G9a

Summary

Gene Symbol: G9a
Description: euchromatic histone lysine N-methyltransferase 2
Alias: Bat8, D17Ertd710e, G9a, KMT1C, NG36, histone-lysine N-methyltransferase EHMT2, H3-K9-HMTase 3, HLA-B associated transcript 8, histone H3-K9 methyltransferase 3, histone-lysine N-methyltransferase, H3 lysine-9 specific 3, protein G9a
Species: mouse
Products:     G9a

Top Publications

  1. Ueda J, Tachibana M, Ikura T, Shinkai Y. Zinc finger protein Wiz links G9a/GLP histone methyltransferases to the co-repressor molecule CtBP. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:20120-8 pubmed
    b>G9a is a SET-domain mammalian histone methyltransferase responsible for mono- and dimethylation of lysine 9 in histone H3 (H3K9) at euchromatic regions...
  2. Tachibana M, Ueda J, Fukuda M, Takeda N, Ohta T, Iwanari H, et al. Histone methyltransferases G9a and GLP form heteromeric complexes and are both crucial for methylation of euchromatin at H3-K9. Genes Dev. 2005;19:815-26 pubmed
    Histone H3 Lys 9 (H3-K9) methylation is a crucial epigenetic mark for transcriptional silencing. G9a is the major mammalian H3-K9 methyltransferase that targets euchromatic regions and is essential for murine embryogenesis...
  3. Yokochi T, Poduch K, Ryba T, Lu J, Hiratani I, Tachibana M, et al. G9a selectively represses a class of late-replicating genes at the nuclear periphery. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:19363-8 pubmed publisher
    We have investigated the role of the histone methyltransferase G9a in the establishment of silent nuclear compartments...
  4. Esteve P, Patnaik D, Chin H, Benner J, Teitell M, Pradhan S. Functional analysis of the N- and C-terminus of mammalian G9a histone H3 methyltransferase. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:3211-23 pubmed
    ..Murine G9a is a 1263 amino acid H3-K9 methyltransferase that possesses characteristic SET domain and ANK repeats...
  5. Chin H, Pradhan M, Esteve P, Patnaik D, Evans T, Pradhan S. Sequence specificity and role of proximal amino acids of the histone H3 tail on catalysis of murine G9A lysine 9 histone H3 methyltransferase. Biochemistry. 2005;44:12998-3006 pubmed
    The activity of recombinant murine G9a toward lysine 9 of histone H3 was investigated...
  6. Thomas L, Miyashita H, Cobb R, Pierce S, Tachibana M, Hobeika E, et al. Functional analysis of histone methyltransferase g9a in B and T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2008;181:485-93 pubmed
    ..To elucidate the in vivo function of H3K9me, we generated mice lacking G9a, a major H3K9 histone methyltransferase, in lymphocytes...
  7. Ling B, Gopinadhan S, Kok W, Shankar S, Gopal P, Bharathy N, et al. G9a mediates Sharp-1-dependent inhibition of skeletal muscle differentiation. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:4778-85 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the mechanisms by which it inhibits myogenesis are not fully understood. Here we show that G9a, a lysine methyltransferase, is involved in Sharp-1-mediated inhibition of muscle differentiation...
  8. Epsztejn Litman S, Feldman N, Abu Remaileh M, Shufaro Y, Gerson A, Ueda J, et al. De novo DNA methylation promoted by G9a prevents reprogramming of embryonically silenced genes. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:1176-1183 pubmed publisher
    ..also called Pou5f1) undergoes postimplantation silencing in a process mediated by the histone methyltransferase G9a. Microarray analysis now shows that this enzyme may operate as a master regulator that inactivates numerous early-..
  9. Dong K, Maksakova I, Mohn F, Leung D, Appanah R, Lee S, et al. DNA methylation in ES cells requires the lysine methyltransferase G9a but not its catalytic activity. EMBO J. 2008;27:2691-701 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that embryonic stem (ES) cells lacking the H3K9 HMTase G9a show a significant reduction in DNA methylation of retrotransposons, major satellite repeats and densely methylated ..

