Gabra2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Gabra2
Description: gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, subunit alpha 2
Alias: C630048P16Rik, Gabra-2, gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2, GABA(A) receptor subunit alpha-2
Species: mouse
Products:     Gabra2

Top Publications

  1. Dixon C, Walker S, King S, Stephens D. Deletion of the gabra2 gene results in hypersensitivity to the acute effects of ethanol but does not alter ethanol self administration. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47135 pubmed publisher
    Human genetic studies have suggested that polymorphisms of the GABRA2 gene encoding the GABA(A) ?2-subunit are associated with ethanol dependence...
  2. Reynolds L, Engin E, Tantillo G, Lau H, Muschamp J, Carlezon W, et al. Differential roles of GABA(A) receptor subtypes in benzodiazepine-induced enhancement of brain-stimulation reward. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012;37:2531-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding has important implications for the development of new medications that retain the therapeutic effects of benzodiazepines but lack abuse liability. ..
  3. ENOCH M, Schwartz L, Albaugh B, Virkkunen M, Goldman D. Dimensional anxiety mediates linkage of GABRA2 haplotypes with alcoholism. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2006;141B:599-607 pubmed
    The GABAAalpha2 receptor gene (GABRA2) modulates anxiety and stress response...
  4. Knabl J, Witschi R, Hösl K, Reinold H, Zeilhofer U, Ahmadi S, et al. Reversal of pathological pain through specific spinal GABAA receptor subtypes. Nature. 2008;451:330-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a rational basis for the development of subtype-selective GABAergic drugs for the treatment of chronic pain, which is often refractory to classical analgesics. ..
  5. Blednov Y, Borghese C, McCracken M, Benavidez J, Geil C, Osterndorff Kahanek E, et al. Loss of ethanol conditioned taste aversion and motor stimulation in knockin mice with ethanol-insensitive ?2-containing GABA(A) receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011;336:145-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, though, a chromosomal cluster of four GABA(A)-R subunit genes, including ?2 (Gabra2), was associated with human alcoholism (Am J Hum Genet 74:705-714, 2004; Pharmacol Biochem Behav 90:95-104, 2008; ..
  6. Morris H, Dawson G, Reynolds D, Atack J, Stephens D. Both alpha2 and alpha3 GABAA receptor subtypes mediate the anxiolytic properties of benzodiazepine site ligands in the conditioned emotional response paradigm. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;23:2495-504 pubmed
  7. Dixon C, Rosahl T, Stephens D. Targeted deletion of the GABRA2 gene encoding alpha2-subunits of GABA(A) receptors facilitates performance of a conditioned emotional response, and abolishes anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines and barbiturates. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2008;90:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that alpha2-containing GABA(A) receptors mediate the anxiolytic effects of barbiturates, as well as benzodiazepines, and that they may be involved in neuronal circuits underlying conditioned anxiety. ..
  8. Dixon C, Morris H, Breen G, Desrivieres S, Jugurnauth S, Steiner R, et al. Cocaine effects on mouse incentive-learning and human addiction are linked to alpha2 subunit-containing GABAA receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:2289-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with a role of these receptors in addiction, we found specific markers and haplotypes of the GABRA2 gene to be associated with human cocaine addiction.
  9. Low K, Crestani F, Keist R, Benke D, Brünig I, Benson J, et al. Molecular and neuronal substrate for the selective attenuation of anxiety. Science. 2000;290:131-4 pubmed
  10. Witschi R, Punnakkal P, Paul J, Walczak J, Cervero F, Fritschy J, et al. Presynaptic alpha2-GABAA receptors in primary afferent depolarization and spinal pain control. J Neurosci. 2011;31:8134-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results thus show that part of the antihyperalgesic action of spinally applied DZP occurs through facilitated activation of GABA(A) receptors residing on primary nociceptors. ..

Detail Information

Publications78

  1. Dixon C, Walker S, King S, Stephens D. Deletion of the gabra2 gene results in hypersensitivity to the acute effects of ethanol but does not alter ethanol self administration. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47135 pubmed publisher
    Human genetic studies have suggested that polymorphisms of the GABRA2 gene encoding the GABA(A) ?2-subunit are associated with ethanol dependence...
