe J, et al. Intrinsically determined cell death of developing cortical interneurons. Nature. 2012;491:109-13 pubmed publisher..Taken together, our findings indicate that interneuron cell death is determined intrinsically, either cell-autonomously or through a population-autonomous competition for survival signals derived from other interneurons. ..
- Trifonov S, Houtani T, Kase M, Toida K, Maruyama M, Yamashita Y, et al. Lateral regions of the rodent striatum reveal elevated glutamate decarboxylase 1 mRNA expression in medium-sized projection neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;35:711-22 pubmed publisher..we found that the mouse lateral striatum concentrates medium-sized projection neurons with high-level expression of GAD1, but not of GAD2, mRNA...
- Condie B, Bain G, Gottlieb D, Capecchi M. Cleft palate in mice with a targeted mutation in the gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase 67. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:11451-5 pubmed..The striking similarity in phenotype between the receptor and ligand mutations clearly demonstrates a role for GABA signaling in normal palate development. ..
- Storm R, Cholewa Waclaw J, Reuter K, Bröhl D, Sieber M, Treier M, et al. The bHLH transcription factor Olig3 marks the dorsal neuroepithelium of the hindbrain and is essential for the development of brainstem nuclei. Development. 2009;136:295-305 pubmed publisher..We therefore propose that Olig3 can cooperate with Ptf1a to determine the fate of climbing fiber neurons of the inferior olivary nucleus. ..
- Long J, Garel S, Depew M, Tobet S, Rubenstein J. DLX5 regulates development of peripheral and central components of the olfactory system. J Neurosci. 2003;23:568-78 pubmed..In addition, the mutation has a noncell-autonomous effect on the morphogenesis of mitral cells. ..
- Kuwajima T, Nishimura I, Yoshikawa K. Necdin promotes GABAergic neuron differentiation in cooperation with Dlx homeodomain proteins. J Neurosci. 2006;26:5383-92 pubmed..These results suggest that paternally expressed necdin facilitates the differentiation and specification of GABAergic neurons in cooperation with Dlx homeodomain proteins. ..
- Leinninger G, Jo Y, Leshan R, Louis G, Yang H, Barrera J, et al. Leptin acts via leptin receptor-expressing lateral hypothalamic neurons to modulate the mesolimbic dopamine system and suppress feeding. Cell Metab. 2009;10:89-98 pubmed publisher..Thus, these findings reveal that LHA LepRb neurons link anorexic leptin action to the mesolimbic DA system. ..
- Brill M, Ninkovic J, Winpenny E, Hodge R, Ozen I, Yang R, et al. Adult generation of glutamatergic olfactory bulb interneurons. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:1524-33 pubmed publisher..Taken together, our data indicate that SEZ progenitors not only produce a population of adult-born glutamatergic juxtaglomerular neurons, but may also provide a previously unknown source of progenitors for endogenous repair. ..
- Pascual M, Abasolo I, Mingorance Le Meur A, MARTINEZ A, Del Río J, Wright C, et al. Cerebellar GABAergic progenitors adopt an external granule cell-like phenotype in the absence of Ptf1a transcription factor expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:5193-8 pubmed..Moreover, our results suggest that Ptf1a is also required for the suppression of the granule cell specification program in cerebellar ventricular zone precursors. ..
- Kerlin A, Andermann M, Berezovskii V, Reid R. Broadly tuned response properties of diverse inhibitory neuron subtypes in mouse visual cortex. Neuron. 2010;67:858-71 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that the sensory responses of layer 2/3 GABAergic neurons reflect the pooled activity of the surrounding population--a principle that may generalize across species and sensory modalities. ..
- Batista Brito R, Rossignol E, Hjerling Leffler J, Denaxa M, Wegner M, Lefebvre V, et al. The cell-intrinsic requirement of Sox6 for cortical interneuron development. Neuron. 2009;63:466-81 pubmed publisher..It is, however, necessary for their normal positioning and maturation. As a consequence, the specific removal of Sox6 from this population results in a severe epileptic encephalopathy. ..
- Tamamaki N, Yanagawa Y, Tomioka R, Miyazaki J, Obata K, Kaneko T. Green fluorescent protein expression and colocalization with calretinin, parvalbumin, and somatostatin in the GAD67-GFP knock-in mouse. J Comp Neurol. 2003;467:60-79 pubmed..4% of the GFP-positive cells. They accounted for 6.5% in layer I. In accord with unidentified GFP-positive cells, many medium-sized spherical somata emitting intense GFP fluorescence were observed in layer I. ..
- Pla R, Borrell V, Flames N, Marin O. Layer acquisition by cortical GABAergic interneurons is independent of Reelin signaling. J Neurosci. 2006;26:6924-34 pubmed
- Nakhai H, Sel S, Favor J, Mendoza Torres L, Paulsen F, Duncker G, et al. Ptf1a is essential for the differentiation of GABAergic and glycinergic amacrine cells and horizontal cells in the mouse retina. Development. 2007;134:1151-60 pubmed..We conclude that Ptf1a contributes to the differentiation of horizontal cells and types of amacrine cells during mouse retinogenesis. ..
- Chen L, Liao G, Waclaw R, Burns K, Linquist D, Campbell K, et al. Rac1 controls the formation of midline commissures and the competency of tangential migration in ventral telencephalic neurons. J Neurosci. 2007;27:3884-93 pubmed..Moreover, they indicate that Rac1 has a critical role in axon guidance and in acquisition of migratory competency during differentiation of the progenitors for the ventral telencephalon-derived interneurons. ..
- Gutin G, Fernandes M, Palazzolo L, Paek H, Yu K, Ornitz D, et al. FGF signalling generates ventral telencephalic cells independently of SHH. Development. 2006;133:2937-46 pubmed..Moreover, the Fgfr1;Fgfr2 phenotype, unlike the Shh phenotype, is not rescued by loss of Gli3, further indicating that FGFs act downstream of Shh and Gli3 to generate ventral telencephalic cell types. ..
- Kanaani J, Kolibachuk J, Martinez H, Baekkeskov S. Two distinct mechanisms target GAD67 to vesicular pathways and presynaptic clusters. J Cell Biol. 2010;190:911-25 pubmed publisher..Thus two distinct mechanisms target the constitutively active GAD67 to presynaptic clusters to facilitate accumulation of GABA for rapid delivery into synapses. ..
- Wu S, Esumi S, Watanabe K, Chen J, Nakamura K, Nakamura K, et al. Tangential migration and proliferation of intermediate progenitors of GABAergic neurons in the mouse telencephalon. Development. 2011;138:2499-509 pubmed publisher..IPGNs are maintained in the neocortex and may act as progenitors for adult neurogenesis. ..
- Cobos I, Calcagnotto M, Vilaythong A, Thwin M, Noebels J, Baraban S, et al. Mice lacking Dlx1 show subtype-specific loss of interneurons, reduced inhibition and epilepsy. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:1059-68 pubmed..Dlx1 mutant mice show generalized electrographic seizures and histological evidence of seizure-induced reorganization, linking the Dlx1 mutation to delayed-onset epilepsy associated with interneuron loss. ..
- Cobos I, Borello U, Rubenstein J. Dlx transcription factors promote migration through repression of axon and dendrite growth. Neuron. 2007;54:873-88 pubmed
- Waagepetersen H, Sonnewald U, Schousboe A. The GABA paradox: multiple roles as metabolite, neurotransmitter, and neurodifferentiative agent. J Neurochem. 1999;73:1335-42 pubmed..These aspects are discussed in relation to the different functional roles of GABA and its prominent involvement in epileptogenic activity. ..