More Information

Publications80

  1. Collins R, Northrop J, Horton J, Lee D, Zhang X, Stallcup M, et al. The ankyrin repeats of G9a and GLP histone methyltransferases are mono- and dimethyllysine binding modules. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:245-50 pubmed publisher
    Histone modifications have important roles in transcriptional control, mitosis and heterochromatin formation. G9a and G9a-like protein (GLP) are euchromatin-associated methyltransferases that repress transcription by mono- and ..
  2. Tachibana M, Nozaki M, Takeda N, Shinkai Y. Functional dynamics of H3K9 methylation during meiotic prophase progression. EMBO J. 2007;26:3346-59 pubmed
    ..b>G9a is a major mammalian H3K9 methyltransferase at euchromatin and is essential for mouse embryogenesis...
  3. Tachibana M, Matsumura Y, Fukuda M, Kimura H, Shinkai Y. G9a/GLP complexes independently mediate H3K9 and DNA methylation to silence transcription. EMBO J. 2008;27:2681-90 pubmed publisher
    ..b>G9a and GLP/Eu-HMTase1 are two-related mammalian lysine methyltransferases and a G9a/GLP heteromeric complex regulates ..
  4. Chaturvedi C, Somasundaram B, Singh K, Carpenedo R, Stanford W, Dilworth F, et al. Maintenance of gene silencing by the coordinate action of the H3K9 methyltransferase G9a/KMT1C and the H3K4 demethylase Jarid1a/KDM5A. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:18845-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The histone-modifying enzyme G9a/KMT1C can act both as a coactivator and a corepressor of transcription...
  5. Xin Z, Tachibana M, Guggiari M, Heard E, Shinkai Y, Wagstaff J. Role of histone methyltransferase G9a in CpG methylation of the Prader-Willi syndrome imprinting center. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:14996-5000 pubmed
    ..we show that histone H3 Lys-9 methylation of the PWS-IC is reduced in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells lacking the G9a histone H3 Lys-9/Lys-27 methyltransferase and that maintenance of CpG methylation of the PWS-IC in mouse ES cells ..
  6. Mozzetta C, Pontis J, Fritsch L, Robin P, Portoso M, Proux C, et al. The histone H3 lysine 9 methyltransferases G9a and GLP regulate polycomb repressive complex 2-mediated gene silencing. Mol Cell. 2014;53:277-89 pubmed publisher
    b>G9a/GLP and Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) are two major epigenetic silencing machineries, which in particular methylate histone H3 on lysines 9 and 27 (H3K9 and H3K27), respectively...
  7. Chaturvedi C, Hosey A, Palii C, Perez Iratxeta C, Nakatani Y, Ranish J, et al. Dual role for the methyltransferase G9a in the maintenance of beta-globin gene transcription in adult erythroid cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:18303-8 pubmed publisher
    Using a proteomics screen, we have identified the methyltransferase G9a as an interacting partner of the hematopoietic activator NF-E2...
  8. Schaefer A, Sampath S, Intrator A, Min A, Gertler T, Surmeier D, et al. Control of cognition and adaptive behavior by the GLP/G9a epigenetic suppressor complex. Neuron. 2009;64:678-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that the histone methyltransferase complex GLP/G9a controls cognition and adaptive responses in a region-specific fashion in the adult brain...
  9. Maze I, Covington H, Dietz D, LaPlant Q, Renthal W, Russo S, et al. Essential role of the histone methyltransferase G9a in cocaine-induced plasticity. Science. 2010;327:213-6 pubmed publisher
    ..we identified an essential role for histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) dimethylation and the lysine dimethyltransferase G9a in cocaine-induced structural and behavioral plasticity...
  10. Ikegami K, Iwatani M, Suzuki M, Tachibana M, Shinkai Y, Tanaka S, et al. Genome-wide and locus-specific DNA hypomethylation in G9a deficient mouse embryonic stem cells. Genes Cells. 2007;12:1-11 pubmed
    ..b>G9a is a euchromatin-localized histone methyltransferase (HMT) and catalyzes methylation of histone H3 at lysines 9 and ..