  2. Reynolds L, Engin E, Tantillo G, Lau H, Muschamp J, Carlezon W, et al. Differential roles of GABA(A) receptor subtypes in benzodiazepine-induced enhancement of brain-stimulation reward. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012;37:2531-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding has important implications for the development of new medications that retain the therapeutic effects of benzodiazepines but lack abuse liability. ..
  3. ENOCH M, Schwartz L, Albaugh B, Virkkunen M, Goldman D. Dimensional anxiety mediates linkage of GABRA2 haplotypes with alcoholism. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2006;141B:599-607 pubmed
    The GABAAalpha2 receptor gene (GABRA2) modulates anxiety and stress response...
  4. Knabl J, Witschi R, Hösl K, Reinold H, Zeilhofer U, Ahmadi S, et al. Reversal of pathological pain through specific spinal GABAA receptor subtypes. Nature. 2008;451:330-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a rational basis for the development of subtype-selective GABAergic drugs for the treatment of chronic pain, which is often refractory to classical analgesics. ..
  5. Blednov Y, Borghese C, McCracken M, Benavidez J, Geil C, Osterndorff Kahanek E, et al. Loss of ethanol conditioned taste aversion and motor stimulation in knockin mice with ethanol-insensitive ?2-containing GABA(A) receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011;336:145-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, though, a chromosomal cluster of four GABA(A)-R subunit genes, including ?2 (Gabra2), was associated with human alcoholism (Am J Hum Genet 74:705-714, 2004; Pharmacol Biochem Behav 90:95-104, 2008; ..
  6. Morris H, Dawson G, Reynolds D, Atack J, Stephens D. Both alpha2 and alpha3 GABAA receptor subtypes mediate the anxiolytic properties of benzodiazepine site ligands in the conditioned emotional response paradigm. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;23:2495-504 pubmed
  7. Dixon C, Rosahl T, Stephens D. Targeted deletion of the GABRA2 gene encoding alpha2-subunits of GABA(A) receptors facilitates performance of a conditioned emotional response, and abolishes anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines and barbiturates. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2008;90:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that alpha2-containing GABA(A) receptors mediate the anxiolytic effects of barbiturates, as well as benzodiazepines, and that they may be involved in neuronal circuits underlying conditioned anxiety. ..
  8. Dixon C, Morris H, Breen G, Desrivieres S, Jugurnauth S, Steiner R, et al. Cocaine effects on mouse incentive-learning and human addiction are linked to alpha2 subunit-containing GABAA receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:2289-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with a role of these receptors in addiction, we found specific markers and haplotypes of the GABRA2 gene to be associated with human cocaine addiction.
  9. Low K, Crestani F, Keist R, Benke D, Brünig I, Benson J, et al. Molecular and neuronal substrate for the selective attenuation of anxiety. Science. 2000;290:131-4 pubmed
  10. Witschi R, Punnakkal P, Paul J, Walczak J, Cervero F, Fritschy J, et al. Presynaptic alpha2-GABAA receptors in primary afferent depolarization and spinal pain control. J Neurosci. 2011;31:8134-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results thus show that part of the antihyperalgesic action of spinally applied DZP occurs through facilitated activation of GABA(A) receptors residing on primary nociceptors. ..
  11. Kneussel M, Brandstätter J, Laube B, Stahl S, Muller U, Betz H. Loss of postsynaptic GABA(A) receptor clustering in gephyrin-deficient mice. J Neurosci. 1999;19:9289-97 pubmed
    ..In addition, gephyrin may be important for efficient membrane insertion and/or metabolic stabilization of inhibitory receptors at developing postsynaptic sites. ..
  12. Takayama C, Inoue Y. Transient expression of GABAA receptor alpha2 and alpha3 subunits in differentiating cerebellar neurons. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2004;148:169-77 pubmed
  13. Benke D, Fakitsas P, Roggenmoser C, Michel C, Rudolph U, Mohler H. Analysis of the presence and abundance of GABAA receptors containing two different types of alpha subunits in murine brain using point-mutated alpha subunits. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:43654-60 pubmed
    ..This experimental approach provides the basis for a detailed analysis of the abundance of GABAA receptors containing heterologous alpha subunits on a brain regional level. ..