  11. Covington H, Maze I, Sun H, Bomze H, Demaio K, Wu E, et al. A role for repressive histone methylation in cocaine-induced vulnerability to stress. Neuron. 2011;71:656-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Cre-mediated reduction of the histone methyltransferase, G9a, in NAc promoted increased susceptibility to social stress, similar to that observed with repeated cocaine...
  12. Patnaik D, Chin H, Esteve P, Benner J, Jacobsen S, Pradhan S. Substrate specificity and kinetic mechanism of mammalian G9a histone H3 methyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:53248-58 pubmed
    Lysine-specific murine histone H3 methyltransferase, G9a, was expressed and purified in a baculovirus expression system. The primary structure of the recombinant enzyme is identical to the native enzyme...
  13. Feldman N, Gerson A, Fang J, Li E, Zhang Y, Shinkai Y, et al. G9a-mediated irreversible epigenetic inactivation of Oct-3/4 during early embryogenesis. Nat Cell Biol. 2006;8:188-94 pubmed
    ..by a pronounced increase in histone H3 methylation on Lys 9 that is mediated by the SET-containing protein, G9a. This step sets the stage for local heterochromatinization via the binding of HP1 and is required for subsequent de ..
  14. Alder O, Lavial F, Helness A, Brookes E, Pinho S, Chandrashekran A, et al. Ring1B and Suv39h1 delineate distinct chromatin states at bivalent genes during early mouse lineage commitment. Development. 2010;137:2483-92 pubmed publisher
  15. Dong C, Wu Y, Yao J, Wang Y, Yu Y, Rychahou P, et al. G9a interacts with Snail and is critical for Snail-mediated E-cadherin repression in human breast cancer. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:1469-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, Snail interacted with G9a, a major euchromatin methyltransferase responsible for H3K9me2, and recruited G9a and DNA methyltransferases to the ..
  16. Ling B, Bharathy N, Chung T, Kok W, Li S, Tan Y, et al. Lysine methyltransferase G9a methylates the transcription factor MyoD and regulates skeletal muscle differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:841-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that the lysine methyltransferase G9a is dynamically expressed in myoblasts and impedes differentiation in a methyltransferase activity-dependent manner...
  17. Ma D, Chiang C, Ponnusamy K, Ming G, Song H. G9a and Jhdm2a regulate embryonic stem cell fusion-induced reprogramming of adult neural stem cells. Stem Cells. 2008;26:2131-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that knockdown of a histone methyltransferase, G9a, or overexpression of a histone demethylase, Jhdm2a, promotes ESC fusion-induced Oct4-EGFP reactivation from adult ..
  18. Tachibana M, Sugimoto K, Nozaki M, Ueda J, Ohta T, Ohki M, et al. G9a histone methyltransferase plays a dominant role in euchromatic histone H3 lysine 9 methylation and is essential for early embryogenesis. Genes Dev. 2002;16:1779-91 pubmed
    ..We recently identified a mammalian histone methyltransferase (HMTase), G9a, which has strong HMTase activity towards H3-K9 in vitro...
  19. Tachibana M, Sugimoto K, Fukushima T, Shinkai Y. Set domain-containing protein, G9a, is a novel lysine-preferring mammalian histone methyltransferase with hyperactivity and specific selectivity to lysines 9 and 27 of histone H3. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:25309-17 pubmed
    ..Here we show that a SET domain-containing protein, G9a, is a novel mammalian lysine-preferring HMTase...
  20. Sampath S, Marazzi I, Yap K, Sampath S, Krutchinsky A, Mecklenbrauker I, et al. Methylation of a histone mimic within the histone methyltransferase G9a regulates protein complex assembly. Mol Cell. 2007;27:596-608 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the histone H3 methyltransferase G9a contains a conserved methylation motif with marked sequence similarity to H3 itself...
  21. Wada S, Ideno H, Shimada A, Kamiunten T, Nakamura Y, Nakashima K, et al. H3K9MTase G9a is essential for the differentiation and growth of tenocytes in vitro. Histochem Cell Biol. 2015;144:13-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In primary mouse tenocytes, six H3K9 methyltransferase (H3K9MTase) genes, i.e., G9a, G9a-like protein (GLP), PR domain zinc finger protein 2 (PRDM2), SUV39H1, SUV39H2, and SETDB1/ESET were all ..
  22. Cho S, Park J, Kwon S, Kang Y. Dynamics of Setdb1 expression in early mouse development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2012;12:213-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that Setdb1 has an important role in maintaining the self-renewal of mESCs through collaboration with Oct4. ..
  23. Liu C, Yu Y, Liu F, Wei X, Wrobel J, Gunawardena H, et al. A chromatin activity-based chemoproteomic approach reveals a transcriptional repressome for gene-specific silencing. Nat Commun. 2014;5:5733 pubmed publisher
    ..Using UNC0638 that binds the enzymatically active H3K9-specific methyltransferase G9a/GLP, ChaC reveals that G9a is constitutively active at a G9a-dependent mega-dalton repressome in primary endotoxin-..
  24. Zylicz J, Dietmann S, Günesdogan U, Hackett J, Cougot D, Lee C, et al. Chromatin dynamics and the role of G9a in gene regulation and enhancer silencing during early mouse development. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    Early mouse development is accompanied by dynamic changes in chromatin modifications, including G9a-mediated histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2), which is essential for embryonic development...
  25. Purcell D, Jeong K, Bittencourt D, Gerke D, Stallcup M. A distinct mechanism for coactivator versus corepressor function by histone methyltransferase G9a in transcriptional regulation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:41963-71 pubmed publisher
    Histone methyltransferase G9a has been understood primarily as a corepressor of gene expression, but we showed previously that G9a positively regulates nuclear receptor-mediated transcription in reporter gene assays...
  26. Tong X, Zhang D, Buelow K, Guha A, Arthurs B, Brady H, et al. Recruitment of histone methyltransferase G9a mediates transcriptional repression of Fgf21 gene by E4BP4 protein. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:5417-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present evidence that histone methyltransferase G9a mediates E4BP4-dependent repression of Fgf21 during refeeding by promoting repressive histone modification...
  27. Auclair G, Borgel J, Sanz L, Vallet J, Guibert S, Dumas M, et al. EHMT2 directs DNA methylation for efficient gene silencing in mouse embryos. Genome Res. 2016;26:192-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies suggested a link between the lysine methyltransferase EHMT2 (also known as G9A and KMT1C) and DNA methylation in the mouse...
  28. Nagano T, Mitchell J, Sanz L, Pauler F, Ferguson Smith A, Feil R, et al. The Air noncoding RNA epigenetically silences transcription by targeting G9a to chromatin. Science. 2008;322:1717-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Air interacts with the Slc22a3 promoter chromatin and the H3K9 histone methyltransferase G9a in placenta...
  29. Lei W, Long Y, Li S, Liu Z, Zhu F, Hou F, et al. Homocysteine Induces Collagen I Expression by Downregulating Histone Methyltransferase G9a. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0130421 pubmed publisher
    ..Meanwhile, Hcy inhibited the expression of histone methyltransferase G9a. Mechanistically, silencing endogenous G9a by siRNA enhanced the promoter activity of COL1A1 in LO2 cells...
  30. Park S, Huang W, Persaud S, Wei L. RIP140 in thyroid hormone-repression and chromatin remodeling of Crabp1 gene during adipocyte differentiation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:7085-94 pubmed publisher
    ..basal promoter, RIP140 replaces coactivators GRIP1 and PCAF and forms a repressive complex with CtBP1, HDAC3 and G9a. Initially active chromatin marks on this promoter, histone modifications H3-Ac and H3K4-me3, are weakened whereas ..
  31. Bittencourt D, Wu D, Jeong K, Gerke D, Herviou L, Ianculescu I, et al. G9a functions as a molecular scaffold for assembly of transcriptional coactivators on a subset of glucocorticoid receptor target genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:19673-8 pubmed publisher
    Histone H3 lysine-9 methyltransferase G9a/EHMT2/KMT1C is a key corepressor of gene expression...