  14. Dias R, Sheppard W, Fradley R, Garrett E, Stanley J, Tye S, et al. Evidence for a significant role of alpha 3-containing GABAA receptors in mediating the anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines. J Neurosci. 2005;25:10682-8 pubmed
    ..Together, these data show that potentiation of alpha3-containing GABA(A) receptors is sufficient to produce the anxiolytic effects of BZs and that alpha2 potentiation may not be necessary. ..
  15. Tobet S, Henderson R, Whiting P, Sieghart W. Special relationship of gamma-aminobutyric acid to the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus during embryonic development. J Comp Neurol. 1999;405:88-98 pubmed
  16. Jessop D. Review: Central non-glucocorticoid inhibitors of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. J Endocrinol. 1999;160:169-80 pubmed
  17. Harris R, Osterndorff Kahanek E, Ponomarev I, Homanics G, Blednov Y. Testing the silence of mutations: Transcriptomic and behavioral studies of GABA(A) receptor ?1 and ?2 subunit knock-in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2011;488:31-5 pubmed publisher
  18. Levi S, Logan S, Tovar K, Craig A. Gephyrin is critical for glycine receptor clustering but not for the formation of functional GABAergic synapses in hippocampal neurons. J Neurosci. 2004;24:207-17 pubmed
    ..This clustered gephyrin may then recruit glycine receptors, additional GABA(A)Rs, and other signal-transducing components. ..
  19. Chen X, Whissell P, Orser B, MacDonald J. Functional modifications of acid-sensing ion channels by ligand-gated chloride channels. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21970 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that GABA(A) receptors and glycine receptors modify ASICs in neurons through mechanisms that require the opening of chloride channels. ..
  20. Panzanelli P, Gunn B, Schlatter M, Benke D, Tyagarajan S, Scheiffele P, et al. Distinct mechanisms regulate GABAA receptor and gephyrin clustering at perisomatic and axo-axonic synapses on CA1 pyramidal cells. J Physiol. 2011;589:4959-80 pubmed publisher
  21. Ralvenius W, Benke D, Acuña M, Rudolph U, Zeilhofer H. Analgesia and unwanted benzodiazepine effects in point-mutated mice expressing only one benzodiazepine-sensitive GABAA receptor subtype. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6803 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings should foster the development of innovative subtype-selective BDZs for novel indications such as chronic pain. ..
  22. Herrera Molina R, Sarto Jackson I, Montenegro Venegas C, Heine M, Smalla K, Seidenbecher C, et al. Structure of excitatory synapses and GABAA receptor localization at inhibitory synapses are regulated by neuroplastin-65. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:8973-88 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that Np65 is an important regulator of the number and function of synapses in the hippocampus. ..
  23. Danciger M, Farber D, Kozak C. Genetic mapping of three GABAA receptor-subunit genes in the mouse. Genomics. 1993;16:361-5 pubmed
    ..The Gabrb-1, Gabra-2 pair of genes on Chr 5 maps near the mouse "circling mutation" pi (pirouette). ..
  24. Heistek T, Ruiperez Alonso M, Timmerman A, Brussaard A, Mansvelder H. ?2-containing GABAA receptors expressed in hippocampal region CA3 control fast network oscillations. J Physiol. 2013;591:845-58 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that ?2-containing GABA(A) receptors expressed in the CA3 region provide the inhibition that controls hippocampal rhythm during cholinergically induced oscillations. ..
  25. Kopp C, Rudolph U, Low K, Tobler I. Modulation of rhythmic brain activity by diazepam: GABA(A) receptor subtype and state specificity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:3674-9 pubmed
  26. Ferraro T, Smith G, Schwebel C, Lohoff F, Furlong P, Berrettini W, et al. Quantitative trait locus for seizure susceptibility on mouse chromosome 5 confirmed with reciprocal congenic strains. Physiol Genomics. 2007;31:458-62 pubmed
  27. Nehrenberg D, Rodriguiz R, Cyr M, Zhang X, Lauder J, Gariepy J, et al. An anxiety-like phenotype in mice selectively bred for aggression. Behav Brain Res. 2009;201:179-91 pubmed publisher
  28. Pallotto M, Nissant A, Fritschy J, Rudolph U, Sassoè Pognetto M, Panzanelli P, et al. Early formation of GABAergic synapses governs the development of adult-born neurons in the olfactory bulb. J Neurosci. 2012;32:9103-15 pubmed publisher
    ..e., Gabra2). Ablation of the ?2-subunit did not affect GC survival but dramatically delayed their maturation...
  29. Telegdy G, Schally A. Neurotransmitter-mediated action of an antagonist of growth hormone-releasing hormone on anxiolysis in mice. Behav Brain Res. 2012;233:232-6 pubmed publisher
  30. Bravo J, Forsythe P, Chew M, Escaravage E, Savignac H, Dinan T, et al. Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:16050-5 pubmed publisher
  31. Carunchio I, Mollinari C, Pieri M, Merlo D, Zona C. GAB(A) receptors present higher affinity and modified subunit composition in spinal motor neurons from a genetic model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;28:1275-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show that the functionality and expression of GABA(A) receptors are altered in G93A motor neurons inducing a higher Cl(-) influx into the cell with a possible consequent neuronal excitotoxicity acceleration. ..
  32. Aguado F, Carmona M, Pozas E, Aguiló A, Martinez Guijarro F, Alcantara S, et al. BDNF regulates spontaneous correlated activity at early developmental stages by increasing synaptogenesis and expression of the K+/Cl- co-transporter KCC2. Development. 2003;130:1267-80 pubmed
    ..Given that BDNF itself is regulated by neuronal activity, we suggest that BDNF acts as a homeostatic factor controlling the emergence, complexity and networking properties of spontaneous networks. ..
  33. Werner D, Swihart A, Rau V, Jia F, Borghese C, McCracken M, et al. Inhaled anesthetic responses of recombinant receptors and knockin mice harboring ?2(S270H/L277A) GABA(A) receptor subunits that are resistant to isoflurane. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011;336:134-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, immobility or amnesia does not require isoflurane potentiation of the ?2 subunit. ..
  34. Gill K, Boyle A. Quantitative trait loci for novelty/stress-induced locomotor activation in recombinant inbred (RI) and recombinant congenic (RC) strains of mice. Behav Brain Res. 2005;161:113-24 pubmed
    ..The results are discussed in the context of previous QTL studies of anxiety-related traits that have used genetic crosses that include the A or B6 progenitors. ..
  35. Bähner F, Weiss E, Birke G, Maier N, Schmitz D, Rudolph U, et al. Cellular correlate of assembly formation in oscillating hippocampal networks in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:E607-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Ectopic spike generation together with strong somatodendritic inhibition may provide a cellular mechanism for the definition of oscillating assemblies. ..
  36. Duveau V, Laustela S, Barth L, Gianolini F, Vogt K, Keist R, et al. Spatiotemporal specificity of GABAA receptor-mediated regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;34:362-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the availability of distinct GABA(A) R subtypes provides a molecular mechanism endowing spatiotemporal specificity to GABAergic control of neuronal maturation in adult brain. ..
  37. Mo J, Kim C, Lee D, Sun W, Lee H, Kim H. Early growth response 1 (Egr-1) directly regulates GABAA receptor α2, α4, and θ subunits in the hippocampus. J Neurochem. 2015;133:489-500 pubmed publisher
    ..approach, in combination with in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation, and reveals that GABAA receptor subunit, GABRA2 (α2), GABRA4 (α4), and GABRQ (θ) genes, are transcriptional targets of Egr-1...
  38. Fritschy J, Johnson D, Mohler H, Rudolph U. Independent assembly and subcellular targeting of GABA(A)-receptor subtypes demonstrated in mouse hippocampal and olfactory neurons in vivo. Neurosci Lett. 1998;249:99-102 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the assembly of distinct GABA(A)-receptor subtypes in the same neuron is regulated independently. Furthermore, the alpha-subunit is a prime candidate for providing domains which direct subcellular targeting. ..