  32. Fang S, Miao J, Xiang L, Ponugoti B, Treuter E, Kemper J. Coordinated recruitment of histone methyltransferase G9a and other chromatin-modifying enzymes in SHP-mediated regulation of hepatic bile acid metabolism. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:1407-24 pubmed
    ..The histone methyltransferase G9a, but not SUV39, was colocalized with SHP in the nucleus and directly interacted with SHP in vitro...
  33. Yoo S, You S, Yoon H, Kim D, Kim H, Lee K, et al. A novel pathogenic role of the ER chaperone GRP78/BiP in rheumatoid arthritis. J Exp Med. 2012;209:871-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, this study shows that the ER chaperone GRP78 is crucial for synoviocyte proliferation and angiogenesis, the pathological hallmark of RA. ..
  34. Wagschal A, Sutherland H, Woodfine K, Henckel A, Chebli K, Schulz R, et al. G9a histone methyltransferase contributes to imprinting in the mouse placenta. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1104-13 pubmed
    ..methylation on distal chromosome 7, and at ICRs, we generated mouse conceptuses deficient for the SET domain protein G9a. We found that in the embryo and placenta, the differential DNA methylation at ICRs and imprinted genes is ..
  35. Kim T, Lee J, Kim J, Park J, Choi J, Kim H, et al. G9a-Mediated Regulation of OXT and AVP Expression in the Basolateral Amygdala Mediates Stress-Induced Lasting Behavioral Depression and Its Reversal by Exercise. Mol Neurobiol. 2016;53:2843-2856 pubmed publisher
    ..Stress-induced depression-like behaviors were accompanied by a global reduction of G9a histone methyltransferase and H3K9me2 at the OXT and AVP promoters...
  36. Yu Y, Song C, Zhang Q, DiMaggio P, Garcia B, York A, et al. Histone H3 lysine 56 methylation regulates DNA replication through its interaction with PCNA. Mol Cell. 2012;46:7-17 pubmed publisher
    ..of H3K56 monomethylation (H3K56me1) in mammalian cells and find that the histone lysine methytransferase G9a/KMT1C is required for H3K56me1 both in vivo and in vitro...
  37. Chen H, Yan Y, Davidson T, Shinkai Y, Costa M. Hypoxic stress induces dimethylated histone H3 lysine 9 through histone methyltransferase G9a in mammalian cells. Cancer Res. 2006;66:9009-16 pubmed
    ..This hypoxia-induced H3K9me2 was temporally correlated with an increase in histone methyltransferase G9a protein and enzyme activity...
  38. Ohno H, Shinoda K, Ohyama K, Sharp L, Kajimura S. EHMT1 controls brown adipose cell fate and thermogenesis through the PRDM16 complex. Nature. 2013;504:163-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that EHMT1 is an essential enzymatic switch that controls brown adipose cell fate and energy homeostasis. ..
  39. Shirato H, Ogawa S, Nakajima K, Inagawa M, Kojima M, Tachibana M, et al. A jumonji (Jarid2) protein complex represses cyclin D1 expression by methylation of histone H3-K9. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:733-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We also found that Jmj bound to the H3-K9 methyltransferases G9a and GLP. Expression of Jmj recruited G9a and GLP to the cyclin D1 promoter and increased H3-K9 methylation...
  40. Antignano F, Burrows K, Hughes M, Han J, Kron K, Penrod N, et al. Methyltransferase G9A regulates T cell differentiation during murine intestinal inflammation. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:1945-55 pubmed publisher
    ..T cell transfer model of colitis, we found that T cell-intrinsic expression of the histone lysine methyltransferase G9A was required for development of pathogenic T cells and intestinal inflammation...
  41. Renneville A, van Galen P, Canver M, McConkey M, Krill Burger J, Dorfman D, et al. EHMT1 and EHMT2 inhibition induces fetal hemoglobin expression. Blood. 2015;126:1930-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide genetic and pharmacologic evidence that EHMT1 and EHMT2 are epigenetic regulators involved in γ-globin repression and represent a novel therapeutic target for SCD. ..