  39. Ghosh H, Auguadri L, Battaglia S, Simone Thirouin Z, Zemoura K, Messner S, et al. Several posttranslational modifications act in concert to regulate gephyrin scaffolding and GABAergic transmission. Nat Commun. 2016;7:13365 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of SUMOylation-deficient gephyrin variants rescued gephyrin clustering in CA1 or neocortical neurons of Gabra2-null mice, which otherwise lack gephyrin clusters, indicating that gephyrin SUMO modification is an essential ..
  40. Kwakowsky A, Schwirtlich M, Kooy F, Abrahám I, Mate Z, Katarova Z, et al. GABA neurotransmitter signaling in the developing mouse lens: dynamic regulation of components and functionality. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:3830-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The functionality of GABAR was verified by calcium imaging in whole lenses. Our data suggest that GABA synthesized locally by GAD, acts through GABA receptors by modulating the intracellular calcium levels. ..
  41. Maison S, Rosahl T, Homanics G, Liberman M. Functional role of GABAergic innervation of the cochlea: phenotypic analysis of mice lacking GABA(A) receptor subunits alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 5, alpha 6, beta 2, beta 3, or delta. J Neurosci. 2006;26:10315-26 pubmed
    ..Results suggest that the GABAergic component of the olivocochlear system contributes to the long-term maintenance of hair cells and neurons in the inner ear. ..
  42. Lu L, Airey D, Williams R. Complex trait analysis of the hippocampus: mapping and biometric analysis of two novel gene loci with specific effects on hippocampal structure in mice. J Neurosci. 2001;21:3503-14 pubmed
    ..The Hipp gene loci modulate neuron number in the dentate gyrus, collectively shifting the population up or down by as much as 200,000 cells. Candidate genes for the Hipp loci include Rxrg and Fgfr3. ..
  43. Hines R, Hines D, Houston C, Mukherjee J, Haydon P, Tretter V, et al. Disrupting the clustering of GABAA receptor ?2 subunits in the frontal cortex leads to reduced ?-power and cognitive deficits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:16628-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our study provides functional evidence revealing that GABAergic synapses in the prefrontal cortex directly contribute to cognition and ?-power. ..
  44. Buckle V, Fujita N, Ryder Cook A, Derry J, Barnard P, Lebo R, et al. Chromosomal localization of GABAA receptor subunit genes: relationship to human genetic disease. Neuron. 1989;3:647-54 pubmed
    ..The combined results locate the human alpha 3 gene within band Xq28, in a location that makes it a candidate gene for the X-linked form of manic depression. ..
  45. Tsuchiya H, Oka T, Nakamura K, Ichikawa A, Saper C, Sugimoto Y. Prostaglandin E2 attenuates preoptic expression of GABAA receptors via EP3 receptors. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:11064-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that PGE(2)-EP3 signaling elicits G(i/o) activation in preoptic thermocenter neurons, and we propose the possibility that a rapid decrease in preoptic GABA(A) expression may be involved in PGE(2)-induced fever. ..
  46. Fagiolini M, Fritschy J, Löw K, Mohler H, Rudolph U, Hensch T. Specific GABAA circuits for visual cortical plasticity. Science. 2004;303:1681-3 pubmed
    ..This dissociation carries implications for models of brain development and the safe design of benzodiazepines for use in infants. ..
  47. Nagle D, Kozak C, Mano H, Chapman V, Bucan M. Physical mapping of the Tec and Gabrb1 loci reveals that the Wsh mutation on mouse chromosome 5 is associated with an inversion. Hum Mol Genet. 1995;4:2073-9 pubmed
  48. Hawkins N, Zachwieja N, Miller A, Anderson L, Kearney J. Fine Mapping of a Dravet Syndrome Modifier Locus on Mouse Chromosome 5 and Candidate Gene Analysis by RNA-Seq. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006398 pubmed publisher
    ..differences between 129S6/SvEvTac and [129xC57BL/6J]F1 were identified, including the GABAA receptor subunit, Gabra2. Further analysis of Gabra2 demonstrated allele-specific expression...
  49. Quadrato G, Elnaggar M, Duman C, Sabino A, Forsberg K, Di Giovanni S. Modulation of GABAA receptor signaling increases neurogenesis and suppresses anxiety through NFATc4. J Neurosci. 2014;34:8630-45 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor (GABAAR) signaling modulates hippocampal neurogenesis through NFATc4 activity, which in turn regulates GABRA2 and GABRA4 subunit expression via binding to specific promoter responsive elements, as assessed by ChIP and ..
  50. Lim C, Kim H, Yu N, Kang S, Kim T, Ko H, et al. Enhancing inhibitory synaptic function reverses spatial memory deficits in Shank2 mutant mice. Neuropharmacology. 2017;112:104-112 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we found that the expression levels of Gabra2, as well as of GABA receptor-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission, are reduced in Shank2 e6-7, but not in e7 KO ..
  51. Chang C, Luntz Leybman V, Evans J, Rotter A, Frostholm A. Developmental changes in the expression of gamma-aminobutyric acidA/benzodiazepine receptor subunit mRNAs in the murine inferior olivary complex. J Comp Neurol. 1995;356:615-28 pubmed
  52. Engin E, Bakhurin K, Smith K, Hines R, Reynolds L, Tang W, et al. Neural basis of benzodiazepine reward: requirement for ?2 containing GABAA receptors in the nucleus accumbens. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2014;39:1805-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Findings imply that ?2GABAARs in the NAc are involved in at least some reward-related properties of benzodiazepines, which might partially underlie repeated drug-taking behavior. ..
  53. Lee G, Gammie S. GABAA receptor signaling in caudal periaqueductal gray regulates maternal aggression and maternal care in mice. Behav Brain Res. 2010;213:230-7 pubmed publisher
  54. Bailey S, Toth M. Variability in the benzodiazepine response of serotonin 5-HT1A receptor null mice displaying anxiety-like phenotype: evidence for genetic modifiers in the 5-HT-mediated regulation of GABA(A) receptors. J Neurosci. 2004;24:6343-51 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that BZ-resistant anxiety results from a developmental arrest of GABA(A)R expression in SW-R-/- mice, and a similar mechanism may be responsible for the BZ insensitivity of some anxiety patients. ..
  55. Seifi M, Brown J, Mills J, Bhandari P, Belelli D, Lambert J, et al. Molecular and functional diversity of GABA-A receptors in the enteric nervous system of the mouse colon. J Neurosci. 2014;34:10361-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The study demonstrates the molecular and functional diversity of the GABAAR system within the mouse colon providing a framework for developing GABAAR-based therapeutics in GI disorders. ..
  56. Wang J, Kofuji P, Fernando J, Moss S, Huganir R, Burt D. The alpha 1, alpha 2, and alpha 3 subunits of GABAA receptors: comparison in seizure-prone and -resistant mice and during development. J Mol Neurosci. 1992;3:177-84 pubmed
  57. Reddy D, Gangisetty O, Wu X. PR-independent neurosteroid regulation of α2-GABA-A receptors in the hippocampus subfields. Brain Res. 2017;1659:142-147 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that ovarian cycle-related P and neurosteroids regulate α2-GABA-A receptor expression in the hippocampus via a non-PR pathway, which may be relevant to menstrual-cycle related brain conditions. ..
  58. Newman E, Gunner G, Huynh P, Gachette D, Moss S, Smart T, et al. Effects of Gabra2 Point Mutations on Alcohol Intake: Increased Binge-Like and Blunted Chronic Drinking by Mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2016;40:2445-2455 pubmed publisher
    Alcohol use disorders are associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms in GABRA2, the gene encoding the GABAA receptor ?2-subunit in humans...
  59. Khrestchatisky M, MacLennan A, Tillakaratne N, Chiang M, Tobin A. Sequence and regional distribution of the mRNA encoding the alpha 2 polypeptide of rat gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptors. J Neurochem. 1991;56:1717-22 pubmed
    ..The distribution of alpha 2 mRNAs in rat brain suggests that the alpha 2 subunit may indeed be involved in the BZ type II receptors. ..
  60. Kasugai Y, Swinny J, Roberts J, Dalezios Y, Fukazawa Y, Sieghart W, et al. Quantitative localisation of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptor subunits on hippocampal pyramidal cells by freeze-fracture replica immunolabelling. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;32:1868-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Assuming similar antibody access to all receptors, about 60% of these subunits are in extrasynaptic receptors. ..