  42. Kamiunten T, Ideno H, Shimada A, Arai Y, Terashima T, Tomooka Y, et al. Essential roles of G9a in cell proliferation and differentiation during tooth development. Exp Cell Res. 2017;357:202-210 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that the histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase (MTase) G9a is specifically enriched in the tooth mesenchyme during mouse development...
  43. Han P, Li W, Yang J, Shang C, Lin C, Cheng W, et al. Epigenetic response to environmental stress: Assembly of BRG1-G9a/GLP-DNMT3 repressive chromatin complex on Myh6 promoter in pathologically stressed hearts. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1863:1772-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In mice, pathological stress activates cardiomyocytes to express Brg1 (nucleosome-remodeling factor), G9a/Glp (histone methyltransferase), and Dnmt3 (DNA methyltransferase)...
  44. Yuan G, Ma B, Yuan W, Zhang Z, Chen P, Ding X, et al. Histone H2A ubiquitination inhibits the enzymatic activity of H3 lysine 36 methyltransferases. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:30832-42 pubmed publisher
    ..ASH1L, HYPB, NSD1, and NSD2 were inhibited by ubH2A, whereas the other histone methyltransferases, including PRC2, G9a, and Pr-Set7 were not affected by ubH2A...
  45. Link P, Gangisetty O, James S, Woloszynska Read A, Tachibana M, Shinkai Y, et al. Distinct roles for histone methyltransferases G9a and GLP in cancer germ-line antigen gene regulation in human cancer cells and murine embryonic stem cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:851-62 pubmed publisher
    The H3K9me2 histone methyltransferases G9a and GLP repress Mage-a class cancer germ-line (CG) antigen gene expression in murine embryonic stem (ES) cells, but the role of these enzymes in CG antigen gene regulation in human cancer cells ..
  46. Wang L, Xu S, Lee J, Baldridge A, Grullon S, Peng W, et al. Histone H3K9 methyltransferase G9a represses PPAR? expression and adipogenesis. EMBO J. 2013;32:45-59 pubmed publisher
    ..in preadipocytes, we find that among gene loci encoding adipogenesis regulators, histone methyltransferase (HMT) G9a-mediated repressive epigenetic mark H3K9me2 is selectively enriched on the entire PPAR? locus...
  47. Myant K, Termanis A, Sundaram A, Boe T, Li C, Merusi C, et al. LSH and G9a/GLP complex are required for developmentally programmed DNA methylation. Genome Res. 2011;21:83-94 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA methylation patterns and stable gene silencing at specific promoters require cooperation between LSH and the G9a/GLP complex of histone methylases...
  48. Yuan X, Feng W, Imhof A, Grummt I, Zhou Y. Activation of RNA polymerase I transcription by cockayne syndrome group B protein and histone methyltransferase G9a. Mol Cell. 2007;27:585-95 pubmed
    ..Here we show that a complex consisting of CSB, RNA polymerase I (Pol I), and histone methyltransferase G9a is present at active rRNA genes...
  49. Liang L, Zhao J, Gu X, Wu S, Mo K, Xiong M, et al. G9a inhibits CREB-triggered expression of mu opioid receptor in primary sensory neurons following peripheral nerve injury. Mol Pain. 2016;12: pubmed
    ..b>G9a is a repressor of gene expression...
  50. Thienpont B, Aronsen J, Robinson E, Okkenhaug H, Loche E, Ferrini A, et al. The H3K9 dimethyltransferases EHMT1/2 protect against pathological cardiac hypertrophy. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:335-348 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that targeting miR-217 and EHMT1/2 to prevent H3K9 methylation loss is a viable therapeutic approach for the treatment of heart disease. ..
  51. Antignano F, Braam M, Hughes M, Chenery A, Burrows K, Gold M, et al. G9a regulates group 2 innate lymphoid cell development by repressing the group 3 innate lymphoid cell program. J Exp Med. 2016;213:1153-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identify a role for the lysine methyltransferase G9a in regulating ILC2 development and function. Mice with a hematopoietic cell-specific deletion of G9a (Vav...
  52. Zhang Y, Chen S, Laumet G, Chen H, Pan H. Nerve Injury Diminishes Opioid Analgesia through Lysine Methyltransferase-mediated Transcriptional Repression of μ-Opioid Receptors in Primary Sensory Neurons. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:8475-85 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the diminished MOR expression caused by nerve injury are not clear. G9a (encoded by Ehmt2), a histone 3 at lysine 9 methyltransferase, is a key chromatin regulator responsible for gene ..
  53. Monk D, Wagschal A, Arnaud P, Müller P, Parker Katiraee L, Bourc his D, et al. Comparative analysis of human chromosome 7q21 and mouse proximal chromosome 6 reveals a placental-specific imprinted gene, TFPI2/Tfpi2, which requires EHMT2 and EED for allelic-silencing. Genome Res. 2008;18:1270-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Deficiency for the histone methyltransferase EHMT2 (also known as G9A) or for the Polycomb group protein EED, involved in repressive H3K9me2 and H3K27me3 respectively, leads to ..
  54. Maier V, Feeney C, Taylor J, Creech A, Qiao J, Szanto A, et al. Functional Proteomic Analysis of Repressive Histone Methyltransferase Complexes Reveals ZNF518B as a G9A Regulator. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2015;14:1435-46 pubmed publisher
    Cell-type specific gene silencing by histone H3 lysine 27 and lysine 9 methyltransferase complexes PRC2 and G9A-GLP is crucial both during development and to maintain cell identity...
  55. Liu N, Zhang Z, Wu H, Jiang Y, Meng L, Xiong J, et al. Recognition of H3K9 methylation by GLP is required for efficient establishment of H3K9 methylation, rapid target gene repression, and mouse viability. Genes Dev. 2015;29:379-93 pubmed publisher
    GLP and G9a are major H3K9 dimethylases and are essential for mouse early embryonic development. GLP and G9a both harbor ankyrin repeat domains that are capable of binding H3K9 methylation...
  56. Pirouz M, Pilarski S, Kessel M. A critical function of Mad2l2 in primordial germ cell development of mice. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003712 pubmed publisher
    ..the analysis of transfected fibroblasts we found that the interaction of Mad2l2 with the histone methyltransferases G9a and GLP lead to a downregulation of H3K9me2...
  57. Maeda K, Doi S, Nakashima A, Nagai T, Irifuku T, Ueno T, et al. Inhibition of H3K9 methyltransferase G9a ameliorates methylglyoxal-induced peritoneal fibrosis. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0173706 pubmed publisher
    Activity of H3K9 histone methyltransferase G9a is reportedly induced by transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and plays an important role in the progression of cancer and fibrosis...
  58. Brown S, Campbell R, Sanderson C. Novel NG36/G9a gene products encoded within the human and mouse MHC class III regions. Mamm Genome. 2001;12:916-24 pubmed
    Previous annotation of the Class III region of the human Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) depicts NG36 as an independent gene, which lies immediately centromeric to the G9a gene...
  59. Shin H, Kapoor V, Guan T, Kaech S, Welsh R, Berg L. Epigenetic modifications induced by Blimp-1 Regulate CD8? T cell memory progression during acute virus infection. Immunity. 2013;39:661-75 pubmed publisher
    ..At the peak of the antiviral response, but not earlier, Blimp-1 recruited the histone-modifying enzymes G9a and HDAC2 to the Il2ra and Cd27 loci, thereby repressing expression of these genes...
  60. Ohhata T, Tachibana M, Tada M, Tada T, Sasaki H, Shinkai Y, et al. X-inactivation is stably maintained in mouse embryos deficient for histone methyl transferase G9a. Genesis. 2004;40:151-6 pubmed
    ..We previously showed that G9a is one of the histone methyltransferases specific for H3 Lys-9 and is essential for embryonic development...