  61. Paul J, Yevenes G, Benke D, Di Lio A, Ralvenius W, Witschi R, et al. Antihyperalgesia by ?2-GABAA receptors occurs via a genuine spinal action and does not involve supraspinal sites. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2014;39:477-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Such drugs may therefore be well-suited for the systemic treatment of different chronic pain conditions. ..
  62. Koester C, Rudolph U, Haenggi T, Papilloud A, Fritschy J, Crestani F. Dissecting the role of diazepam-sensitive ?-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in defensive behavioral reactivity to mild threat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2013;103:541-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the absence of these receptors, diazepam through activation of ?1-GABA(A)Rs remains effective in reducing risk assessment, but not behavioral aversion. ..
  63. Yamanaka S, Johnson O, Lyu M, Kozak C, Proia R. The mouse gene encoding the GM2 activator protein (Gm2a): cDNA sequence, expression, and chromosome mapping. Genomics. 1994;24:601-4 pubmed
    ..The Gm2a gene was mapped to a region on mouse chromosome (Chr) 11 that is homologous with a segment of human chromosome 5 containing the orthologous human gene. In addition, a Gm2a-related sequence (Gm2a-rs1) was mapped to mouse Chr 5. ..
  64. Engin E, Smith K, Gao Y, Nagy D, Foster R, Tsvetkov E, et al. Modulation of anxiety and fear via distinct intrahippocampal circuits. elife. 2016;5:e14120 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings demonstrate a double dissociation in the regulation of anxiety versus fear by hippocampal microcircuitry. ..
  65. Chen R, Zhang Q, Duan X, York P, Chen G, Yin P, et al. The 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) Reader UHRF2 Is Required for Normal Levels of 5hmC in Mouse Adult Brain and Spatial Learning and Memory. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:4533-4543 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our study supports UHRF2 as a bona fide 5hmC reader and further demonstrates a role for 5hmC in neuronal function. ..
  66. Bedford F, Kittler J, Muller E, Thomas P, Uren J, Merlo D, et al. GABA(A) receptor cell surface number and subunit stability are regulated by the ubiquitin-like protein Plic-1. Nat Neurosci. 2001;4:908-16 pubmed
    ..Our study identifies a previously unknown role for Plic-1, a modulation of GABA(A) receptor cell surface number, which suggests that Plic-1 facilitates accumulation of these receptors in dendritic membranes. ..
  67. Marowsky A, Fritschy J, Vogt K. Functional mapping of GABA A receptor subtypes in the amygdala. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;20:1281-9 pubmed
    ..The crucial role of the amygdala for the mediation of anxiety is in agreement with the part that alpha2-subunit-containing GABA A receptors play in anxiolysis and their important function in this area of the brain. ..
  68. Telegdy G, Schally A. Involvement of neurotransmitters in the action of growth hormone-releasing hormone antagonist on passive avoidance learning. Behav Brain Res. 2012;233:326-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate that the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, the 5-HT1/5-HT2 serotonergic receptor and opioid receptors are involved as mediators in the action of MZ-4-71 on the consolidation of passive avoidance learning. ..
  69. Wang L, Nomura M, Goto Y, Tanaka K, Sakamoto R, Abe I, et al. Smad2 protein disruption in the central nervous system leads to aberrant cerebellar development and early postnatal ataxia in mice. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:18766-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that Smad2 plays a key role in cerebellar development and motor function control. ..
  70. Engin E, Zarnowska E, Benke D, Tsvetkov E, Sigal M, Keist R, et al. Tonic Inhibitory Control of Dentate Gyrus Granule Cells by α5-Containing GABAA Receptors Reduces Memory Interference. J Neurosci. 2015;35:13698-712 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the findings link interference management to a specific mechanism, proposed previously by computational models. ..
  71. Nakamura Y, Morrow D, Modgil A, Huyghe D, Deeb T, Lumb M, et al. Proteomic Characterization of Inhibitory Synapses Using a Novel pHluorin-tagged ?-Aminobutyric Acid Receptor, Type A (GABAA), ?2 Subunit Knock-in Mouse. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:12394-407 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our experiments illustrate the complexity of the GABAAR proteome and enhance our understanding of the mechanisms neurons use to construct inhibitory synapses. ..
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