  61. Yamamizu K, Fujihara M, Tachibana M, Katayama S, Takahashi A, Hara E, et al. Protein kinase A determines timing of early differentiation through epigenetic regulation with G9a. Cell Stem Cell. 2012;10:759-70 pubmed publisher
    ..PKA activation increases protein expression of G9a, an H3K9 methyltransferase, along with earlier H3K9 dimethylation and DNA methylation in Oct3/4 and Nanog gene ..
  62. Deguchi K, Nagamatsu G, Miyachi H, Kato Y, Morita S, Kimura H, et al. Posttranscriptional regulation of histone lysine methyltransferase GLP in embryonic male mouse germ cells. Biol Reprod. 2013;88:36 pubmed publisher
    ..a highly conserved mark of epigenetic silencing, and the expression of two lysine methyltransferases, G9a/Ehmt2/KMT1C and GLP/Ehmt1/KMT1D, in murine male embryonic germ cells after sex determination...
  63. Lee J, Kim Y, Bhin J, Shin H, Nam H, Lee S, et al. Hypoxia-induced methylation of a pontin chromatin remodeling factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:13510-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identify Pontin is methylated by G9a/GLP methyltransferases in hypoxic condition and potentiates HIF-1?-mediated activation by increasing the ..
  64. Lehnertz B, Pabst C, Su L, Miller M, Liu F, Yi L, et al. The methyltransferase G9a regulates HoxA9-dependent transcription in AML. Genes Dev. 2014;28:317-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we establish the histone methyltransferase G9a/EHMT2 as a selective regulator of fast proliferating myeloid progenitors with no discernible function in ..
  65. Rao V, Ow J, Shankar S, Bharathy N, Manikandan J, Wang Y, et al. G9a promotes proliferation and inhibits cell cycle exit during myogenic differentiation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44:8129-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we provide evidence that the lysine methyltransferase G9a functions as a central axis to regulate proliferation and differentiation of skeletal muscle cells...
  66. Zhang R, Judson R, Liu D, Kast J, Rossi F. The lysine methyltransferase Ehmt2/G9a is dispensable for skeletal muscle development and regeneration. Skelet Muscle. 2016;6:22 pubmed publisher
    Euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (G9a/Ehmt2) is the main enzyme responsible for the apposition of H3K9 di-methylation on histones...
  67. Holt J, Pye V, Boon E, Stewart J, Garcia Higuera I, Moreno S, et al. The APC/C activator FZR1 is essential for meiotic prophase I in mice. Development. 2014;141:1354-65 pubmed publisher
  68. Vassen L, Fiolka K, Moroy T. Gfi1b alters histone methylation at target gene promoters and sites of gamma-satellite containing heterochromatin. EMBO J. 2006;25:2409-19 pubmed
    ..Strikingly, we found that Gfi1b binds to both SUV39H1 and G9A histone methyl transferases, which provides a direct link between histone methylation and Gfi1b at heterochromatic ..
  69. Gasser D, Sternberg N, Pierce J, Goldner Sauve A, Feng H, Haq A, et al. P1 and cosmid clones define the organization of 280 kb of the mouse H-2 complex containing the Cps-1 and Hsp70 loci. Immunogenetics. 1994;39:48-55 pubmed
    ..1 and BAT6 (valyl-tRNA synthetase). This refines the location of the Cps-1 locus to a 45 kb region contained in the H2-124 P1 insert...
  70. Artal Martinez de Narvajas A, Gomez T, Zhang J, Mann A, Taoda Y, Gorman J, et al. Epigenetic regulation of autophagy by the methyltransferase G9a. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:3983-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the methyltransferase G9a coordinates the transcriptional activation of key regulators of autophagosome formation by remodeling the chromatin ..
  71. Wu R, Terry A, Singh P, Gilbert D. Differential subnuclear localization and replication timing of histone H3 lysine 9 methylation states. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:2872-81 pubmed
    ..Disruption of the Suv39h1,2 or G9a methyltransferases in murine embryonic stem cells resulted in a redistribution of methyl epitopes, but did not ..